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^P  EotJoIfo  ianciani. 

DISCOVERIES.  With  36  full-page  Plates  (includ- 
ing several  Heliotypes)  and  64  Text  Illustrations, 
Maps,  and  Plans.     8vo,  ^6.00. 

Dl  BENEDETTI  CANONICO.  Memoria  di  Ro- 
dolfo  Lanciani.  With  Map,  Plans,  etc.  4to,  paper, 
$2. 25. 

PAGAN  AND  CHRISTIAN  ROME.  Profusely  Illus- 
trated with  full-page  Plates  and  Text  Illustrations. 
8vo,  56.00. 

ROME.     Profusely  Illustrated.    Crown  Svo,  Ji54. 00. 

Boston  and  New  York. 







Scale  I:  mO(W 
.  lllitiide,s  in  me^erS 

Ji.J,anciant.  de^ 

•  SALARIA    ^ 

'tP  NOME  NT 







D.  C.  L.  Oxford,  LL.  D.  Harvard. 




...   Si  quid  novlsti  rectius  istis, 
candidus  imperil :  si  non,  his  utere  mecum. 
Horace,  Epistles,  i.    6.    67. 



(Hbe  Wtcrsibc  l^rcss,  CambtiDfle 




In  writing  the  present  volume  the  author  does  not  intend  to 
publish  a  complete  manual  of  Roman  Topography,  but  only  a 
companion-book  for  students  and  travelers  who  visit  the  existing 
remains  and  study  the  latest  excavations  of  ancient  Rome.  The 
text,  therefore,  has  been  adapted  to  the  requirements  of  both 
classes  of  readers.  Students  wishing  to  attain  a  higher  degree  of 
efficiency  in  this  branch  of  Roman  archeology  will  find  copious 
references  to  the  standard  publications  on  each  subject  or  part  of 
a  subject ;  while  the  description  of  ruins  and  excavations  will  not 
be  found  too  technical  or  one-sided  for  the  ordinary  reader. 
Special  attention  has  been  paid  to  tracing  back  to  their  place  of 
origin  the  spoils  of  each  monument,  now  dispersed  in  the  museums 
of  Rome,  Italy,  and  the  rest  of  Europe.  The  reader,  being  in- 
formed what  these  spoils  are,  when  they  were  carried  away,  and 
where  they  are  to  be  found  at  present,  will  be  able  to  form  a  more 
correct  idea  of  the  former  aspect  of  Roman  monuments  than 
would  otherwise  be  possible.  The  volume  also  contains  some 
tables,  which  will  be  found  useful  for  quick  and  easy  reference 
to  the  chronology  of  buildings,  to  events  in  the  history  of  the 
city,  and  to  the  various  aspects  of  Roman  civilization.  It  may 
be  observed,  in  the  last  place,  that  the  illustrations  of  the  text 
are  mostly  original,  from  drawings  and  photographs  prepared 
expressly  for  this  work. 

The  publications  of  the  author  to  which  reference  is  constantly 
made  are  :  — 

Ancient  Rome  in  the  Lif/ht  of  Recent  Discoveries.  Boston,  1889,  Houghton, 
MifBin,  &  Co.  London,  Macmillan.  —  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome.  Boston 
and  London,  1893.  —  Forma  Urbis  Romce,  an  archaeological  map  of  the  city,  in 
forty-six  sheets,  scale  1 :  1000,  published  under  the  auspices  of  the  Royal 
Academy  dei  Lincei,  by  Hoepli,  Milan.     Twenty-four  sheets  already  issued. 


The  remains  of  ancient  Rome  can  be  studied  in  books  or  on  the 
spot  from  three  points  of  view,  —  tlie  chronological,  the  topographi- 
cal, and  the  architectural.  The  chronological  brings  the  student 
into  contact,  first,  with  the  remains  of  the  Kingly  period,  then 
with  those  of  the  Republic,  of  the  Empire,  of  the  Byzantine  and 
Mediaeval  periods.  The  topographical  takes  into  consideration, 
first,  the  main  lines  of  the  ancient  city,  and  then  each  of  the  four- 
teen wards  or  regions  into  which  Rome  was  divided  by  Augustus. 
The  architectural  groups  the  monuments  in  classes,  like  temples, 
baths,  tombs,  bridges,  etc. 

Each  system  has  its  own  advantages,  and  claims  representative 
writers.  The  chronological  order  helps  us  to  follow  the  progress 
of  Roman  architecture,  from  the  rude  attempts  of  Etruscan 
masons  to  the  golden  centuries  of  Agrippa  and  Apollodorus ;  as 
well  as  the  evolution  of  architectural  tyj^es,  from  the  round  straw 
hut  where  the  public  fire  was  kept  to  the  marble  temple  of  Hestia, 
roofed  with  tiles  of  bronze ;  from  the  Casa  Romuli  to  the  Domus 
Aurea  of  Nero. 

Dyer's  History  of  Rome  is  founded  mainly  on  this  system. 
Compare  also  chapters  iii.  and  iv.  (pp.  24—59)  of  Richter's  Topo- 
(frapJiie,  Parker's  Chronological  Tables,  and  Lanciani's  Vicende 
edilizie  di  Roma,^ 

The  topographical  system,  which  divides  the  city  into  regions 
and  suburbs,  is  represented  by  Nardini  and  Canina.^  They  de- 
scribe first  the  fundamental  lines,  —  site,  geology,  climate,  hydro- 
graphy, the  seven  hills,  the  Kingly  and  Imperial  walls,  the  Tiber, 
the  aqueducts,  the  military  roads  radiating  from  the  gates ;  and 

1  Thomas  H.  Dyer,  A  History  of  the  City  of  Rome :  Its  Structures  and 
Monuments.  London,  Longmans,  1865.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Sidle  ricende 
edilizie  di  Roma,  reprinted  from  the  Monograjia  archeologica  e  statistica  di 
Roma  e  camparpia.  Rome.  Tipogr.  elzevir.  1878. — John  Henry  Parker,  A 
Chronological  Table  of  Buildings  in  Rome,  with  the  Chief  Contemporary 
Events,  and  an  Alphabetical  Index,  reprinted  from  the  Ai-chceology  of  Rome.  — 
Otto  Richter,  Topographic  der  Stadt  Rom.  Sep.-Abdr.  aus  dem  Handbuch  der 
klassischen  Alterthumwissenschaft,  Bd.  iii.  Nordlingen,  Beck,  1889,  ch.  iii., 
"Entwickhingsgeschichte,"  and  ch.  iv.,  "  Zerstorungsgeschichte  der  Stadt." 

2  Famiano  Nardini,  Roma  antica  di  Famiano  Nardini,  fourth  edition, 
revised  by  Antonio  Nibbj',  and  illustrated  by  Antonio  de  Romanis.  Rome, 
de  Romanis,  1818  (four  vols.).  —  Luigi  Canina,  Indicazione  topografica  di 
Roma  antica,  fourth  edition.     Rome,  Canina,  1850. 


then  the  monuments  pertaining  to  the  fourteen  regions.  Their 
accounts  are  founded  mainly  on  otficial  statistics  of  the  fourtli 
century,  of  which  we  possess  two  editions  (Redaktionen).  The 
first,  known  by  the  name  of  Notitia  regionum  urbis  Romce  cum 
hreviariis  suis,  dates  from  a.  d.  334 ;  the  second,  called  Curiosum 
urbis  Romce  regionum  XIV  cum  breviariis  suis,  must  have  been 
issued  in  or  after  357,  because  it  mentions  the  obelisk  raised  in 
that  year  in  the  Circus  Maximus. 

Literature.  —  Ludwig  Preller,  Die  Regionen  der  Stadt  Rom.  Jena,  1846.  — 
Theodor  Mommsen,  Abhandhmgen  der  sacks.  Ges.  d.  W.,  ii.  549;  iii.  269; 
viii.  694.  —  Heinrieh  Jordan,  Topographic  d.  Stadt  Rom  in  AUerthum.,  Berlin, 
1871,  vol.  ii.  p.  1.  —  Ignazio  Guidi,  11  testo  sirtaco  della  descrizione  di  Roma, 
in  Bull,  com.,  1884,  p.  218. — Christian  Huelsen,  //  posto  degli  Arvali  nel 
Colosseo,  in  Bull,  com.,  1894,  p.  .312.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Le  quattordici 
regioni  urbane,  in  Bull,  com.,  1890,  p.  11.5. 

The  two  documents  give  the  number  and  name  of  each  region, 
the  names  of  edifices  or  streets  which  marked  approximately 
its  boundary  line,  the  number  of  parLslies  (vici),  of  parish  magis- 
trates (vico  magistri),  the  number  of  tenement  houses  (insulce), 
palaces  (dotnus),  public  warehouses  (Jwrrea),  baths,  fountains, 
bakeries,  and  the  circumference  of  each  regio  in  feet.  For  in- 
stance :  — 

"  Regio  V,  tlie  Esquilise,  contains :  the  fountain  of  Orpheus, 
the  market  of  Livia,  the  nymphseum  of  (Severus)  Alexander,  the 
(barracks  of  the)  .second  cohort  of  policemen  (firemen),  the  gar- 
dens of  Pallans,  the  (street  named  from  the)  Hercules  Sullanus, 
the  Amphitheatrum  Castrense,  the  campus  on  the  Viminal,  the 
(street  called)  Subager,  the  (street  called)  Minerva  Medica,  the 
(.street  named  from)  Isis  the  patrician.  The  Esquilise  contain 
15  parishes,  15  street-shrines,  48  parish  officials  and  two  liigher 
officials  (curatores),  3,8.50  tenement  houses,  180  palaces,  22  public 
warehouses,  25  baths,  74  fountains,  15  bakeries.  The  Esquiliae 
measure  15,600  feet  in  circumference." 

Comparing  these  statistics  with  texts  of  classics,  inscriptions, 
existing  remains,  accounts  of  former  discoveries,  plans  and  draw- 
ings of  the  artists  of  the  Renaissance,  and  other  sources  of  infor- 
mation, we  are  able  to  reconstruct,  with  surprising  results,  the 
topography  of  the  whole  city. 


The  system,  therefore,  is  highly  commendable,  and  I  follow 
it  myself,  in  my  university  course  of  lectures,  as  the  one  best 
calculated,  from  its  simplicity  and  clearness,  to  make  the  student 
conversant  with  this  branch  of  Roman  archaeology. 

The  third,  or  architectural,  system  takes  each  class  of  build- 
ings separately,  and  groups  temples,  theatres,  fora,  baths,  etc., 
by  themselves,  irrespective  of  their  position  and  their  relation 
to  other  buildings.  It  might  be  compared  with  the  study  of  a 
museum,  like  the  Museo  Nazionale  of  Naples,  in  which  statues 
are  arranged  by  subjects,  one  room  containing  only  Venuses, 
another  only  Fauns,  etc.  The  system  facilitates  the  comparison 
of  types  and  schools,  and  the  study  of  the  origin,  progress,  and 
decline  of  art  among  the  Romans. 

The  representative  works  of  this  kind  are  Nibby's  Roma  nelV 
anno  1838,  and  Canina's  Edifizii  di  R.  A.'^ 

It  is  impossible  to  deny  that  a  system  which  may  be  use- 
ful for  university  work,  and  for  a  limited  number  of  specialists, 
cannot  also  suit  the  student  or  the  traveler  who  does  not  visit 
our  ruins  by  regions,  but  according  to  the  main  centres  of  inter- 
est and  of  actual  excavations.  Were  we  to  follow  the  architectu- 
ral system  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word,  we  should  be  compelled 
to  study  the  Forum  with  no  regard  to  the  temples,  basilicas,  and 
triumphal  arches  which  lined  its  border  or  covered  its  area, 
because  they  belong  to  another  class  of  structures.  Suppose, 
again,  we  were  bound  to  proceed  in  our  study  strictly  by  regions  : 
we  should  be  compelled  to  separate  the  Coliseum  from  its  accessory 
buildings,  in  which  gladiators,  athletes,  wild  beasts,  and  their 
hunters  were  quartered,  fed,  and  trained ;  from  the  armories,  in 
which  gladiatorial  and  hunting  weapons  were  made,  kept,  and 
repaired ;  from  the  barracks  of  the  marines  of  the  fleet  of  Ra- 
venna and  Misenum,  to  whom  the  manoeuvring  of  the  velaria 
was  intrusted ;  from  the  "  morgue,"  whither  the  spoils  of  the 
slain  in  the  arena  were  temporarily  removed,  —  simply  because 
the   samiarium,    spoliarlum,    and  armamentarium    belonged   to  the 

1  Antonio  Nibbj',  Roma  neW  anno  mdcccxxxviii.  Parte  prima  antica,  vols. 
i.,  ii.  Rome,  1838.  —  Luigi  Canina,  Gli  tdijizi  di  R.  A.  e  sua  campagna/in 
six  folio  volumes.     Rome,  1847-1854. 


second  regio  ;  the  amphitheatre  itself,  the  Caslra  Misenatium,  the 
Summum  Choragium  to  the  third;  the  Ampliitheatrum  Castrense  to 
the  fifth  ;  the  virarium  to  the  sixth. 

To  avoid  these  difficulties,  the  compilers  of  the  Beschreihung, 
as  well  as  Becker,  Bum,  Jordan,  Richter,  Gilbert,  Middleton,  and 
others,^  have  adopted  a  mixed  system,  taking  the  best  from  each 
of  the  three  methods  described  above.  They  have  divided  and 
described  the  city  in  large  sections,  more  or  less  connected  by 
topographical  or  historical  relationship.  Richter,  for  instance, 
cuts  ancient  Rome  in  four  parts  :  "  das  Zentrura,"  which  embraces 
the  Palatine  and  Capitoline  hills,  the  Velia,  the  Circus  Maximus, 
and  the  great  Fora  of  the  Empire ;  "  die  Stadttheile  am  Tiber," 
which  comprises  the  Aventine,  the  market,  the  Campus  ^lartius, 
and  the  transtiberine  quarters  ;  "  der  sUdosten  Roms,"  made  up 
of  the  Caelian  and  of  the  suburbs  on  the  Appian  Way  ;  and  lastly 
"  der  osten  Roms,"  with  the  Esquiline,  Viminal,  Quirinal,  and 
Pincian  hills.  Richter's  scheme  is  plainly  arbitrary,  and  might 
be  varied  ad  libitum  without  interfering  with  the  spirit  or  dimin- 
ishing the  importance  of  liis  work.  The  same  criticism  applies 
to  the  other  manuals  of  the  same  type. 

Considering  that  "  facile  est  inventis  addere,"  and  that  the 
exi>erience  of  others  must  teach  us  how  to  find  a  better  solution 
of  the  problem,  I  propose  to  adopt  the  following  scheme  :  — 

In  Book  I.  the  fundamental  lines  of  Roman  topography  will  be 
described,  —  site,  geology,  configuration  of  soil,  malaria,  climate, 
rivers  and  springs,  aqueducts  and  drains,  walls  and  roads. 

The  Palatine  hill,  on  which  the  city  was  founded  and  the  seat 
of  the  Empire  established  in  progress  of  time,  will  be  visited 
next  (Book  II.). 

In  Book  III.  a  description  of  the  Sacra  Via  will  be  given,  from 

its  origin  near  the  Coliseum  to  its  end  near  the  Capitolium.     The 

1  Platner,  Bunsen,  Gerhard,  Rostell,  Urlichs,  Beschreihung  der  Stadt  Rom. 
Stuttgart,  1830-1842. —  Adolf  Becker,  Hnndburk  der  Riimischen  Alierthumer. 
Erster  Theil.  Leipzig,  1843. — Robert  Burn,  Rome  and  the  Campagnn,  Lon- 
don, 1871;  0/rf /?((/» p,  1880.  Second  edition,  1895.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Topo- 
graphie  der  Stadt  Rom  in  Alterthum,  voL  i.,  i.2,  ii.  Berlin,  1871. —  Otto 
Gilbert,  Geschichte  und  Topographie  der  Stadt  Rom.  1883-1885.  —  Otto  Rich- 
ter, Topograph ie  drr  Stadt  Rom.  Nurdlingen,  1S89. — T.  Henry  Middleton, 
The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome.     Two  vols.     London,  1892. 


Sacra  Via,  the  Forum  (with  its  extensions),  and  the  Capitoline 
hill  contain  the  oldest  relics  of  Kingly  and  Republican  Rome. 
They  are  lined  or  covei'ed  by  the  grandest  monuments  of  the 
Empire  ;  they  have  been  largely  if  not  completely  excavated  since 
1870 ;  and  every  inch  of  ground  they  cross  or  cover  is  connected 
with  historical  events.  Beginning,  therefore,  from  such  centres 
of  interest  as  the  Palatine  and  the  Sacra  Via,  we  follow  the 
chronological  and  topographical  systems. 

The  rest  of  the  city  will  be  described  in  Book  IV.  by  the 
regions  of  Augustus  in  the  following  order  :  — 

1.  The  ruins  of  the  Cselian  hill  and  its  watershed  towards  the 
river  Almo  (Regions  I  and  II). 

2.  The  ruins  of  the  Oppian  (Regio  III). 

3.  The  Viminal,  the  Cespiau,  the  Subura,  and  the  Vicus  Patri- 
cii  (Regio  IV). 

4.  The  Esquiline  (Regio  V). 

5.  The  Quirinal  and  the  Pincian,  and  their  watershed  towards 
the  Tiber  (Regions  VI  and  VII). 

6.  The  Campus  Martins  (Regio  IX). 

7.  The  markets,  the  docks,  the  warehouses,  the  harbor  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  river. 

8.  The  Circus  Maximus  (Regio  XI). 

9.  The  Aventine  (Regions  XII  and  XIII). 

10.  The  Trastevere  (Regio  XIV). 

Each  of  these  sections  has  a  characteristic  of  its  own.  The 
Cselian  may  be  called  the  region  of  barracks,  the  Esquiline  the 
region  of  parks,  the  Quirinal  and  Aventine  the  abode  of  the  aris- 
tocracy. The  Coliseum  and  its  dependencies  occupied  the  greater 
portion  of  the  Oppian.  The  Trastevere  was  the  popular  quarter 
par  excellence.  Their  description,  therefore,  from  a  topographical 
point  of  view,  is  not  only  rational  but  lends  itself  to  the  grouping 
of  edifices  built  for  the  same  object,  and  sometimes  by  the  same 
man  and  at  the  same  time. 

At  all  events,  as  it  may  suit  the  reader  to  study  the  monuments 
in  a  different  order,  I  have  added  two  indexes,  in  the  first  of 
which  the  existing  remains  of  Ancient  Rome  are  named  alpha- 
betically in  architectural  groups,  and  in  the  second  according  to 


their  chronology.  The  name  of  each  is  followed  by  the  number 
of  the  page  or  section  in  which  it  is  described. 

Before  closing  this  brief  preface,  I  must  warn  students  against 
a  tendency  which  is  occasionally  observable  in  books  and  papers 
on  the  topography  of  Rome,  —  that  of  upsetting  and  condemning 
all  received  notions  on  the  subject,  in  order  to  substitute  fanciful 
theories  of  a  new  type.  They  nuist  remember  that  the  study  of 
this  fascinating  subject  began  with  Poggio  Bracciolini  and  Flavio 
Biondo  early  in  the  fifteenth  century,  and  that  in  the  course  of 
four  hundred  and  fifty  years  it  must  have  been  very  closely  inves- 
tigated. In  the  preface  to  the  Indicazione  topograjica,  pp.  4-25 
(1850),  Canina  registers  124  standard  authorities,  whose  books 
would  make  a  library  of  a  thousand  volumes.  Since  18.50  the 
number  of  such  volumes  has  doubled.  See  in  Enrico  Narducci's 
lilhUografia  topograjica  di  Roma  a  list  (imperfect)  of  those  pub- 
lished between  1850  and  1880.  The  same  bibliographer  has  given 
us  a  list  (also  imperfect)  of  over  400  works  on  the  Tiber  alone.^ 
In  the  fourteenth  volume  of  the  Arckivio  della  Socieia  rnmana 
di  storia  patria,  424  publications  on  the  history  and  topography 
of  the  city  are  catalogued  for  1891  alone.  How  is  it  possible 
that,  in  four  hundred  and  fifty  years'  time,  the  antiquaries  of  the 
Italian,  (iernuin,  and  English  schools,  working  harmoniously, 
should  not  have  discovered  the  truth?  This  does  not  exclude 
the  possibility  that  new  researches,  either  on  the  ground  or  in 
libraries  and  archives,  may  reveal  new  data  and  enal)le  the 
student  to  perfect  the  system  of  Roman  topography  in  its  details, 
but  great  innovations  are  hardly  to  be  expected.  Yet  there 
are  people  willing  to  try  the  experiment,  only  to  waste  their 
own  time  and  make  us  lose  ours  in  considering  their  attempts. 
Temples  of  the  gods  are  cast  away  from  their  august  seats,  and 
relegated  to  places  never  heard  of  before  ;  gates  of  the  city  are 
swept  away  in  a  whiiiwind  till  they  fly  before  our  eyes  like  one  of 
Dante's  visions  ;  diminutive  ruins  are  magnified  into  the  remains 
of  great  historical  buildings  ;  designs  are  produced  of  monuments 
which  have  never  existed.  Let  each  of  us  be  satisfied  with  a 
modest   share   in  the  work  of  reconstruction  of  the  great  city, 

1  Sarjrjio  di  bibllograjia  del  Tevere  di  Enrico  Narducci,  Rome,  Civelli,  1876. 


remembering  that  both  the  Roma  sotterranea  Cristiana  and  Rome 
the  capital  of  the  Empire  have  long  since  found  their  Columbus. 

The  periodicals  and  books  most  frequently  quoted  in  this  work 
are :  — 

(Bull,  com.)  BulleUino  della  Commissione  archeologica  comunale  di  Roma, 
1872-1895.  23  vols.,  superbly  illustrated.  —  (Not.  Scavi)  Notizie  der/li  Scavi 
di  anticMta pubblicate  per  cura  della  r.  accadeviia  dei  Lincei,  1876-1895.  20 
vols.,  illustrated.  —  (Bull.  Inst.)  BulleUino  dell'  Istituto  di  corrispondenza 
archeoloyica,  1829-1885.  57  vols.  —  (Ann.  Inst.)  Annali  dell'  Istituto  di 
corrispondenza  archeologica,  1829-1885.  54  vols.  —  (Mittheil.)  Mittheilungen 
des  kaiserlich  Deutschen  archaeol.  Instituts,  Roemische  Abtheilung,  1886-1895. 
10  vols.,  illustrated.  —  (.Tahrbuch)  Jahrhuch  des  k.  D.  archaeol.  Instituts, 
1886-1895.  10  vols.,  illustrated  (Denkmaler).  —  (F.  U.  R.)  Forma  Urbis 
Romm,  consilio  et  auctoritate  R.  Academiw  Lyncceorum  .  .  .  edidit  Rodul- 
phns  Lanciani  Romamis,  in  46  sheets.—  (C.  I.  L.)  Corpus  Inscriptionum  Lati- 
narum,  vols,  i.,  vi.  1,  2,  3,  4,  xiv.,  and  xv.  1. 


Book  I.  —  General  Information 


I.  Site  —  Geology  —  Configuration  of  Soil 1 

II.  Geologj' 5 

III.  Malaria 6 

IV.  Climate 8 

V.   Hydrography  —  Rivers,  Springs,  Ponds,  Marshes          .        .  '.) 

VI.   Bridges 16 

VII.   Traiectus  (ferries) 2fi 

VIII.    Objects  of  Value  in  the  Bed  of  the  River 2<) 

IX.   CloaciP  (drains) 28 

X.   The  Quarries  from  which  Rome  was  built .32 

(a)  Tufa  (lapis  ruber) .32 

(b)  Pepcrino  (lapis  Albanus) 34 

(c)  Travertino  (lapis  Tiburtinus) 3.5 

(d)  Silex  (selce) ,38 

XI.   Bricks 38 

XII.   ]\Iarbles 42 

XIII.  Methods  of  Construction 43 

XIV.  Aqueducts 47 

XV.   Muri  Urbis  (the  Walls) 59 

XVI.   Murus  Romuli  (Walls  of  the  Palatine) 59 

XVII.   Other  Walls  of  the  Kingly  Period 60 

XVIII.  The  Walls  of  Servius  TuUius 60 

XIX.   Walls  of  Aurelian  and  Probus,  a.  d.  272          ....  66 

XX.   Restoration  of  the  Walls  by  Honorius 72 

XXI.   Gates  of  Aurelian  and  Honorius 73 

XXII.   Walls  of  Leo  IV.,  Leopolis,  .lohannipolis,  Laurentiopolis         .  80 

XXIII.  The  Fortifications  of  Paul  III.,  Pius  IV.,  and  Urban  VIII.  .  84 

XXIV.  Modern  Fortifications 86 

XXV.   The  Fourteen  Regions  of  Augustus 87 

XXVI.   The  Population  of  Ancient  Rome 91 

XXVII.   The   Map  of  Rome   engraved  on   Marble   under   Severus  and 

Caracalla 94 

XXVIII.  The  Burial  of  Rome .98 

Book  II.  —  The  Ruins  and  Excavations  of  the  Palatine 

I.   Hints  to  Visitors 106 

II.  The  Origin  of  the  Palatine  City 110 

III.  Vigna  Nusiner 118 


IV.  Templum  divi  Augusti  (Temple  of  Augustus)          .        .         .       121 

V.   Fons  Juturnae  (the  Springs  of  Juturna) 123 

VI.   The  Clivus  Victoriae 125 

VII.   The  Church  of  S.  Teodoro 126 

VIII.   Murus  Romuli 126 

IX.   The  Altar  of  Aius  Locutius 127 

X.   ScalfB  Caci  (steps  of  Cacius) 129 

XI.   Casa  Romuli  (the  Hut  of  Romulus) 1-30 

XII.   The  Old  Stone  Quarries 131 

XIII.  iEdes  Magna-  Deum  Matris  (Temple  of  Cybele)  ....  132 

XIV.  .(Edes  lovis  Propugnatoris  in  Palatio  (Temple  of  Jupiter   Pro- 

piignator) 135 

XV.    Domus  Augustana  (House  of  Augustus) 138 

XVI.   Domus  Tiberiana  (House  of  Tiberius) 144 

XVII.   House  of  Germanicus 147 

XVIII.  Domus  Gaiana  (House  of  Caligula)          .....       150 

XIX.   The  Palace  of  Domitian 155 

XX.  The  Gardens  of  Adonis  (Horti  Adonsa  —  Vigna  Barberini)  .       165 

XXI.   MediaBval  Church  Buildings 168 

(a)  Ecclesia  S.  Caesarii  in  Palatio 169 

(b)  Monasterium  quod  Palladium  dicitur       ....  170 

(c)  The  Turris  Chartularia 171 

XXII.   The  so-called  Stadium  (Xystus) 172 

XXIII.  The  Palace  of  Septimius  Severus  (fedes  Severiaute)        .         .       178 

XXIV.  The  Septizonium 181 

XXV.  The  Water  Supply  and  Reservoirs  of  the  Palace     .         .         .184 

XXVI.  The  P.edagogium  and  the  Domus  Gelotiana        ....  185 

Book    III.  —  A  Walk  through    the    Sacra   Via  from   the 
Coliseum  to  the  Capitoline  Hill 

I.  The  Sacra  Via 188 

II.  The  Colossus  (colossal  statue  of  the  Sun)         ....  190 

III.  Meta  Sudans 190 

IV.  The  Arch  of  Constantine 191 

V.  iEdes  Romae  et  Veneris  (Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome)        .       194 

VI.  Baths  of  Heliogabalus    (?).     See  Ecclesia  S.  Cresarii  in  Pa- 
latio, 169        .  198 

VII.  Turris  Chartularia  198 

VIII.  The  Temple  of  .Jupiter  Stator 198 

IX.  The  Arch  of  Titus 199 

X.  Basilica  Nova  (Basilica  of  Constantine)  ....  201 

XI.  The  Clivus  Sacer 206 

XII.  Porticus  Margaritaria 207 

XIII.  The    Hereon   Romuli    (Temple   of   Romulus,  son  of  Maxen- 

tius) 209 

XIV.  Templum  Sacra?  Urbis  (archives  of  the  Cadastre)   .         .         .  211 
XV.    Fornix  Fabianus  (Arch  of  Q.  Fabius  Allobrogicus)      .         .       215 


XVI.  ^Edes  divi  Pii  et  diva-  Faustin*  (Temple  of  Antoninus  and 


XVII.  The  Kegia 

XVIII.  The  Temple  of  Vesta 

XIX.  The  Shrine 

XX.  Atrium  Vestaj  (House  of  the  Vestals)  . 

XXI.  Forum  Romanum  Magnum        ..... 

XXII.  Area  of  the  Forum 

XXIII.  Columna  liostrata 

XXIV.  The  Sculptured  Plutei 

XXV.  Monumental  Columns  on  the  Saera  Via   . 

XXVI.  The  Caballus  Constantini  (Eciuestriau  Statue  of  Constautine) 

XXVII.  Unknown  Building  on  the  east  side,  opposite  the  Temple  o 

.Julius  .         ■ 

XXVIII.  Monuments  of  the  Gothic  and  (iildonie  Wars  . 

XXIX,  The  ('niumn  of  I'hocas 

XXX.  Curia  Hostilia  —  Curia  .lulia  —  Senatus    . 

XXXI.  The  Comitium 

XXXII.  yEdes  divi  lulii  (Temple  of  .lulius  Ca-sar) 

XXXIII.  Triumphal  Arch  of  Augustus 

XXXIV.  iEdes  Castorum  (Temple  of  Castor  and  I'oUux) 
XXXV.  Vicus  Tuscus 

XXXVI.  Basilica  .lulia 

XXXVII.  Vicus  Jugarius        ........ 

XXXVIII.  The  Rostra  Vetera 

XXXIX.  Genius  I'opuli  Romani  — Milliarium  Aureum  —  Umhilic 

XL.  The  Church  of  SS.  Scrgius  and  Bacchus 

XLI.  The  Arch  of  Tiherius 

XLII.  The  Arch  of  Sc|)timius  Severus        .... 

XLIII.  The  Career  Tullianum    ....... 

XLIV.  ^'Edes  Concordia-  (Temple  of  Concord)     . 

XLV.  The  Clivus  Capitolinus 

XLVI.  Temple  of  Vespasian 

XLVII.  yEdes  Saturni  (Temple  of  Saturn) 

XLVIII.  Porticus  Deorum  Consentium  (Portico  of  the  Twelve  Gods) 

XLIX.  Tabularium    .......... 

L.  C!apitolium  (Temple  of  .Jupiter  Optimus  Maximus) 

LI.  Forum  .Juliuni         ......... 

LII.  Forum  Augustum       ........ 

LIII.  Forum  Transitorium       ........ 

LIV.  Forum  Traiani    ......... 





Book   IV.  —  Urbs  Sacra  Regionum  XIV 

I.  The  Ruins  of  the  Cadian  Hill,  Regio  I,  Porta  Capena  .         .      320 

II.  Hypog:cum  Scipionum      ........  321 

III.  The  Columbaria  (so-called)  of  Pomponius  Ilj-las         .         .       327 

rV.  The  Columbaria  of  the  Vigna  Codini 328 

V.  Regio  II,  Cadimontium  (the  Cadian  Hill)     ....       335 


VI.    The  Castra  Cielimontaiia  .... 

(a)  The  Castra  Ecjuitiun  Siugularium 

(b)  The  Castra  Peregrinuriim 

(c)  Statio  Cohortis  V  Vigilum 
VII.    The  Pahices  of  the  Cielian 

(a)  Domus  Lateranuruni  (Lateral!  Palaee) 

(b)  Domus  Vectiliana  .... 

(c)  Domus  Tetricorum      .         . 

(d)  Domus  Valeriorum 

(e)  Domus  Philippi  .... 

(f)  Domus  L.  Marii  Maximi 

(g)  Domus  of  the  Symmachi  . 
(h)   The  House  of  SS.  Joliii  and  Paul 
( I )   The  House  of  Gregory  the  Great 

VIII.   Claudium  (Temple  of  Claudius) 
IX.   Macellum  (S.  Stefauo  Rotondo)     . 
X.    The  Ruins  of  the  Oppiau,  Regio  III,  Isis  et  Serapis 
XI.    Domus  Aurea  (The  Golden  House  of  Nero) 
XII.    Thermie  Titian*  (Baths  of  Titus) 

XIII.  ThermiE  Triani  (Baths  of  Trajan) 

XIV.  Amphitheatrum  Flaviuni  (Coliseum) 

XV.  Buildings  connected  with  the  Amphitheatre  .... 

The  Vivarium 

The  Amphitheatrum  Castrense 

The  Claudium 

The  Samiarium 

The  Spoliarium 

The  Armamentarium 

The  Ludi  Gladiatorii 

The  Summum  Choragium 

The  Castra  Misenatium 

The  Curia  Athletarum 

XVI.  The  Viminal,  the  Cespian,  the  Subura,  andtlieVicus  Patricii, 

Regio  IV 

XVII.    The  Subura 

XVIII.    The  Vicus  Patricii 

XIX.    Private  Dwellings 

XX.    The  Great  Parks  on  the  Eastern  Side  of  the  City,  Regions  V. 

VI,  and  VII 

XXI.    Horti  Variani  

XXII.   Horti  Liciniani 

XXIII.  Horti  Tauriani 

XXIV.  Horti  Lamiani  et  Maiani 

XXV.   Horti  Maeceuatis 

XXVI.   Horti  Lolliani 

XXVII.    Horti  Sallustiani 

XXVIII.   Horti  Luculliani 

XXIX.    Horti  Aciliani 

XXX.    Public  Buildings 





















































LI  I. 




















Templiim  Solis  Aureliaui       .......      428 

Tlierm:e  Diocletiana; 432 

L'astra  Pra-loria      .........      437 

The  Campus  Martins  and  tlu-  (Jiixus  Flaininius,  Regio  IX       .  440 

Tlie  Taieiituni 446 

Campus  ^lartius 448 

Circus  Flamiuius     .........       450 

Rta1)uia  (|uatut>r  Factionum  VI 454 

TiMiiplum  Ilcrculis  magni  Custodis  ad  (Jircuni  Flaniinium  .       4.55 

The  Fdriini  Holitorium  and  its  Kditii'es 458 

(A)    .Edes  Spc-i 458 

(u)    .Edcs  Pietatis 4-58 

(c)  ^Edi's  lunonis  .Sospitif 458 

(d)  Tcmplum  laiii 458 

The  I'oiupfiaii  Buildiiif^s 459 

Mausoleum  nf  Augustus 461 

Horologium  or  Sohirium  (sun-dial) 464 

Ara  Paris  Augusta- 466 

Opera  8.  Porticus  Octavia' 466 

The  Moiiumenta  Agrippa- 470 

Porticus  Piilla'  or  Vipsauia     ......       47(1 

Campus  Agriiijiu'        .         .         .         ■         .         •         •         .471 
Diribitorium    .  .  .         .         •         .471 

Saipta  lulia  .  .  .         .471 

Villa  Puhlica 472 

Pautlu'uii 473 

Lakonikon 48(i 

Basilica  Xcptuiii,  Xciitiiiiium,  Porticus  Arguuautaruni    .         .  487 

Thcatrum  Marcclli 4'.t() 

Thcatruui  ct  <  ivpta  Hallii 493 

Odeum    . 496 

Stadium 496 

Therma'  Xeroiiiame  ct  Alc.xaiidriaua-    .....       498 

Isium  ct  Scra](imn      .........  .500 

Tcmiilum  Matidia'  ........       •502 

The  Antouinc  Buildings .503 

The  Commcn'ial  (,»nartcrs  on  the  Left  Bank  of  the  Tiber    .       .509 
Forum  Ildlitnriuin      .........  511 

Forum  Boarium      .........       512 

Temi)luni  Fortuna- 514 

Tcmiilum  ^latris  Matnta--        .......       515 

Tcmplum  Ccrcris  Lilieri  Libcra'i|uc  ......  516 

The  .laiius  and  the  Arch  of  Sevcrns  and  (aiacalla        .         .       518 

Statio  Annonic 519 

The  Ilorrca  Puhlica  Populi  Romani .522 

Tile  Marble  Wharf  and  Sheds .524 

Salina'  (the  Salt-AVarchouses) .527 

The  Lead-Warehouses 528 

The  Brick- Warehouses 529 

xviii  CONTENTS 

LXXI.   The  Monte  Testaccio 521) 

LXXII.  The  Aventine,  Eegion^  XII  and  XIII  — Theniui'  AutoniniaiKv  5.'32 

LXXIII.  Churches  and  Palaces  on  the  Aventine          ....       540 

LXXIV.    The  Thernite  Deciana; 542 

LXXV.  The  Escubitorium  Coh  •  YII  •  Vigilum         ....       544 

LXXVI.    Horti  Csesaris 546 

I.XXYII.    Horti  Get* 548 

LXXVIII.    Horti  AgrippiniB 548 

LXXIX.    Mausoleum  Hadriani 551 

Conclusion  :  The  General  Aspect  of  the  City 561 


A.  Comparison  between  Years  of  the  Christian  and  the  Roman  Eras        .  571 

B.  Chronological  List  of  Roman  Emperors 571 

C.  Chronological  List  of  the  First  Kings  of  Italy 578 

D.  Chronological  List  of  the  Popes 578 

E.  Al]ihabetical  List  of  Painters,  Sculptors,  and  Architects  mentioned  in 

this  Book 586 

F.  lioman  Coins        ...........  586 

G.  Roman  Measures  of  Length .  588 

H.   Roman  Weights 588 

I.   The  Roman  Calendar 589 

J.    A  List  of  Ancient  Marbles .       589 


I.   The  Existing   Remains   of    Ancient    Rome   described   Alphabetically   in 

Architectural  Groups. 
II.    The  Existing  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome  described  in  Chronological  Order. 



1.  Map  of  Hydrofjrapliy  ami  Chorotrraphy  of  Ancient  Rome.    Fmnti.-tpitcf 

2.  The  Clifts  of  the  ( 'a]>itciliiie  Hill  above  "La  Coiisolazione  "      .         .  2 
.J.  Section  of  tlie  (jiiirinal  Hill -i 

4.  Curve  of  the  Flood  of  December,  187(1 11 

5.  Modern  Embankment        .........  1.3 

6.  Ancient  Embankment            .........  I'-i 

7.  The  Mouth  of  the  Tiber  at  Fiumicino       ......  14 

8.  The  ^Emilian,  Fabrician,  ( 'estian  Hridj^es,  and  the  Island  in  the  Tiber  17 

9.  The  .Stern  of  the  Ship  of  .Esculai)ius lit 

10.  iMuindations  of  Hridf^e  (?)  above  the  I'onte  Sisto        .         .         .         .  -21 

11.  The   Incline  to  the   ^Elian   Bridge   from    the   Campus    Martins   (Left 

Bank) 23 

12.  Bronze  Head  found  in  the  Tiber 25 

13.  Statue  found  in  the  Tiber 28 

14.  The  Course  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima       .......  2!) 

1-5.  The  Latrina  annexed  to  the  Guest-Hooms  of  the  Villa  Adriana      .  32 

16.  The  Quarries  of  Travertine,  Cava  del  Barco 37 

17.  The  Opus  Incertum 44 

18.  The  Opus  Keticulatum 40 

19.  Map  of  A(|ueducts 47 

20.  The  Channel  of  the  Aqua  Appia  under  the  Aventine          ...  48 

21.  Ponte  Lu])o .50 

22.  The  Aqueducts  at  Roma  Vecchia .52 

23.  The  Seven  Aqueducts  at  the  Porta  Maggiore 55 

24.  :\Iap  of  AValls 59 

25.  Section  of  Walls 61 

21).  Section  of  Agger 62 

27.  Forum  Boarium 63 

28.  The  Ditch  of  the  Agger  of  Servius 65 

29.  Walls  of  Servius  on  the  Aventine 67 

30.  The  Covered  Way  of  the  Walls  of  Aurelian,  Vigna  Casali        .         .  69 

31.  The  Porta  S.  Lorenzo 76 

32.  Door  of  the  First  Century  built  into  the  Walls  of  Aurelian       .         .  79 

33.  The  Two  Towers  at  the  Entrance  to  the  Harbor  of  Rome        .         .  80 

34.  Tower  of  Leo  IV.  in  the  Vatican  Gardens.     Bastions  of  Pius  IV.  in 

the  Foreground 83 

35.  The  Fortifications  of  Laurentiopolis.     By  M.  Ileemskerk       .         .  85 


36.  The  French  Army  entering  the  Porta  S.  Pancrazio,  Julj-  4,  1849       .  87 

37.  Sketch-Map  of  the  Fourteen  Eegions  of  Augustus  ....  89 

38.  The   Fragment   of  the  Marble  Plan  discovered  by   Castellani   and 

Tocco  in  1867 97 

39.  The   Eeraains   of  a  Private  House  discovered  under  the  Baths  of 

Caracalla  by  G.  B.  Guidi,  1867      .......  101 

40.  Sketch-Map  of  Excavations  of  Palatine 108 

41.  Map  of  Ancient  and  Modern  Divisions  of  the  Palatine  Hill   .         .  110 

42.  Plan  of  AntemniB .  112 

43.  Reservoir  at  Antemnie 112 

44.  Plan  of  Kingly  Palatine 113 

45.  A  Village  of  Straw  Huts  near  Gabii  (Castiglione)  ....  114 

46.  Plan  of  the  Terramara  di  Fontanellato 115 

47.  A  Fragment  of  the  Marble   Plan   -with   C'livus  Victori;e  and  Vicus 

Tuscus 120 

48.  Plan  of  the  Augiistivum 122 

49.  General  View  of  West  Corner  of  Palatine  Hill        ....  128 

50.  Hut-urn  from  Alba  Longa .131 

51.  Headless  Statue  of  Cybele,  found  near  her  Temple  on  the  Palatine  134 

52.  The  Cybele  from  Foniiiiv 136 

53.  Plan  of  the  Domus  Augustana,  Ground  Floor 139 

54.  Plan  of  the  Domus  Tiberiana  and  of  the  Domus  Gaiana         .        .  145 

55.  A  Graffito  of  the  Domus  Tiberiana 147 

56.  The  Remains  of  tlie  Palace  of  Caligula,  seen  from  the  Sacra  Via  .  151 

57.  A  Corner  of  the  Palace  of  Caligula  according  to  Rosa's  Map     .        .  152 

58.  The  Same,  designed  in  Sheet  xxix.  of  the  "Forma  Urbis  "  .         .  153 

59.  A  Brick  Stamp  of  John  VII 155 

60.  Plan  of  Domitian's  Palace 157 

61.  The  Horti  Adonea,  a  Fragment  of  the  Marble  Plan  of  Rome     .        .  166 

62.  Plan  of  the  Horti  Adonea  (?),  according  to  Ligorio         .         .         •  167 

63.  The  Church  of  S.  Cwsarius  in  Palatio   " 169 

64.  The  Torre  Cartnlaria  in  the  Sixteenth  Century       ....  172 

65.  Headless  Statue  of  a  Muse  discovered  in  the  so-called  Stadium         .  175 

66.  Female    Head  of  Greek  Workmanship  discovered  in  the  so-called 

Stadium.        ...........  177 

67.  Substructures  of  the  I'alace  of  Septimius  Severus,  as  seen  fmm  the 

Aventine 179 

68.  The  Remains  of  the  ^des  Severiante  and  of  the  Septizonium,  from 

a  Sketch  by  Du  Cerceau 182 

69.  The  Aqueduct  of  the  Palatine  across  the  Valley  of  S.  Gregorio          .  184 

70.  Plan  of  the  Domus  Gelotiana 185 

71.  One  of  the  Walls  of  the  Pajdagogium  with  Greek  and  Latin  Graffiti  186 

72.  Map  of  the  Sacra  Via 188 

73.  The  Arch  of  Constantine  in  Botticelli's  "Castigodel  fuoco  celeste," 

Sistine  Chapel 193 

74.  Plan  of  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome 195 

75.  Bas-relief  of  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome 197 

76.  Arch  of  Titus  — Temple  of  .Tupiter  Statnr  in    tlie  Bas-relief   of  the 

Aterii 199 

77.  Plan  of  Neighborhood  of  the  Arch  of  Titus 199 


78.  The  Siinima  Sacra  Via,  witli  Arch  of  Titus  and  Temple  of  Jupiter 

Stator 200 

79.  Plan  of  Constantine's  Basilica 202 

80.  The  Basilica  of  Constantiue  at  the  Time  of  Paul  V.         .         .         .  203 

81.  The  Arco  di  Latrone  under  the  Basilica  of  Constantiue         .         .  205 

82.  Plan  of  Clivus  Sacer 207 

83.  Plan  of  Porticus  Margaritaria 208 

84.  The  Portico  of  the  Heroon  Romuli 210 

85.  Plan  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano 211 

86.  The  Church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano  in  the  Middle  Ages        .         .  212 

87.  The  Church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano  at  the  End  of  the  Sixteenth 

Century 213 

88.  The  Frieze  of  the  Temple  of  Faustina 217 

89.  Graffiti  on  the  Carystian  Columns  of  tlie  Temple  of  Faustina       .  218 

90.  The  Regia,  as  designed  by  Pirro  Ligorio 220 

91.  Temples  of  Vesta  and  Castores  (Auer's  Reconstruction)        .         .  223 

92.  Plan  of  Atrium  and  Temple  of  Vesta 225 

93.  Map  of  Forum  and  of  Basilica  .lulia 251 

94.  The  Margo  of  the  Forum    .........  253 

95.  The  Fragments  of  the   Marlde    I'iutei,    discovered   in    Sejjtember, 

1872 255 

90.    One  of  the  Marble  Plutei,  after  Restoration 256 

97.  The  Rostra  as  represented  in  a  Bas-relief  of  the  Arch  of  Constantine  257 

98.  The  Column  of  Phoeas  —  thi'  IMarlih;  IMutei  in  the  Foreground    .        261 

99.  Plan  of  the  Senate  House,  rebuilt  bv  Diocletian        ....     263 


100.  The  Marble  Incrustations  of  the  Senate  Hal!         .         .         .         . 

101.  Details  of  Cornice  of  the  Senate  Hall 

102.  The  Rostra  .Julia  and  tiie  Temple  of  Ctvsar 

103.  Fragment  of  the  Afarljle  Plan  with  Temple  of  Castores 

104.  The  Substructure  of  the  Temple  of  Castores  .... 

105.  The  Southwest  Corner  of  the  Basilica  Julia       .... 

106.  General  View  of  the  Basilica  -Julia  ...... 

107.  The  Church  of  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus,  sketclied  by  Heemskerk 

108.  Pedestals  of  Columns,  Arcli  of  Severus  .....         283 

109.  A  Fruiterer's  Siiop  under  the  Arcli  of  Severus  ....     284 

110.  The   Clivus    Capitolinus,    now   concealed    by   the    Modern    (1880) 

Causeway 289 

111.  The  Frieze'of  the  Temple  of  Vespasian 290 

112.  The  Porticus  Consentium 293 

113.  Old  Gate  of  Tabularium  blocked  by  Teuii)le  of  Vespasian        .         .     295 

114.  Remains  of  the  Platform  of  the  Cuiiitolium  in  the   Garden  of  the 

Caffarelli  Palace 298 

115.  The  Venus  Genetrix  l)y  Arkesilaos  —  a  Frngnieiit  in  the  Museo  delle 

Terme 301 

lie.    Plan  of  the  Forum  Augustum  .......         303 

117.  The  South  Hemicycle  of  the  Forum  Augustum,  excavated  in  1888     305 

118.  Tlie  Forum  Transitorium  :  a  Sketch  by  ISoscoio         ....     309 

119.  Forum  Traiani 311 

120.  Frieze  from  the  Basilica  ripia  (Lateran  iluseum)     ....     314 

121.  Frieze  from  the  Basilica  Ulpia  (Lateran  Museum)         .         .         .         315 


122.  Heads  of  Animals  discovered  in  the  Forum  of  Trajan      .         .         .  319 

123.  Map  of  Regions  I.  (Porta  Capena)  and  II.  (Ctelimontium)    .         .  320 

124.  Sarcophagus  of  Scipio  Barbatus  in  the  Vatican         ....  322 

125.  Plan  of  the  Tomb  of  the  Scipios,  according  to  Piranesi         .         .  324 

126.  Tomb  of  tiie  Scipios  (Present  State) 325 

127.  Portrait  Bust  of  Scipio  the  Ekler  (Capitoline  Museum)  .         .  327 

128.  The  Columbarium  discovered  in  the  Vigna  Codini,  May,  1852  .  332 

129.  One   of  the  Courts  of  the  Palace  of  the  Laterans,   discovered  in 

1877 341 

130.  Campus  Lateranensis,  about  1534 343 

131.  Plan  of  the  House  of  SS.  John  and  Paul,  and  of  the  Cliurcli  built 

above  it 348 

132.  A  View  of  the  Church  and  Monaster^'  of  S.  Circgorio  in  the  First 

Half  of  the  Sixteenth  Century       .  ' 3.50 

133.  The  Substructures  of  the  Claudlum,  West  Side     ....  352 

134.  S.  Stefano  Rotondo,  Inner  View 354 

135.  Plan  of  S.  Stefano  Rotondo 356 

136.  Map  of  Region  III.  —  Isis  et  Serapis 357 

137.  Nymphanim  discovered  near  the  Via  della  Polveriera  .         .         .  360 

138.  Plan  of  the  Golden  House  and  of  the  Baths  of  Titus  and  Trajan     .  3G0 

139.  A  View  of  the  South  Wing  of  the  Domus  Aurea  ....  361 

140.  Plan  of  Western  Section  of  the  Flavian  Amphitheatre     .         .         .  368 

141.  The    Shell    of    the    Coliseum    after    the    Collapse    of   the    Western 

Arcades 374 

142.  The  Insignia  of  the  Compagnia  del  Salvatore  on  the  Coliseum         .  375 

143.  Stone  Cippi  surrounding  the  Coliseum 378 

144.  Step-seat  of  the  Coliseum,  Avith  the  Name  of  a  Fabius  Insteius       .  381 

145.  Wooden  Floor  discovered  in  1874  in  the  Substructures  of  the  Ai-ena 

of  the  Coliseum 382 

146.  I'alladio's  Diagrams  of  the  Anii>liitheatrum  Castrense      .         .         .  384 

147.  Plan  of  the  Ludus  ^Magnus 386 

148.  Remains  of  Public  Baths  near  S.  Pudenziana 390 

149.  Ruins  discovered  in  1684  on  the  Line  of  the  Via  Graziosa     .         .  392 

150.  Map  of  the  Parks  and  Gardens  of  Ancient  Rome      ....  394 

151.  Ligorio's  Perspective  View  of  the  Horti  Variani   ....  396 

152.  The  Horti  Variani,  Vigna  Conti,  by  S.  Croce  in  Gerusalemme         .  399 

153.  Statue  of  a  Roman  Magistrate  of  the  Fourth  Century  giving  the 

Signal  for  a  Chariot  Race 402 

154.  Columbaria  discovered  in  1872  on  the  Site  of  the  Horti  Liciiiiani    .  403 

155.  Statue  of  Shepherdess  discovered  in  the  Horti  Vettiani         .         .  405 

156.  Bust  of  Commodus  from  the  Horti  Lamiani 408 

157.  Statuette  of  a  Girl  from  the  Horti  Lamiani  ....  409 

158.  The  Conservatory  of  the  Gardens  of  Ma?cenas  ....  411 

159.  The  Fountain  Of  Pontios  the  Athenian,  discovered  in  the  Gardens 

of  Mipcenas 412 

160.  Part  of  the  Marble  Throne  of  the  Venus  Sallustiana,  now  in  the 

Ludovisi  Museum 414 

161.  A  Group  of  Pines  in  the  Villa  Ludovisi,  cut  ddwn  in  1887    .         .  416 

162.  Cliffs  on  the  South  Side  of  the  Vallis  Sallustiana,  l)efore  the  Con- 

struction of  the  New  Quarters 418 


163.  The    "Parnaso"    or   Xympli;rum    of    the   Villa    Aldobrandini    at 

Frascati 422 

164.  The  Substructures  of  the  Gardens  of  the  Acilii  Glabrioues  on  the 

Pineian.     A  Sketch  by  Yaladier 42-3 

165.  Map  of  Region  VI.  — Alta  Semita 428 

166.  The  Ruins  of  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  in  the  Sixteenth  Century       .  429 

167.  The  Dioscuri  of  the  (iuirinal,  as  they  appeared  in  1.546         .         .  431 

168.  The  Tepidarium  of  the   Baths  of  Diocletian,  before  its    Transfor- 

mation into  the  Church  of  S.  ^I.  degli  Angeli        ....  434 

169.  Group  of  Cypresses  in  the  Cloisters  of  La  Certosa         .         .         .  436 

170.  Remains    of  the  Castra  Pretoria  :  Northeast  Corner  of  the  (^lad- 

rangle 438 

171.  The  Walls  of  the  Pra'torian  Camp,  with  Aurelian's  Superstructure  439 

172.  One  of  the  Victories  from  the  Arch  of  Gordianus  III.  .         .         .  440 

173.  Map  of  Region  IX.  —  Can)i)us  ^Martins  and  Circus  I'laminius  .         .  440 

174.  Plan  of  the  Ara  Ditis  et  Proserpin* 447 

175.  Fragments  of  the  Pnlvini  of  the  Ara  Ditis         .....  448 

176.  Architectural  Details  of  the  Circus  Flaminius        ....  453 

177.  The  Inscription  of  Anicius  Faustus  from  the  ('ircus  Flaminius  (?)  .  454 

178.  A  Fragment  of  the  Forma  Urbis  showing  Round  Temple  of  Her- 

cules        45,5 

179.  The  Finding  of  the  Bronze  Statue  of  tlie  Hercules  ]\[agnus  Ciistos, 

August  8,  1864 .         .4.56 

180.  The  Shrine  of  the  Hercules  Invictus,  discovered  in  1889,  on  the  Via 

Portuensis 457 

181.  The  so-called  Pompey  the  Great  of  tlie  Palazzo  Spada     .         .         .  4(!0 

182.  The  Mausoleum  of  Augustus,  turned  into  a  Garden  by  the  Soderiui 

about  1.550 "...  463 

183.  The  Ara  Pacis  August:\i  —  details 467 

184.  The  Ara  Pacis  Augusta;— details 468 

185.  Plan  of  the  first  (red)  and  of  the  third  (black)  Pantlicm  .         .         .474 

186.  The  I'antheon  flooded  by  the  Tiber 477 

187.  T!ie  Pantheon  at  the  Time  of  Urban  VIII.  (1625)      .         .         .         .482 

188.  The  Bronze  Trusses  of  the  Pronaos  of  the  Pantheon,  from  a  Sketch 

by  Dosio 483 

189.  The  Remains  of  Raphael,  discovered  September  14,  1833          .,       .  485 

190.  The  Temple  of  Neptune  :  an  unfinished  Study  by  Vespignani     .  489 

191.  Remains  of  the  Hall  of  the  Theatre' of  Marcellus,  from  a  Sketch 

by  Du  Perac  (1575) 492 

192.  Arcades  of  the  Theatre  of  Balbus,  from  a  Sketch  by  .Sangallo  the 

Elder .         .         .     '    .      '  .         .  493 

193.  Forma  Urbis,  fragment  115 494 

194.  Remains  of  the  Crypta  Balbi,  designed  by  Sangallo  the  Elder     .  495 

195.  Remains  of  the  Stadium  discovered  in  1869  at  tlie  South  End  of  the 

Piazza  Xavona 497 

196.  The  Nile  of  the  Braccio  Xuovo  —  A  Fragment      ....  .501 

197.  A  Round  Temple  or  Hall  sketched  by  Giovannoli  in  1619,  near  the 

Palazzo  Capranica 503 

198.  The  so-called  Arch  of  M.  Aurelius  on  the  Corso,  sketched  by  Li- 

gorio 505 


199.  Map  of  the  Harbor  of  Rome 509 

200.  Temple  of  Fortuna  ;  Detail  of  the  Order 515 

201.  The  Excavations  of  1827  in  the  Temple  of  Mater  Matuta,  from  a 

Sketch  by  Valadier 517 

202.  The  Janus  of  the  Forum  Boarium,  the  Arch  of  Severus,  and  the 

Church  of  S.  Giorgio,  from  a  Sketch  by  M.  Heemskerk    .         .  519 

203.  Plan  of  S.  Maria  in  Cosmedin 520 

204.  S.  Maria  in  Cosmedin  in  the  Sixteenth  Century    ....  521 

205.  The   Wliarf   for   Landing  Marbles  on  the   Banks  of   the    Campus 

Martins    .         .         .     " 52G 

206.  Map  of  the  Therma-  Antoniniana> 533 

207.  Part  of  the  Building  discovered  by  Guidi  under  the  Baths  of  Cara- 

calla 533 

208.  A  Leaf  from  Palladio's  Sketch-book  (Baths  of  Caracalla)    .         .  535 

209.  Capital  of  the  Composite  Order  from  the  Tepidarium  of  Caracalla's 

Baths 537 

210.  Palladio's  Plan  of  the  Thermse  Decianw 543 

211.  Capital  from  the  Basement  of  Hadrian's  Tomb         ....  552 

212.  Diagram  showing   the  Order   in  which   the  Imperial  Tiim1)stones 

were  placed  in  the  ^lausoleum 554 

213.  The  Girandola  at  the  Castle  of  S.  Angelo,  from  an  Engraving  by 

Lauro  (1624) 556 

214.  The  Mausoleum  of  Hadrian  and  the  Meta  m  Raphael's  "Vision  of 

Constantine " 557 

215.  The  Prati  di  Castello  in  1870 558 

210.   The  Prati  di  Castello  in  1890 559 


BOOK    I 


I.  Site  —  Geology  —  CoxFiGt'RATiox  of  Soil.  —  During  the 
sub-Apennine  or  quaternary  period  a  powerful  stream  came  down 
from  the  mountains,  on  the  line  of  a  rent  or  fissure  which 
separated  the  Ciminian  from  the  Alban  volcanoes.  The  stream, 
from  1000  to  2000  metres  wide  and  30  deep,  emptied  itself 
into  the  sea  between  Ponte  Galera  and  Dragoncello.  By  the 
combined  action  of  the  main  flood  and  of  its  tributaries,  portions 
of  the  tableland  on  the  east  or  left  bank  became  detached  and 
formed  small  islands,  while  the  edge  of  the  bank  itself  was  fur- 
rowed and  serrated  into  promontories  and  iidets.  Such  is  the  ori- 
gin of  the  isolated  hills,  since  called  Capitoline.  Palatine,  Aven- 
tine,  and  Ca?lian ;  and  of  the  promontories  projecting  from  the 
tableland,  called  Pincian,  Quirinal,  Viminal,  Cespian.  and  Oppian. 
The  Vatican  and  the  Janicnlum  on  the  west  or  right  bai^k  are  less 
irregular,  because  they  had  to  withstand  the  action  of  the  main 
stream  alone,  and  not  of  side  tributaries. 

When  men  first  appeared  in  these  lands  the  quaternary  river 
had  diminished  almost  to  the  size  and  volume  of  the  historical 
Tiber,  and  the  hills  had  been  reduced  to  a  definite  shape  ;  but  the 
bottom  of  the  valleys  remained  swampy,  so  as  to  be  easily  flooded 
by  freshets.  The  marshes  of  the  Yelabra,  the  Capra?  palus,  the 
Decennije,  and  other  ponds  are  evidence  of  this  state  of  things. 
The  mouth  of  the  river  was  still  near  Ponte  Galera,  12  kilometres 
farther  inland  than  the  present  one.  The  first  human  settlement, 
"dove  I'acqua  di  Tevere  s'insala,"  called  i^/ca/m, stood  on  the  hill 
of  Dragoncello,  opposite  Ponte  Galera.  The  dim  remoteness  of 
these  events  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  when  Ancus  Marcius,  the 


fourth  king,  founded  Ostia,  as  a  substitute  for  Ficana,  the  mouth 
of  the  river  had  ah'eady  advanced  seawards  5810  metres. 

Fig.  2.  — The  Cliifs  of  the  CapitoUne  Hill  above  "  La  Consolazione." 

It  is  difficult  to  reconstruct  in  one's  mind  tlie  former  aspect  of 
the  site  of  Rome,  as  hills  have  been  lowered,  valleys  filled  u]i,  and 
cliffs  turned  into  gentle  slopes.     By  means  of  borings  made  in 

SITE  o 

1872,1  and  of  my  own  investigations  into  the  depths  of  the  founda- 
tions of  modern  buildings,  I  have  ascertained  that  the  promon- 
tories and  the  isolated  hills  were  faced  —  at  least  on  the  river  side 
—  by  sheer  walls  of  rock,  of  which  there  are  a  few  specimens  left 
at  the  southwest  front  of  the  Capitoline,  and  on  the  west  sides  of 
the  Palatine  and  Aveutine.  In  other  words,  the  site  of  Home  was 
like  that  of  Veil  and  Faleria,  with  narrow  dales  inclosed  by  craggy 
clift's,  shadowed  by  evergreens,  and  made  damp  and  unhealthy 
by  swamps  and  unruly  rivers  (Fig.  2). 

The  otlier  hills,  the  Quirinal,  Viminal,  Pincian,  etc.,  were  not 
different  in  shape,  as  shown  by  the  following  section  taken  across 
the  Quirinal,  from  the  Piazza  Barberini  to  the  corner  of  the  Via 
Nazionale :  — 

5^'^SSS^^Ss^. I 


l;3000  AliituJ' 

000  Distances, 

Kg.  3.  —  Section  of  the  Quirinal  Hill. 

Within  the  limits  of  the  old  ci 
those  isolated  were  called  inonta 
and   Ca'lian),   those   connected 
roHes  ((Quirinal  and  Viminal). 
the  rule,  being  counted  among 
with  the  tableland.      In  regard 
stand  in  the  following  order  :  — 

Quirinal,  T'orta  Pia     . 
Viminal,  railway  fetation 
[Oppiari,  the  Sette  Sale     . 
Esr|uiline,  S.  ]Maria  ^lagj^iore 
[Cespiaii,  Via  Qiiattro  Cantoiii 
Palatine,  S.  Bi)naventnra 
Civlian,  Villa  Mattei  . 
Capitoline,  the  Araewli 
Aveutine,  S.  Alessio  . 

ty  there  were  seven  hills,  of  which 
s  (Palatine,  Capitoline,  Aveutine, 
with  the  tableland  were  called 
The  Es(piiline  is  an  exception  to 
the  montes,  although  connected 
to  altitude  above  sea-level  they 

1  Raffaele  Canevari,  Atti  Accademia  Lincet,  serie  ii.  vol.  ii.  p.  429. 



Other  summits  on  the  left  bank :  — 


Piiician  Hill  at  the  Villa  Medici 56.33 

Piucian  Hill  at  the  Porta  Pinciaiia 63.05 

The  so-called  pseudo-Aventine  by  S.  Saba  .  .  .  43.00 
Moute  d'  Oro,  above  the  Porta  Metroni  .  .  .  .  46.00 
Monte  Citorio 24.34 

Before  the  construction  of  the  central  railway  station,  the  highest 
point  on  the  left  bank  was  an  artificial  hill  called  the  Monte  della 
Giustizia,  the  work  of  Diocletian  and  of  Sixtus  Y.  It  rose  to  the 
height  of  73  metres,  and  bears  the  name  of  "  altissimus  Roniaj 
locus"  in  Bufalini's  map  (1551).  On  the  other  side  of  the  river, 
the  ridge  called  the  monn  Vaticanus  rises  to  the  height  of  liO 
metres  at  the  fort  of  Monte  Mario,  of  75  metres  at  the  top  of  the 
pope's  gardens.  The  Janiculum  measures  89  metres  at  the  Villa 
Savorelli-Heyland,  81.73  at  the  Porta  di  S.  Pancrazio. 

Rome  stands  at  an  equal  distance  from  the  sea  and  the  moun- 
tains, in  the  middle  of  an  undulating  plain  deeply  furrowed  by 
ravines.  This  plain,  47  kilometres  wide  and  60  long,  is  bordered  on 
the  north  side  by  the  Sabatine  volcanic  range  (Rocca  romana,  601 
metres;  Monte  Calvi,  5.90;  Monte  Virginio,  540)  ;  on  the  east  side 
by  the  limestone  pre- Apennines  (Monte  Gennaro,  1269 ;  Monte 
Affliano,  598;  Monte  Guadagnolo,  1218;  the  citadel  of  Prseneste 
at  Castel  S.  Pietro,  760)  ;  on  the  southeast  side  by  the  Alban  hills, 
the  highest  summit  of  which  is  not  Monte  Cavo  (940),  as  generally 
supposed,  but  the  Punta  delle  Faette,  950  metres. 

Students  who  visit  Rome  for  the  first  time  would  do  well  to  take  at 
once  a  general  survey  of  the  seven  hills,  of  the  plain,  of  its  border  of 
mountains  and  sea,  from  the  dome  of  S.  Peter's,  from  the  campanile 
of  S.  Maria  Maggiore,  or  from  the  tower  of  the  Capitol,  which  is 
easier  of  access  and  has  a  more  interesting  foreground  (open 
every  day  from  ten  to  three).  The  landmarks  of  the  panorama 
can  be  singled  out  by  referring  to  — 

Henry  Kiepert's  Carta  corogr.  ed  archiol.  dtlV  Italia  centrale,  1  :  250,000. 
Berlin,  Reimer,  1881.  —  Enrico  Abate's  Guida  della  provincia  di  Roma.  Rome, 
Salviucci,  1890.  Map  in  two  sheets.  Second  ed.  1893.  Maps  of  the  Istituto 
geogralico  niilitare,  1  :  100,000  and  1  :  50,000.  (The  map  1  :  10,000  is  not 
in  the  market.)  The  best  for  use  is  the  Carta  topografica  dti  dintorni  di 
Roma,  in  9  sheets,  1  :  25,000. 

The  highest  peaks  visible  from  Rome  are  the  Monte  Terminillo, 
above  Rieti,  2213  metres  high,  and  the  Monte  Velino,  above  Avez- 
zano,  2487  metres.  They  usually  keep  their  shining  coat  of  snow 
till  the  middle  of  May. 


Literature.  —  Giovanni  Brocchi,  Dello  statofisico  del  suolo  di  Roma.  Rome, 
1820.  —  Raffaele  C'anevari,  Cenni  suUe  condizioni  altimetriche  ed  idrauliche  dell' 
agro  romano.  Rome,  1874.  (Auuali  Ministero  agricoltura.)  —  Felice  Gior- 
dano, Condizioni  topogrqtiche  ejisiche  di  Roma  e  Campagna.  (Monogratia  della 
citta  di  Roma,  1881,  pp.  i.-lxxxvi.)  —  Paolo  Mantovaui,  Descrizione  yeologica 
della  Campagna  romana,  Rome,  Loescher,  1874  ;  and  Costituzione  geologica 
del  suolo  romano,  1878.  —  Murray's  Handbook  of  Rome,  ed.  1875,  p.  349. — 
Antonio  Nibby,  Roma  anlica,  vol.  i.  pp.  1-65,  2()7-.300.  Rome,  1838.  —  Adolf 
Becker,  Topogrrqjhie  der  Stadt  Rome,  p.  81.  (Lage,  Weichbild,  Klima.) 
Heinrich  Jordan,  Tojiograjjliie  d.  S.  R.,  vol.  i.  pp.  117-152.  (Lage,  Bodeu, 
Klima.)  —  Otto  Richter,  Topographie  d.  S.  R.,  p.  18.     (Lage  und  Formation.) 

There  are  two  museums  of  geology  and  mineralogy —  one  in  the  L'niversity 
(della  Sapienza),  consisting  of  the  collections  of  Belli,  Brocchi,  and  Spada,  and 
of  a  bequest  of  Leo  XIL  ;  the  other  in  the  former  convent  della  Yittoria,  Via 
S.  Susanna,  second  floor  :  open  Tuesdays,  Thursda3-s,  and  Sundays. 

II.  Geology.  —  There  are  four  geological  formations  in  the 
district  of  Rome,  with  which  the  student  must  become  familiar 
if  he  wishes  to  understand  at  once  some  imjjortant  peculiarities 
of  Roman  masonry  and  architecture.  They  are  the  secondary  or 
limestone,  the  tertiary  or  argillaceous,  the  volcanic,  and  the 
quaternary  or  diluvial  formations. 

The  limestone  is  best  examined  at  INIonticelli,  the  ancient  Cor- 
niculum,  the  fourth  station  on  the  Sulmona  line.  The  rock, 
slightly  dolomitised,  is  white  at  the  base  of  the  hill,  with  terebra- 
tuloe  in  great  numbers  ;  reddish  in  the  middle,  with  a  dozen  va- 
rieties of  ammonites ;  and  white  again  at  the  summit,  with  tere- 
hratidce  and  traces  of  the  anomalous  fossil  uptychus.  The  lime  of 
^lonticelli,  from  the  Caprine  kilns,  mixed  with  pozzolana,  makes 
Roman  masonry  "  fere  perennius."  The  argillaceous  formation  is 
conspicuous  in  the  Vatican  and  Janiculum  ridges,  the  monti  della 
creta  (clay  hills)  of  the  present  day.  A  waUc  through  the  exten- 
sive quarries  of  the  Valle  dell'  Inferno  and  the  Yalle  del  Gelsomino 
will  show  the  student  the  details  of  the  formation,  rich  in  ptero- 
podous  molluscs,  and  will  make  him  appreciate  the  vastness  of 
the  work  of  man,  since  bricks  were  first  accepted  as  an  essential 
element  of  Roman  masonry.  As  the  A'alle  di  Pozzo  Pantaleo  has 
been  bodily  excavated  through  the  hills  of  Monteverde  by  the 
quarrj'men  supplying  tufa  for  the  "  opus  quadratum "  and  the 
"opus  reticulatum,"  so  the  valleys  of  the  Gelsomino,  delle  For- 
naci,  delle  Cave,  della  Balduina,  and  dell'  Inferno  have  been 
hollowed  out  of  the  clay  hills  by  the  ancient,  Renaissance,  and 
modern  bricklayers.  (See  Bull,  com.,  1892,  p.  288,  and  §  xi.  on 
Building  Materials.)  The  pliocene  marls  of  the  Vatican  ridge 
abound  in  fossils ;    they  can  easily  be  gathered  along  the  Via 


Trionfale  opposite  the  Croce  di  Monte  Mario,  or  in  the  cuttings 
of  the  Vitei'bo  railway,  at  the  top  of  the  Valle  dell'  Inferno. 

The  volcanic  formation  is  represented  in  or  near  Rome  by 
three  kinds  of  tufa  —  the  red  or  lithoid,  the  yellowish  or  granular, 
the  grayish  or  lamellar  ;  and  by  two  kinds  of  pozzolana  —  the  red 
and  the  black.  The  surface  of  tufa  beds,  soft  and  unfit  for  build- 
ing purposes,  is  called  "  cax^pellaccio."  The  tufa  quarries  of  S. 
Saba,  the  largest  within  the  walls,  were  abandoned  in  1889 ;  the 
largest  still  in  use  are  those  of  Monteverde,  outside  the  Porta  Por- 
tese,  and  of  S.  Agnese,  outside  the  Porta  Pia.  The  best  kind  of 
pozzolana  is  quarried  near  the  Tre  Fontane.  Diluvial  or  qua- 
ternary deposits  abound  on  each  side  of  the  Tiber.  The  cliffs  of 
the  Monti  Parioli,  between  the  Villa  di  Papa  Giulio  and  the  Acqua 
Acetosa,  as  well  as  the  gravel  pits  of  Ponte  Molle  and  Ponte  No- 
mentano,  are  best  adapted  for  the  study  of  this  late  formation,  so 
rich  in  fossil  mammalia,  like  the  Eleplias,  the  Rhinoceros  tichorinus, 
the  Bos  p)-imigenius,  the  hippopotamus,  the  lynx,  etc.  It  is  well  to 
remember  that  the  flint  arrowheads  found  in  the  gravel  at  Ponte 
Molle  do  not  belong  to  a  local  race,  but  were  washed  down  from 
pre-Apennine  stations  by  the  flood. 

Travertine,  the  king  of  Roman  building  materials,  is  best 
studied  at  the  Cava  del  Barco,  near  the  stazione  del  bagni  of  both 
Tivoli  railways. 

Pietro  Zezi,  Imlice  blhliograjico  delle  puhllcazioniriyuaydanti  la  mineralogia, 
la  geologia  e  la  paleontologia.  delta  pruvincia  di  Roma.  (Moiiografia  di  Konia, 
vol.  i.  p.  clxiii.) 

III.  Malaria.  —  The  Romans  did  not  deny  the  unhealthiness 
of  the  district  in  the  midst  of  which  their  city  was  built.  Cicero 
calls  it  "  a  pestilential  region,"  and  Pliny  likewise  calls  the  Ma- 
remma  "  heavy  and  pestilential."  The  hills  were  comparatively 
healthy  ("  colles  in  regione  pestilent!  salubres,  colles  saluberrimi," 
Livy,  V.  54)  ;  still,  the  effects  of  malaria,  increased  by  ignorance  or 
contempt  of  sanitary  rules,  must  have  been  felt  also  by  the 
settlers  on  the  Palatine,  Esquiline,  and  Quirinal.  Under  Tiberius 
there  were  three  temples  of  Fever  left  standing  —  one  on  the 
Palatine,  one  near  the  church  of  S.  Eusebio,  the  third  near  the 
church  of  S.  Bernardo;  but  they  represented  the  memory  of 
past  miseries  rather  than  actual  need  of  help  from  the  gods, 
because,  long  before  the  time  of  Tiberius,  Rome  and  the  Campagna 
had  been  made  healthy  in  a  large  measure  ;  and  when  Horace 
(Epist.,  i.  7,  7)  describes  Rome  as  half  deserted  in  the  summer 
months,  he  refers  to  the  habit  of  the  citizens  of  migrating  to 


their  hill  farms  or  seacoast  villas,  to  escape  depressing  heat  rather 
than  malaria.  This  sunimer  emigration  en  masse  is  still  charac- 
teristic of  Rome.  Sixty  thousand  citizens  left  in  189o  for  an 
average  period  of  forty  days :  one  seventh  of  the  whole  population. 

Sanitary  reform  was  accomplished,  firstly,  by  the  draining  of 
marshes  and  ponds  ;  secondly,  by  an  elaborate  system  of  sewers  ; 
thirdly,  by  the  substitution  of  spring  water  for  that  of  polluted 
wells  ;  fourthly,  by  the  paving  and  multiplication  of  roads  ;  fifthly, 
by  the  cultivation  of  land;  sixthly,  by  sanitary  engineering,  ai> 
plied  to  human  dwellings ;  seventhly,  by  substituting  cremation 
for  burial;  eighthly,  by  the  drainage  of  the  Canipagna;  and 
lastly,  by  the  organization  of  medical  help.  The  results  were 
truly  wonderful.  Pliny  says  that  his  villeggiatura  at  Laurentum 
was  equally  delightful  in  winter  and  summer,  while  the  place  is 
now  a  hotbed  of  malaria.  Antoninus  Pius  and  M.  Aurelius  pre- 
ferred their  villa  at  Lorium  (Castel  di  Guido)  to  all  other  imperial 
residences,  and  the  correspondence  of  Fronto  proves  their  presence 
tliere  in  midsummer.  Xo  one  would  try  the  experiment  now. 
The  same  can  be  said  of  Hadrian's  villa  below  Tivoli,  of  the  villa 
Quinctiliorum  on  the  Appian  Way,  of  that  of  Lucius  Verus  at 
Acqua  Traversa,  etc.  The  Campagna  must  have  looked  in  those 
happy  days  like  a  great  park,  studded  with  villages,  farms,  lordly 
residences,  temples,  fountains,  and  tombs  (see  "  Ancient  Rome," 
chs.  iii.  and  x.). 

The  cutting  of  the  aqueducts  by  the  barbarians,  the  consequent 
abandonment  of  suburban  villas,  the  permanent  insecurity,  the 
migration  of  the  few  survivors  under  cover  of  the  city  walls,  and 
the  clioking  up  of  drains,  caused  a  revival  of  malaria.  ]\Iedi»val 
Romans  found  themselves  in  a  condition  worse  than  that  of  the 
first  l)uilders  of  the  city ;  and  being  neither  able  nor  willing  to 
devise  a  remedy,  as  their  ancestors  had  done,  they  raised  their 
helpless  hands  towards  heaven,  and  built  a  chapel  in  honor  of  Our 
Lady  of  the  Fever  (see  ''  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  .53). 

The  present  generation  has  once  more  conquered  the  evil,  and 
has  made  Rome  the  best  drained,  the  best  watered,  the  healthiest 
capital  of  Europe,  except  London.  This  statement  may  not  be 
agreeable  to  those  who  systematically  and  deliberately  condemn 
whatever  has  been  done  by  us  since  1870;  but  they  would  do 
well  to  accept  facts  as  they  are.  Comm.  Luigi  Bodio,  Director 
of  the  State  Department  of  Statistics,  has  favored  me  with  the 
followino-  official  declaration  :  — 


"  Rome,  10  Nov.  1894. 

"  From  1st  January,  1860,  to  31st  December,  1869,  in  an  aver- 
age population  of  205,229,  thei-e  were  5477  average  annual  bii-ths, 
5946  deaths.  Rate  of  births,  26.70  per  thousand;  of  deaths,  29 
per  thousand. 

"Between  1890  and  1893,  in  an  average  population  of  437,355 
souls,  there  were  11,678  births,  9791  deaths  per  annum.  Rate  of 
births,  26.70  per  tliousand ;  of  deaths,  22.38.  This  last  figure 
includes  the  floating  population,  and,  above  all,  the  peasants  who 
come  down  from  their  moiintains  to  cultivate  the  Maremma,  and 
furnish  the  heaviest  percentage  to  the  hospital  lists.  The  rate  of 
deaths  among  the  resident  population  is  only  1QA5  per  thousand, 'while 
in  London  it  rose  to  20.37,  in  Vienna  to  21.53,  in  Berlin  to  23.09, 
in  Paris  to  23.80."  i 

LiTEKATURE.  —  Pictro  Balestra,  L' iffiene  nelln  citta  e  camjjogna  di  Rmnn. 
1875.  —  Guido  Baccelli,  La  malaria  di  Roma.  (Monografia  di  Roma,  1881,  vol. 
i.p.  149.)  —  Giovanni  Brocclii,  Discorso  sulla  condizione  dell'  aria  di  Roma  nei 
tempi  anticki.  1820.  —  Stefano  Ferrari,  Condizioni  igieniche  del  climn  di  Roma. 
(Monografia  di  Roma,  1881,  vol.  i.  p.  316.)  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  DI  alcune 
opere  di  risnnamenio  delV  af/ro  romano.  Atti  Lincei,  1879.  "  Tlie  Sanitary 
Condition  of  Rome:  "  Ancient  Rome,  p.  49.  —  Lanzi-Terrigi,  La  malaria  e  il 
clima  di  Roma.  Rome,  1877.  —  Francesco  Scalzi,  Malattie  predominanti  in 
Roma.  Rome,  1878.  —  Angelo  Secchi,  Intorno  ad  alcune  opere  idrnuliche 
antiche  rinrenute  nella  campagna  di  Roma.  —  ('orrado,  Tommasi  Crudeli,  The 
Climate  of  Rome  and  the  Roman  Malaria.  (Translated  by  Charles  Cramond 
Dick.  London,  Churchill,  1892.)  L'  antica  fognatura  delle  colline  romane. 
Atti  Lincei,  vol.  x.,  1881.  Alcune  riflesdoni  sul  clima  dell'  antica  Roma. 
Mittheil.,  1877,  p.  77.  L'ancien  drainage  des  collines  romaines.  Melanges  de 
I'Ecole  fran9aise,  1882.  —  Charles  Edmund  Wendt,  The  New  Rome  and  the 
Question  of  Roman  Fever.  New  York,  1892. — Philijipe  Tournon,  Etudes 
statistiques  sur  Rome.    Paris,  1855,  vol.  i.  pp.  223,  230. 

rV.  Climate.  —  The  climate  seems  to  have  been  more  severe 
in  ancient  times  than  now.  Dionysius  (Fragm.,  1.,  xii.  8)  describes 
a  blizzard  which  covered  the  ground  with  seven  feet  of  snow. 
Men  died  of  cold,  sheep  and  cattle  were  frozen,  and  many  houses 
fell  under  the  weight  of  their  snowy  pall.  He  speaks  probably  of 
the  year  401  b.  c,  which  Livy  (v.  13)  calls  "  insignis  hieme  gelida 
ac  nivosa,"  when  even  the  Tiber  became  a  mass  of  ice.  In  271 
snow  lay  on  the  Forum  for  forty  days.'^  On  12th  .January  67  n.  c. 
the  meeting  of  the  Senate  was  adjourned  on  account  of  the  cold 

1  Death-rate  in  1886  — London,  19.8;  Rome,  20.0;  Paris,  24.6;  Berlin,  25.8; 
Vienna,  26.2;  Petersburg,  30.6;  Buda-Pest,  39.4. 
'  See  Augustine,  De  civitate  Dei,  iii.  17. 


which  prevailed  in  the  CuriaJ  The  severity  of  another  winter,  per- 
haps that  of  1!J  B.  c,  is  described  by  Horace  (Od.,  i.  9).  Martial's 
epigram,  iv.  18,  commemorates  the  fate  of  a  youth  transfixed  l)y 
an  icicle.  Such  excesses  of  temperature  are  not  recorded  in  mod- 
ern days.  Between  1828  and  1877  the  lowest  registered  was  8.25° 
Centigrade  (February,  18-1.5),  the  highest  42°,  a  most  extraordi- 
nary case,  which  happened  on  July  17,  1841.  The  mean  annual 
temjierature  is  16.40°.  In  the  course  of  the  day  the  mercury  rises 
(piickly  in  the  morning  and  falls  slowly  after  noon.  In  summer 
there  are  two  maximums  —  one  from  twelve  to  one  o'clock,  the 
other  towards  nine  p.  m.  The  temperature  is  always  lowest  at 

Rain  is  most  frequent  in  Xovember,  heaviest  in  October. 
There  are  155  cloudless  days  in  the  year,  122  misty,  83  cloudy. 
Maximum  rainfall  (1872),  10.'iO.:30  millimetres;  minimum  (1834), 
319.45.  In  summer  time  the  land  breeze  blows  from  early  morn- 
ing to  nine  a.  m.,  the  sea  breeze  from  eleven  to  six.  These  refresh- 
ing winds  make  Kome  more  comfortable  in  summer  than  other 
cities  of  much  higher  latitudes. 

V.  Hydrography  —  Rivers,  Springs,  Ponds,  Marshes. — 
The  Tiber  rises  from  the  Monte  Coronaro,  at  the  height  of  1167 
metres  above  the  sea,  and  reaches  Rome  after  a  winding  course  of 
373  kilometres,  through  Etruria,  Umbria,  and  Sabina.  The  niean 
breadth  of  the  river  in  the  city  district  was  80  metres  (now  100 
metres  between  the  embankments),  its  average  depth  3  metres, 
total  length  from  springs  to  sea  393  kilometres.  Below  Rome  it 
expands  into  a  channel  120  metres  wide,  navigated  by  steamers 
and  coasting-vessels  of  100  tons  burden.  Ceselli's  observations, 
from  ]\Iarch,  1871,  to  Feltruary,  1872,  state  the  daily  average  out- 
flow of  the  river  at  1.296,000  cubic  metres.  During  the  same  year 
8,582,333  tons  of  sand  and  mud  were  washed  down  to  the  sea,  a 
volume  of  over  4,000,000  cubic  metises.  This  state  of  things  and 
the  prevalence  of  southwesterly  winds  makes  the  coast  advance 
westwards  at  a  consideralile  rate.  We  have  just  seen  that  Ficaua, 
the  oldest  human  station  near  the  bar  of  the  river,  is  now  12,000 
metres  inland,  and  kingly  Ostia  6600  metres.  The  Torre  di  S. 
Michele,  built  in  1567  by  Michelangelo  on  the  edge  of  the  sands, 
stands  2000  metres  away  from  the  present  shore ;  the  Torre 
Clementina  at  Fiumicino,  built  in  1773,  "  in  ipso  maris  supercilio," 

1  Cicero,  Ad  Quint,  fratr.,  ii.  12. 


Htands  690  metres  inland.^  The  average  yearly  increase  of  the 
coast  at  the  Ostia  mouth  is  9.02  metres,  at  the  Fiumicino  mouth 
3.10  metres. 

Literature.  —  Giuseppe  Ponzi,  Storia  geologica  del  Tevere.  (Giornale 
arcadico,  vol.  xviii.  p.  1'29.)  DtW  Aniene  e  de  suol  rditti.  (Ibid.)  —  Aubert, 
Roma  e  V  inondazione  del  Tevere.  (Giornale  arcad.,  vol.  Ixvi.  p.  142.)  —  Alessan- 
dro  Betocchi,  Delfiume  Tevere.  (Moiiogratia  di  Koiua,  vol.  i.  p.  l'J7.)  Effeme- 
ridi  del  Tevere,  published  yearh'  by  the  Accademia  dei  Liiicei.  —  Marco  Ceselli, 
Bulletiino  nautico  e  geograjico  di  Roma,  vol.  vi.  n.  3.  —  Carlo  Fea,  Storia  delle 
acque.  Rome,  1817.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  /  comentarii  di  Frontino  intorno  le 
acque  e  gli  acquedofti.  Rome,  Salviucti,  1880,  pp.  3-28.  —  Alessandro  Nar- 
ducci  published,  in  1876,  an  essay  on  the  bibliography  of  the  Tiber  (Saggio  di 
hibUografia  del  Tevere,  Rome,  Civelli),  in  which  over  400  works  are  registered. 
Their  number  may  be  stated  now  at  700.  The  best  library  for  consultation 
on  the  subject  is  the  Biblioteca  del  Miriistero  dei  Lavori  publici.  Piazza  di  S. 
Silvestro.  There  is  a  special  department  in  Rome  for  the  works  and  embank- 
ment of  the  Tibei",  with  a  good  collection  of  maps  and  diagrams  (Ufficio  tec- 
nico  speciale  per  la  sisteniazione  del  Tevere.     Via  di  Ripetta,  n.  222  c). 

The  inundations  are  the  great  historical  feature  of  the  Tiber. 

From  the  traditional  flood,  in  the  course  of  which  Romulus 
and  his  twin-brother  were  exposed  to  the  waters  under  the  rocks 
of  the  Palatine,  to  the  beginning  of  the  Christian  era,  twenty-six 
inundations  are  recorded ;  thirty  from  1  to  500  a.  d.  ;  twenty-one 
from  500  to  1000;  twenty-three  from  1000  to  1500;  thirty-two 
from  1500  to  the  present  day ;  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
two.  The  worst  of  which  we  liave  the  measurement  reached  the 
following  altitudes  at  the  hydrometer  of  Ripetta  (ordinary  level 
of  water,  0.70  metres)  :  — 


December,  1280 10.02 

November,  1.376 17.02 

December,  1495 16.88 

October,  1530 18.95 

September,  1557 18.90 

DECEMBER,  1598 19.56 

January,  1606 18.26 

February,  1637 17.55 

November,  1660 17.11 

November,  1668 16.00 

December,  1702 15.41 

February,  1805 16.42 

December,  1846 16.25 

December,  1870 17.22 

1  The  coast  has  increased  about  390  metres  since  1st  April,  1857,  when  au 
official  survey  was  taken  by  the  local  collector  of  customs. 


THE   TIBER  11 

The  flood  of  1598,  the  highest  recorded  in  history,  began  on 
Christmas  eve ;  at  noon  the  next  day  there  were  6.50  metres  of 
flood  in  the  Via  di  Ripetta,  6.58  metres  at  the  Pantheon,  5.28 
metres  at  the  Piazza  Xavona,  4.56  metres  on  the  Corso  by  S. 
Lorenzo  in  Lncina.  A  boat  went  ashore  in  the  Piazza  di  Spagna, 
where  tiie  Fontaua  della  Barcaccia  was  erected  by  Bernini  to 
commemorate  the  event;  two  arches  of  the  Pons  ^Emilias  were 
overthrown  at  three  P.  M.  on  the  21th,  a  few  seconds  after  Cardinal 
Pietro  Aldobrandiuo  had  crossed  it  to  rescue  some  families  sur- 
rounded by  the  foaming  waters.  Houses  were  washed  away  l)y 
hundreds;  TOO  persons  were  drowned  in  the  city,  and  800  in  the 
suburbs,  besides  thousands  of  cattle.  As  usual,  famine  and  pesti- 
lence followed  the  flood. 

In  the  flood  of  1702,  which  rose  to  only  15.11  metres,  fifty-two 
streets  and  squares  were  submerged  on  the  left  bank,  north  of  the 
Capitol,  eighty-five  south  of  that  hill,  and  sLsty-two  on  the  other 
side  of  the  river. 

The  last  flood,  on  December  28  and  29,  1870,  which  gave  rise  to 
King  Victor  Emmanuel's  first  visit  to  his  new  capital  on  a  merci- 
ful errand,  marks  another  important  date  in  the  history  of  the 
city,  because  to  it  we  owe  the  construction  of  the  new  embank- 
ments, which,  when  finished,  will  have  cost  the  state,  the  county, 
and  the  city  over  20(),0()().()00  lire.  The  curve  of  the  flood  of  1870 
is  represented  in  this  diagram  :  — 



2  ;  ?  2  ?  : 

I   ;  £  IS  ti::  s 

T   "   "    T    : 


?  ?  7  f  i      i  i 

Hours  a> 



.    i   .    2   00c.  |S 

2    -    2    - 

..  2  .  ; 

.  2. 

2  .      .2 

Days   S 

s            s 

s           s 







January   1871 

Fig.  4.  —  Curve  of  the  Flood  of  December,  1870. 

The  event  is  too  recent  to  require  a  description.  It  brought  to 
our  minds  the  floods  so  often  mentioned  by  the  "  Liber  Pontifi- 
calis,"  when  the  waters,  breaking  through  the  walls  at  the  Poste- 
rula  sancti  Martini  (Ripetta),  would  dash  against  the  clifl^s  of  the 
Capitol,  ltd  ut  in  via  lata  (Corso)  amplius  ijuam  duas  statural  (3.80 
metres)  Jiuminis  aqua  excrevisset  (a.  d.  772). 


Literature. — Leone  Pascoli,  II  Tevere  navigato.  Rome,  1740.  —  Gaspare 
Alveri,  Delle  inondazloni  del  Tevere.  (Roma  in  ogni  state,  voL  i.  p.  571.)  — 
Antonio  Grifl,  11  fiume  Tevere  nelle  sue  piit  inemorabili  inondazioni.  Album, 
voL  iv.  pp.  29,  390.  —  Philippe  Tounion,  Etudes  statistiques  sur  Rome,  vol.  ii. 
p.  207.  —  Gaetauo  Moroni,  Dizionario  di  erudizione  ecclesiastica,  vol.  Ixxv. 
p.  125.  —  Filippo  Cerroti,  Le  inondazioni  di  Roma.  Florence,  1871. — Ralfaele 
Canevari,  Tavola  delle  principali  inondazioni  del  Tevere.  Rome,  1875. — 
Michele  Carcani,  II  Tevere  e  le  sue  inondazioni  dalle  origini  di  Roma  sine  ai 
giornl  nostri.  Rome,  1875.  —  Alessandro  Bettocclii,  Monografia  della  citta  di 
Roma,  1881,  vol.  i.  p.  24-'i.  —  Liidovico  Gomez,  De  prodigiosis  Tiheris  iminda- 
tionihus.     Rome,  1531. 

Tlie  earliest  project  for  restraining  the  Tiber  from  overflowing- 
its  banks  dates,  as  far  as  we  know,  from  the  time  of  Julius  Caesar, 
who  moved  in  the  House  a  bill  for  the  cutting  of  a  new  bed  from 
the  Pons  Molvius  to  the  Trastevere,  along  the  base  of  the  Vatican 
hills.^  The  merit  of  having  placed  the  unruly  river  under  the 
management  of  a  body  of  conservators,  selected  from  the  highest 
consular  ranks,  belongs  to  Augustus  according  to  Suetonius  (37), 
to  Tiberius  according  to  Tacitus  (Ann.,  i.  70)  and  Dion  Cassius 
(Ivii.  14,  8). 

Augustus  gave  the  posts  of  chief  conservators  to  C.  Asinius 
Gallus  and  C.  Marcius  Ceusorinus  in  the  year  7  b.  c,  when  the  bed 
of  the  river  was  cleared  "  ruderibus  et  eedificiorum  prolapsionibus," 
deepened  and  widened,  and  its  banks  were  lined  with  terminal 
stones,  marking  the  extent  of  public  property  which  the  conserva- 
tors had  rescued  from  private  encroachment.  Scores  of  these 
stones  are  still  in  existence.  After  the  inundation  of  A.  D.  15, 
which  had  caused  what  Tacitus  describes  as  "  aedificiorum  et  homi- 
num  stragem,"  Tiberius  referred  the  subject  to  Ateius  Cajjito  and 
L.  Arruntius,  the  first  of  whom  was  a  great  authority  on  such  mat- 
ters. They  suggested,  and  the  Emperor  sanctioned,  the  institution 
of  a  permanent  committee  of  five  senators,  to  be  called  curatores 
riparum.  This  institution  lasted  until  the  reign  of  Vespasian  or 
Domitian,  when  we  hear  for  the  first  time  of  one  conservator  only, 
a  patrician,  assisted  by  two  adiutores  of  equestrian  rank.  In  or 
about  A.  D.  101  the  care  of  the  sewers  was  added  to  that  of  the 
Tiber,  and  this  important  branch  of  the  city  administration 
received  the  title  of  .'itatio  alvei  Tiheris  et  cloacarum.  About  330 
the  chief  conservator  exchanged  his  classic  title  for  that  of  consu- 
laris,  and  about  400  for  that  of  comes.     Archaeologists  have  been 

1  Cicero,  Ad  Attic,  xxxiii.  3.  Caesar's  project  was  brought  forward  again 
in  1879.  See  Zucchelli,  Di  una  nuova  inalveazione  del  Tevere.  Rome,  For- 
zaui,  1879. 




able  to  draw  an  almost  complete  chronology  of  these  officers  from 
the  terminal  stones  on  which  their  names  are  engraved. 

Literature.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p.  180;  vol.  vi.  p.  266.  —  Theodor 
Mominsen,  Staatsrecht,  ii^,  p.  1047. —  Giuseppe  Gatti,  Bull.  comm.  arch.,  vol. 
XV.,  1887,  p.  306.  —  Thedenat,  Dictiunn.  antiq.  grecques  et  ram.  de  Saglio, 
vol.  i.  p.  162-3.  —  Luigi  C'aiitarelli,  Bull.  comm.  arch.,  vol.  xvii.,  1889,  p.  185; 
vol.  xxii.,  1894,  pp.  89  and  354. —  Dante  Vaglieri,  Bull.  comm.  arch.,  vol. 
xxii.,  1894,  p.  -254. 

Two  means  were  adopted  in  im[)erial  times  to  protect  the  city 
[rom  floods  —  an  embankment  on  either  side,  and  the  shortening 
of  the  bed  between  the  city  and  the  sea. 

First,  as  to  the  embankment.  We  have  seen  how  the  Tiber  is 
siibjeot  to  differences  of  level,  which  reached  to  12.86  metres  in 
tlie  flood  of  Clement  VIII.,  increasing  foui'teen  times  the  volume 
of  its  waters.  To  give  such  a  capricious  river  a  regular  outlet, 
modern  engineers  have  built  a  uniform  bed  1(10  metres  in  width, 
which  has  to  serve  both  for  droughts  and  for  floods.     Their  pre- 

Modern    embankment 

Fig.  5. 

decessors,  on  the  other  hand,  had  adopted  a  triple  section,  the 
narrowest  to  serve  in  time  of  drought,  the  second  in  moderate, 
tlie  third  in  extraordinary  floods,  as  shown  in  the  following 
diagram :  — 

Ancient     embankment 


Fig.  6. 

The  advantages  of  the  old  over  the  modern  system  are  obvious. 
With  the  old  the  river  was  obliged  to  run  in  every  season  of  the 
year  within  limits  well  defined,  and  proportioned  to  its  volume, 



"without  raising  sandbanks  and  depositing  silt  and  mud.  The 
moderate  heiglit  of  each  of  the  three  receding  steps  allowed  the 
river  to  preserve  its  pleasing  aspect,  as  is  the  case  in  many  of  the 
modern  capitals  of  Europe  ;  while  the  huge  walls  between  which 
we  have  imprisoned  the  stream  have  transformed  it  into  a  deep 
and  unsightly  channel,  with  nothing  to  relieve  the  monotony  of 
its  banks. 

Side  outlets  to  relieve  the  flood  and  shorten  its  course  towards 
the  sea  were  first  cut  open  by  Claudius.  An  inscrii^tion  discovered 
at  Porto  in  1836  contains  the  expression :  fossis  dvctis  vrbem 
iNA^NDATioxis  PEKicvLO  LiBERAviT  (see  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  xiv. 
n.  85).  Trajan  changed  the  course  of  the  channels.  Another 
fragmentary  inscription,  now  in  the  cloisters  of  S.  Paul  outside 
the  Walls,  says  of  him :  fossam  fecit  q\A  iNVNdationes  Tiberis 
GDSIDVE  \rhem  vexardes  .  .  .  arcerentur.  This  subject  has  been 
exhaustively  treated  by  — 

Pietro  Ercole  Visconti,  Dissertazioni  Accad.  archeol.,  vol.  viii.  (1838),  p. 
213.  —  Luigi  Caniiia,  Ibid.,  p.  259.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Dintorni  di  Roma,  vol. 
ii.  p.  612.  —  Reifferscheid,  Bull,  hist.,  186-3,  p.  8.  —  Charles  Texier,  Revue 
gen.  d' Architecture,  vol.  xv.  p.  306,  pis.  31,  32.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Ricerche 
mlla  citta  di  Porto  (in  Ann.  Inst.,  vol.  xl.,  1868,  p.  144.)  Corpus  Inscr.  Lat., 
vol.  xiv.  p.  22,  n.  88. 

The  following  cut  represents  the  mouth  of  the  navigable  arm 
of  the  river  at  Fiumicino,  which  is  the  modern  representative  of 
the  fossa  Traiana  :  — 

Fig.  7.  —  The  Mouth  of  the  Tiber  at  Fiumicino. 

The  characteristics  of  the  Tiber  are,  first,  the  supposed  whole- 
some qualities  of  its  water,  the  favorite  beverage  of  Clement  VII., 

THE   TIBER  15 

Paul  III.,  and  Gi^egory  XIII.  This  simply  proves  that  the  three 
pontiffs  were  proof  against  tji^hoid,  for  the  river  was  then,  as  it 
continued  up  to  1890,  the  true  Cloaca  Maxima  of  the  city.  The 
second  is  the  abundance  and  regularity  of  its  feeding  springs,  in 
consetjuence  of  which  the  river  has  never  changed  in  volume  and 
level  within  historical  times.  There  is  a  tendency  to  believe  that 
the  Tiber  was  much  lower  in  old  times,  because  Pliny  (xxxvi.  24,  2) 
speaks  of  Agripi)a  being  rowed  into  the  Cloaca  .Maxima,  the 
moutli  of  which  it  is  now  impossible  to  enter.  Observations  made 
in  1S(J!(  by  Padre  Secchi  at  the  marble  wharf  (Marmorata),  and 
by  the  engineers  of  the  embankment,  prove  that  since  the  fall  of 
the  Empire  the  bed  of  the  river  has  hardly  risen  three  feet. 
AVhile  this  fact  is  absolutely  certain,  it  gives  rise  to  problems 
which  are  difficult  to  solve. 

In  the  si)ring  of  1879  a  Roman  house  was  discovered  on  the 
right  l)ank,  in  the  gardens  of  la  Farnesina,  the  paintings  and 
stuccoed  panels  of  which  have  become  famous  in  the  artistic  world, 
and  form  the  best  ornament  of  the  ^luseo  delle  Terme. 

The  pavements  of  this  noble  mansion  were  only  8  metres 
and  20  centimetres  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  and  about  3 
metres  above  that  of  the  river.  During  the  four  months  employed 
by  us  in  removing  the  frescoes  and  the  stucco  panels,  the  Tiber 
entered  the  house  five  times.  Taking  ten  times  as  a  yearly 
average,  the  paintings  and  the  stuccoes  must  have  been  washed 
by  ordinary  floods  four  thousand  times,  from  the  age  of  Augustus, 
to  which  the  house  belongs,  to  the  fall  of  the  Empire ;  and  yet 
frescoes  and  stuccoes  were  in  perfect  condition,  and  showed  no 
sign  of  having  been  spoilt  by  water.  I  have  not  yet  found  a 
satisfactory  solution  of  the  problem  ;  because,  even  admitting  the 
existence  of  an  embankment  between  the  house  and  the  river, 
drains  would  always  have  provided  a  way  for  the  flood. 

Literature.  —  Xotizie  (lefjll  Scari,  1880,  p.  127,  pis.  4,  5.  —  Monumenti 
inediti  dell'  Instiittto,  Supplenu-nto  ISltl.  —  ^Yolfgang  Helbig,  Collections  of 
Antiquities  in  Rome,  vol.  ii.  p.  2-20. —  Kodolfo  Lanciani,  Far/an  and  Christian 
Borne,  p.  2*)3. 

The  Tiber  was  celebrated  for  its  fish.  There  is  a  work  on  this 
subject  by  Paolo  Giovio,  translated  from  Latin  into  Italian  by 
Carlo  Zangarolo.  ^lacrobius,  Pliny,  and  Juvenal  praise  above 
all  the  hipus,  when  caught  "  inter  duos  pontes  "  (in  the  waters  of 
S.  Bartolomeo's  island),  where  he  fed  on  the  refuse  of  the  Cloaca 
^laxima.  The  lupus  has  been  identified  by  some  "v\ith  the 
"  spigola  "  or  Pcrca  lehrax,  by  others  with  the  "  laccia  "  or  Clupea 


alosa,  better  known  by  the  name  of  shad,  the  best  Tiberine  fish 
of  the  present  day.  There  is  a  bas-relief  in  the  Capitol,  represent- 
ing a  sturgeon  16  inches  long,  with  the  text  of  an  edict  of  1581 
providing  that  any  sturgeon  caught  in  Roman  waters  exceeding 
the  statute  size  would  be  considered  the  property  of  the  city 

VI.   Bridges. 

Literature. —  Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  Opere,  vol.  iv.,  Ponti  antichi,  etc. — 
Stefano  Piale,  Degli  antichi  ponti  di  Roma.  Rome,  183-2. — Adolf  Becker, 
De  muris,  p.  78;  aud  Tojwgraphie,  p,  093.  — Tlieodor  Moniiusen,  Berichte  der 
scichs.  Gesellschajl  dtr  Wiss.,  1850,  p.  320.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Die  Briickeii. 
(Topographic,  vol.  i.  p.  393.)  —  Mayerlioefer,  Die  Briicken  in  alien  Rom,  1883.— 
Zippel,  Die  Briicken  in  alien  Rom.  (Jahrbucli  fiir  klass.  Phil.,  1880,  p.  81.)  — 
Otto  Richter,  Die  Befestigung  des  Janiculum.     Berlin,  1882. 

Pons  sublicius,  the  oldest  of  Roman  bridges.  —  Its  antiquity 
is  proved  not  so  much  by  the  tradition  which  attributes  it  to 
Ancus  Marcius,  as  by  the  fact  that  no  iron  was  used  in  its  original 
construction,  or  in  subsequent  repairs.  Pliny  (H.  N.,  xxxvi.  15, 
23),  ignorant  as  he  was  of  "  Pre-history,"  gives  a  wrong  explana- 
tion of  the  fact  when  he  introduces  the  story  of  Horatius  Codes, 
whose  followers  experienced  so  much  difficulty  in  cutting  it  down 
in  the  face  of  the  enemy.  Such  was  not  the  case.  Iron  was  pro- 
scribed irom  the  structure  for  the  same  reason  which  prevented 
masons  or  stonecutters  from  using  tools  of  that  metal  in  repairing 
some  of  the  oldest  temples ;  for  instance,  that  of  the  Dea  Dia 
(see  "  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  41).  At  that  time  the  Romans  lived  still 
"  morally "  in  the  age  of  bronze,  and  felt  a  religious  repulsion 
for  the  new  metal. 

The  bridge  was  carried  away  by  a  flood  in  2-3  b.  c,  perhaps  the 
same  mentioned  by  Horace  (Od.,  i.  2)  ;  and  again  in  the  time  of 
Antoninus  Pius.  On  either  occasion  it  was  restored  according  to 
the  old  rite.i  It  seems  almost  certain  that,  if  the  frame  and 
the  roadway  were  of  timber  and  planks  {mhlicia),i\\&  foundations 
in  mid-stream  must  have  been  of  solid  masonry.^  The  piers  were 
prominent  enough  above  the  water-mark  to  make  the  memory  of 
the  bridge  last  through  the  Middle  Ages,  when  we  hear  very  often 

1  See  Dionysius,  iii.  45  ;  Pliny,  xxxvi.  5,  23  ;  Macrobius,  i.  11;  and  Vita 
Antonin.,  viii. 

2  Servius,  u^n.  viii.  046,  says  of  Porsenna:  cnm  jper  sublicium  pontem,  hoc  est 
ligneum  qui  modo  lapidens  dicitur,  fransire  conaretiir ;  but  his  words  deserve 
little  credit.     (See  ^thicus,  Cosmogr.,  in  Jordan's  Topogr.,  i.  393,  n.  1.) 



of  a  "  pons  fractus  iuxta  Marmoratam."  They  were  destroyed 
to  the  water's  edge  under  Sixtus  IV.  ••  On  July  28,  1484,"  says 
the  Diary  of  lufessura,  "  Pope  Sixtus  sent  into  camp  400  large 
cannon-balls,  made  of  travertine,  from  the  remains  of  a  bridge  at 
La  Marmorata,  called  •  il  ponte  di  Orazio  Codes.'  "  The  last  traces 
were  blown  up  in  1877  to  clear  the  bed  of  the  river. 

Literature.  —  Carlo  Fea,  in  Winckelmanii's  edit.    Prato,  18;52,  vol.  xi. 
pp.  379-400.  —  Antonio  Xibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  \t.  19!l. 

Poxs  Fabricius  (Ponte  Quattro  capi).  —  Tlie  island  of  .Escu- 
lapius  niust  have  been  joined  to  the  left  bank  by  a  wooden  bridge 

Fig.  8.  —  The  iBmilian,  Fabriciaii,  Ccstiau  Bridges,  and  the  Ishiud  in  Uie  Tiber. 

as  early  as  192  b.  c.  (see  Li\y,  xxxv.  21,  .5) ;  another  structure  nf 
the  same  kind  is  supposed  to  have  joined  the  island  witli  tin- 
Trastevere  and  the  fortified  summit  of  the  Janiculum.  In  tlu; 
year  62  b.  c.  Lucius  Fabricius,  commis.sioner  of  roads,  tran,s- 
formed  the  first  into  a  solid  stone  bridge.  The  inscriptions  which 
commemorate  the  event,  engraved  below  the  parapets  on  either 
side,  are  followed  by  a  declaration  signed  by  P.  Lepidus  and  M. 
Lollius,  consuls  in  21  b.  c.  that  the  work  had  been  duly  and  satis- 
factorily executed.  From  this  declaration  we  learn  one  of  the 
wise  principles  of  the  Roman  administration  —  that  the  contrac- 
tors and  builders  of  bridges  were  held  responsible  for  their  solidity 


for  forty  years,  so  that  they  would  regain  possession  of  the  de- 
posit which  tliey  made  in  advance  only  in  the  forty-first  year 
after  it  liad  been  made.  Nothing  speaks  more  highly  in  favor  of 
the  bridge  than  the  fact  that  it  is  the  only  one  which  has  survived 
intact  the  vicissitudes  of  1957  years.  It  has  two  arches  and  a 
smaller  one  in  the  pier  between  them ;  a  fourth  is  concealed  by 
the  modern  embankment  on  the  left. 

The  student  must  remember  that  the  streets  of  ancient  Rome 
were  from  three  to  five  metres  lower  than  the  present  ones,  while 
the  bridges  have  remained  the  same ;  the  inclines  which  gave 
access  to  them  were,  therefore,  much  longer  and  steeper  than 
they  are  now,  and  offered  space  for  several  more  openings  or 
arches,  which  have  since  been  buried  by  the  accumulation  of  the 
soil.  These  steep  inclines  were  called  2^Gdet>  pontic,  and  coscice  in 
the  Middle  Ages. 

The  Pons  Fabricius  took  the  name  of  Pons  Judaeorum  when  the 
Jewish  colony  settled  in  the  neighboring  quarter.  It  is  now 
called  dei  Quattro  Capi,  from  the  four-headed  hermce  which  once 
supported  the  panels  of  the  parapet.  There  are  only  two  left  in 
situ.  The  river,  unfortunately,  no  longer  flows  under  this  most 
perfect  of  Roman  bi'idges  ;  by  a  miscalculation  in  the  plan  of  the 
new  embankment  the  channel  has  been  dried  up,  and  the  Ship  of 
^sculapius  has  stranded  on  a  mudbank. 

Literature.  —  Luigi  Caniua,  Edijizii  di  Roma  antica,  vol.  iv.  tav.  242. 
—  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p.  174,  ii.  600  ;  vol.  vi.  n.  1305. 

Pons  Cestius,  Pons  Gratianus,  Ponte  di  S.  Bartolomeo,  between 
the  island  and  the  Trastevere.  —  Its  construction  is  attributed 
to  Lucius  Cestius,  one  of  the  six  magistrates  whom  Csesar  en- 
trusted with  the  government  of  Rome  on  leaving  for  Spain  in 
46  B.  c.  It  was  rebuilt  by  L.  Aurelius  Avianius  Symmachus,  pre- 
fect of  the  city,  in  a.  d.  365,  and  dedicated  in  the  spring  of  370 
to  the  Emperor  Gratianus.  (See  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  p.  245, 
n.  1175.)  Its  third  restoration  took  place  in  the  eleventh 
century  in  the  time  of  Benedict  VIII. ;  the  inscription  which 
commemorates  it  describes  the  bridge  as  fere  dirvtvm  in  tliose 
days.  In  1849,  the  followers  of  Garibaldi  threw  one  of  the  in- 
scriptions of  Gratianus  into  the  stream.  The  bridge  was  altered 
completely  in  1886-89,  so  that  of  the  three  arches  only  the  central 
one  is  ancient.  In  the  course  of  the  last  work  it  was  found 
that  the  blocks  of  travertine  used  by  Symmachns  in  the  restora- 
tions of  36.5-370  had  been  taken  away  from  the  theatre  of  Mar- 




cellus,  mainly  from  the  lo\Yei-  (Doric)  arcades  of  the  hemicycle. 
He  liad  also  made  use  of  stones  bearing  historical  inscriptions  of 
the  time  of  Trajan. 

The  two  bridges  made  an  architectural  and  pictorial  group 
with  the  Ship  of  iEsculapius.^  It  is  not  known  when  and  by 
whom  the  island  was  turned  into  this  form.     As  far  as  we  can 


f:    -.-".. .„^ 

'    *-a»4  ■              -H 

•  -nttrrHt^-'  ~  -  - 

(«.■                 ^^, 


Fig.  9.  —  The  Stern  of  the  Ship  of  ^sculapius. 

judge  from  the  fragment  of  the  stern,  represented  in  the  cut  above, 
the  imitation  must  have  been  perfect  in  every  detail.  The  ship, 
however,  did  not  appear  as  if  it  w'as  floating  on  the  river,  excej)t 
in  time  of  flood,  because  it  rested  on  a  platform  2  metres  above 
low-water  mark.  It  was  entirely  built  of  travertine,  and  measured 
280  metres  between  the  perpendiculars,  with  a  beam  of  76  metres. 
An  obelisk,  pieces  of  which  are  now  preserved  in  Naples,  repre- 
sented the  main-mast. 

A  fanciful  copy  of  this  island  exists  in  the  Villa  d'  Este  at  Tivoli 
as  a  part  of  the  plan,  or  rather  model  in  full  relief,  of  the  city 

1  Literatin-e  on  the  Island  of  TEsculapius.— Corf.  Vat.,  Sim,  f.  42;  Jordan, 
Forma  Urbis,  ix.  42;  Corpus  fnscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  9-12,  9824;  Accad.  Rom. 
Arch.:  sessionc  20  genn.  1881;  Becker,  Topo(jr.,  p.  651;  Richter,  Toporjr., 
p.  158;  Gamucci,  Antich.  di  Roma,  iv.  p,  279;  Nibby,  Roma  antica,  ii.  291. 


of  Rome  which  Pirro  Ligorio  added  to  the  curiosities  of  that 
delightful  place.  A  stream,  derived  from  the  Auio,  represents  the 
Tiber,  on  which  the  ship  appears  to  be  floating,  with  the  obelisk 
in  the  place  of  the  mast  and  the  coat-of-arms  of  Cardinal  Ippolito 
instead  of  the  emblems  of  the  "  merciful  God." 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  Anticliita  di  Roma,  vol.  iv.  pis.  23, 
24.  —  Antonio  Nibbj',  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  p.  167.  —  P.  Bonato,  Annali 
tiocieta  archit.  itallani,  vol.  iv.,  1889,  p.  139. — Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1886, 
p.  159;  1889,  p.  70. 

Pons  JEmilius.  —  In  the  early  days  of  Rome  there  was  but 
one  line  of  communication  with  the  Janiculum  and  with  the  cities 
on  the  coast  of  Etruria :  the  road  that  passed  over  the  Sublician 
bridge,  crossed  the  plain  of  Trastevere  by  S.  Cosimato,  and 
ascended  the  Janiculum  by  the  Villa  Spada.  Livy  (i.  33 ;  v.  40) 
and  Valerius  Maximus  (i.  1,  10)  describe  it,  on  the  occasion  of 
the  flight  of  the  Vestals  to  Veil ;  and  Fabretti  (De  Aq.,  i.  18,  p.  43) 
speaks  of  its  rediscovery  in  the  seventeenth  century.  He  saw  a 
long  piece  of  the  jiavement  between  the  bridge  and  S.  Cosimato ; 
and  where  the  pavement  was  missing,  as  between  the  Villa  Spada 
(de  Nobili)  and  the  church  of  S.  Pietro  Montorio,  its  course  was 
marked  by  a  line  of  tombs  on  either  side.  Tlie  ascent  up  the  hill 
was  exceedingly  steep,  and  hardly  fit  for  carriage  traffic.  Things, 
however,  were  improved  in  the  sixth  century  of  Rome,  when  a 
new  bridge  and  a  new  and  better  road  were  built.  M.  ^milius 
Lepidus  and  M.  Fulvius  Nobilior,  censors  in  b.  c.  181,  founded  the 
piers ;  the  arches  were  added  and  the  bridge  was  finished  thirty- 
eight  years  later.  The  new  road,  the  Lungaretta  of  the  present 
day.  was  then  ti-aced  across  the  low  swampy  plain  of  Trastevere, 
partly  on  an  embankment,  partly  on  viaducts  built  of  stone.  One 
of  these  viaducts  was  discovered  in  1889  near  the  Piazza  di  S. 
Grisogono,  and  is  described  in  the  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1889,  p.  475, 
and  1890,  pp.  6,  57. 

The  Pons  ^milius,  owing  to  its  slanting  position  across  the 
river  and  to  the  side  pressure  of  the  floods  against  its  piers,  has 
been  carried  away  at  least  four  times :  the  first  during  or  shortly 
before  the  reign  of  Probus  (about  a.  d.  280)  ;  the  second  in  1230, 
when  it  was  rebuilt  by  Gregory  IX. ;  the  third  on  September  27, 
1557  (rebuilt  by  Gregory  XIII.)  ;  the  fourth  on  December  24, 
1598,  after  which  it  was  never  rej^aired.  There  is  but  one  arch 
left  now  in  mid-stream,  the  two  on  the  right  having  been  destroyeo" 
in  1887. 



LiTERATfKE.  —  Heiiuich  Jordan,  Tapographit,  i.  p.  420.  — Pietro  Lauciaiii, 
Del ponte  senatorio.  Kome,  1826.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rosi<i,  Le prime  raccoUe, 
etc.,  p.  57.  —  Filippo  Bonanni,  Numism. poiitlf.,  vol.  i.  p.  -323,  n.  38,  39. 

Bridge  of  Agrippa.  —  A  stone  cippus,  discovered  in  August, 
1877,  behind  the  church  of  S.  Biagio  della  Pagnotta,  near  the 
Strada  Giulia,  has  revealed  the  existence  and  the  name  of  a  bridge 
of  which  nol)ody  had  ever  heard  before,  either  from  classic  writers, 
or  from  inscriptions,  coins,  or  other  such  soui'ces  of  information. 

The  inscription  reads  as  follows  :  "  Bj-  order  of  Tiberius  Claudius 



Line  of  new  embankment 





Tomb  of/--. 

Garden  of  La  Farnesina 

A        !* 



''■^-/— "-^--i/ne   of  new  embankment 

Fig.  10.  —  Foundations  of  Bridge  (?)  above  the  Ponte  Sisto. 

Csesar,  etc.,  we,  Paullus  Fabius  Persicus,  C.  Eggius  Marullus,  C. 
Obellius  Rufus,  L.  Sergius  Paullus,  L.  Scribonius  Libo,  chief  con- 
servators of  the  Tiber  and  its  banks,  have  marked  with  cippi  tlie 
limits  of  public  property  (on  the  left  bank)  from  the  Tricjarinm  to 
the  Bridge  of  Agrippa  (ad  pontrm  Af/rippa)." 

The  Trigarium  was  an  oi)en  space,  near  the  Strada  Giulia,  for 
the  breaking  in  and  training  of  horses,  for  which  luirjiose  the 
ancients  availed  themselves  of  the  trigaAhe  untamed  animal  being 
harnessed  between  two  trained  ones.  As  regards  the  Bridge  of 
Agrippa,  all  our  science  is  at  a  loss  to  explain  the  mystery.  It 
seems  impossible  that  there  should  have  existed  in  Eome  a  large 
bridge,  thrown  across  the  Tiber  by  such  a  man  as  Agrippa,  in  the 
golden  age  of  Augustus,  and  yet  that  not  a  trace  should  be  left  of 
it  in  situ  or  in  wi'itten  or  engraved  documents.  Two  solutions 
are  more  or  less  acceptable.  The  first  is  that  the  bridge  now- 
called  Ponte  Sisto  may  have  been  originally  the  work  of  Agrippa. 
Its   history  is  unknown.     From  the  name  of  Pons  Aurelius  or 


Pons  Antouiiii,  given  to  it  in  the  third  century,  its  construction  has 
been  attributed  to  Caracalla.  Caracalla,  however,  may  have  been 
simply  a  restorer,  as  we  know  that  Roman  bridges  used  to  change 
their  names  after  every  restoration.  The  second  theory  is  that 
Agrippa's  bridge  was  swept  away  by  a  flood  soon  after  the  accession 
of  Claudius,  and  that  its  remains  were  carefully  removed  to  restore 
free  navigation  up  and  down  stream.  This  surmise  seems  justified 
by  the  discovery  made,  100  Jiietres  above  the  Ponte  Sisto,  of  what 
appear  to  be  the  remains  of  sunken  piers,  as  shown  in  Fig.  10. 

These  remains  are  lying  so  low  under  the  bottom  of  the  river, 
they  are  so  irregular  in  shape  and  in  their  respective  distances 
(9.30  metres,  11.50  metres,  23.50  metres),  their  construction 
shows  such  a  curious  mixture  of  large  stones  and  rubble  work, 
that  I  still  hesitate  to  consider  them  to  be  the  remains  of  Agrippa's 
mysterious  bridge. 

LiTERATUEK.  —  Luigi  Borsari,  Notizie.  degli  Scavi,  1887,  p.  323;  and  Bull, 
nrch.  com.,  1888,  p.  92.  —  Christian  Huelsen,  j\Iit(heiluii(/en,  vol.  iv.,  188!), 
p.  285. 

Pons  ^lius  (Ponte  S.  Angelo).  —  A  volume  could  be  written 
on  this  most  histoi'ical  of  Roman  bridges ;  but  I  confine  myself  to 
the  mention  of  the  latest  discoveries  made  in  connection  with  it. 

The  Pons  ^-Elius  was  built  in  A.  v>.  136  by  Hadrian,  together 
with  the  mausoleum  to  which  it  gave  access.  The  construction 
was  recorded  by  two  inscriptions  (Corpus  Tnscriptionum,  vi.  973), — 
copied  by  Giovanni  Dondi  dall'  Orologio  in  the  jubilee  of  1375, — 
which  fell  into  the  river  in  the  catastrophe  of  1450.  There  were 
six  arches  visible  before  the  transformation  of  the  bridge  in  1892 ; 
two  more  have  been  discovered  since  in  the  long  incline  of  the 
left  bank,  making  a  total  of  eight,  of  which  three  only  served 
in  the  dry  season.  When  the  mausoleum  was  transformed  into  a 
fort  or  tete  de  pont  in  403,  the  bridge  was  closed  with  two  gates, 
one  at  each  end.  The  gate  facing  the  Campus  Martins  is  called 
Avprixla  by  Procopius  ;  ^  the  other,  facing  the  Vatican,  was  named 
Porta  S.  Petri  in  Hadrian io,  "Hadrianium"  meaning  the  fort. 

The  access  to  the  bridge  from  the  Campus  Martins  is  repre- 
sented in  the  following  remarkable  photograph  taken  in  July, 
1892.  The  incline  is  40  metres  long,  with  a  gradient  of  eleven 
per  cent.  The  roadway  is  paved  in  the  ordinary  Roman  fashion, 
the  side  pavement  being  of  slabs  of  travertine.  The  holes  on  the 
outer  edges  of  the  sidewalks  mark  the  linP  of  the  parapets,  frag- 
1  Goth.  i.  19.     See  Becker,  De  Maris,  p.  113. 



ments  of  which  have  been  found  in  situ.     They  were  composed 
of   pilasters  and  panels,  very  neatly  carved.      On   December  19, 

Fig.  11.  —  The  Incline  to  the  iElian  Bridge  from  the  Campus  Martins  (Left  Bank). 

1450,  while  great  crowds  were  returning  from  S.  Peter's,  where 
Nicholas  V.  had  been  showing-  the  Sudarium.  a  mule  belonging  to 
Cardinal  Pietro  Barltn  became  restive  and  caused  a  panic.  Tlie 
parapets  gave  Avay  imder  the  pressure,  and  one  hundred  and 
seventy-two  pilgrims  fell  into  the  river.    To  prevent  the  recurrence 


of  such  a  calamity,  Nicholas  V.  opened  the  modern  Piazza  di 
Ponte  (enlarged  1854)  ;  he  also  built  two  expiatory  chapels  at  the 
entrance  to  the  bridge,  from  the  designs  of  Bernardo  Rossellino. 
During  the  siege  of  the  castle  of  S.  Angelo  in  1527,  Clement  VII. 
and  his  garrison  were  much  exposed  to  shots  fired  by  outposts 
concealed  in  the  chapels.  After  his  liberation  the  pope  caused 
them  to  be  demolished,  and  raised  in  their  place  two  statues,  of  S. 
Peter  by  Lorenzetto  and  of  S.  Paid  by  Paolo  Romano.  The  other 
statues,  representing  angels  with  the  symbols  of  the  Passion,  were 
added  by  Bernini  in  1668.  In  the  course  of  the  works  of  1892  it 
was  ascertained  that  the  foundations  of  the  chapels  of  Nicholas 
V.  had  been  built  with  pieces  of  statuary  and  architectural 
marbles  (described  by  Visconti  in  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1892,  p.  263). 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  Antichita,  vol.  iv.  — Antonio  Nibby, 
Roma  antlcn,  vol.  i.  p.  159.  —  Eodolfo  Lanciani,  Jtiner.  di  EindtdJtn,  p.  15  ; 
and  Bull,  com..,  1893,  p.  14.  —  Liiigi  Borsari,  Notiziedegli  (Scaw,  1892,  p.  411. — 
Christian  Huelsen,  Mittheilungai,  1894,  p.  321. 

A  hundred  metres  below  the  Ponte  S.  Angelo  the  remains  of 
another  bridge  appear  at  low  water.  It  is  probably  the  work  of 
Nero,  who  did  so  much  to  beautify  and  enlarge  the  gardens  in  the 
district  of  the  Vatican,  which  he  had  inherited  from  Agrippina 
the  elder.  The  classic  name  of  the  bridge  is  not  known,  although 
many  have  been  suggested  (Neronianus,  Vaticanus,  Triumphalis). 
In  the  Middle  Ages  it  was  called  Pons  mptus  ad  S.  Sjnritum  in 
Saxia.     See  — 

Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  Antichita,  vol.  iv.  pi.  13  ;  vol.  i.  p.  13,  n.  91  ;  and 
Camp.  Mart.,  pi.  45.  —  Stefano  Piale,  in  Venuti's  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  190. 
—  Antonio  Niliby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  p.  205. 

Pons  Valextinianus  (Ponte  Sisto).  — The  bridge  of  Valen- 
tinian  I.,  represented  by  the  modern  Ponte  Sisto,  was  one  of  the 
noblest  structures  spanning  the  river.  It  was  rebuilt  in  366  and 
367  by  the  same  Symmachus  whom  I  have  mentioned  in  connec- 
tion with  the  Pons  Gratianus,  with  the  spoils  and  on  the  site  of  an 
older  one  (of  Agrippa?  or  Caracalla?),  and  was  dedicated  to  Va- 
lentinian  and  Valens.  Overthrown  by  the  inundation  of  797  (?), 
it  was  repaired  by  Sixtus  IV.,  in  1475,  from  the  designs  of  Baccio 
Pontelli.  In  1878,  the  branch  of  the  river  which  flows  under  the 
first  arch  on  the  left  having  been  diverted,  the  corresponding  arch 
of  Valentinian's  bridge  was  found  lying  bodily  on  the  bottom  of 
the  stream  in  such  good  order  that  the  pieces  of  an  inscription, 
which  ran  from  one  end  to  the  other  of  the  south  parapet,  were 


discovered  in  their  proper  succession.  A  triumphal  arch  which 
decorated  the  approach  from  tlie  Campus  ^lartius  ^  had  fallen  also 
into  the  river,  with  the  bronze  statues  and  groups  by  which  it  was 
crowned.  The  pieces,  recovered  in  1878,  are  now'  exhibited  in  the 
Museo  delle  Terme,  except  a  head  which  found  its  way  into  the 

Fig.  12.  —  Bronze  Head  found  in  the  Tiber. 

aiiti(|uarian  market  and  was  bought,  many  years  later,  by  Ales- 
sandro  Castellani.     This  remarkable  head  is  of  the  highest  im- 

1  As  in  classic  times  triumphal  arches  were  raised  on  the  Sacra  Via  leading 
to  the  Capitdlium,  so  in  the  Christian  era  they  were  raised  on  the  roads  con- 
verging towards  S.  Peter's;  and  es|iecially  ad  pedes  pontium,  at  the  foot  of  tlie 
bridges  wliicli  the  jiilgrims  crossed  on  their  way  to  the  Apostle's  tomb.  That 
of  Gratianus  Valentinianus  and  Tlieodosius  stood  in  the  Piazza  di  Ponte  S. 
Angelo  ;  that  of  Arcadius,  Honorius,  and  Theodosius  at  the  approach  to  the 
Pons  Vaticanus  ;  that  of  Valentinianus  and  Valens  bv  the  Ponte  Sisto. 


portance  in  regard  to  the  controversy  whether  the  bronze  statues 
placed  on  this  and  other  monuments  of  the  end  of  the  fourth 
century  were  contemporary  works,  or  simply  spoils  from  earlier 
edifices  which  were  considered  to  answer  the  new  purpose  more  or 
less  satisfactorily ;  and  also  whether  the  head  was  changed  or  not 
into  a  new  likeness.  Experts  consider  this  head  to  be  of  better 
style  than  that  prevalent  in  the  second  half  of  the  fourth  centui'y. 

The  parapets  were  divided  into  panels  by  projecting  pilasters. 
Each  panel  contains  six  or  eight  letters  of  an  inscription  which 
ran  the  whole  length  on  either  side,  and  each  pilaster  an  in- 
scription of  its  own  regarding  the  statue  placed  upon  it.  One  of 
the  pedestals  found  in  1892  is  dedicated  "  to  the  august  Victory, 
faithful  companion  of  our  lords  and  masters,  the  S.  P.  Q.  R., 
under  the  care  of  Avianius  Symmachus,  ex-prefect  of  the  city." 
Near  it  was  lying  the  right  wing  of  the  statue  of  Victory.  It  is 
evident,  therefore,  that  if  a  proper  seai'ch  were  made  in  the  bed  of 
the  river  nearly  all  the  bronzes  of  the  bridge  could  be  recovered. 

The  fragments  of  the  Pons  Valeutinianus  are  dispersed  in  vari- 
ous corners  of  the  Museo  delle  Ternie.  The  inscriptions  of  Sixtus 
IV.  are  in  the  Museo  JMuiiicipale  al  Celio  (Orto  botanico). 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Bull,  (ircli .  com.,  1878,  p.  241. —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Ancient 
Rome,  p.  257.  —  Theodor  Mommsen,  in  Ephem.  ejwjr.,  vol.  iv.  p.  279.  —  Chris- 
tian Huelseii,  Mitlhellungen,  18!)2,  p.  3213. 

VII.  Traiectus  (ferries).  —  The  traffic  between  the  two  banks 
of  the  Tiber  was  cai'ried  on  also  by  means  of  ferries,  known  by 
the  name  of  traiectus,  the  tra(/hetti  of  the  present  day.  Each  had 
a  name  of  its  own  :  like  the  traiectus  LucuUi,  Marmorariorum, 
Togatensium  at  Ostia  (Corpus  Inscriptionum,  xiv.  254,  403,  42.5). 
The  sites  of  the  ferries  at  Home  are  marked  by  corresponding  pos- 
terns in  the  walls  of  Aurelian,  along  the  banks  of  the  Campus 
Martins  :  thei'e  was  one  at  the  Porto  di  Ripetta,  others  at  the  Porto 
della  Tinta,  at  the  Posterula  Domitia,  at  the  Porto  dell'  Armata, 
etc.     The  ferries  of  the  Armata  and  Ripetta  lasted  till  1887. 

Literature.  —  Bidl.  arch,  com..,  1889,  p.  175  ;  and  Nolli's  Pianta  di  Roma, 

VIII.  Ob.jects   of  Value   in   the   Bed  of   the   River. — 

The  belief  in  their  existence  dates  from  the  Middle  Ages.  Leav- 
ing aside  the  old  stories  of  the  seven-branched  candlestick  and 
of  tlie  gold-plate  of  Agostino  Chigi,  which  rest  on  no  foundation  of 
truth,  the  dredging  works  carried  out  since  1877  prove  that  the 
bed  of  the  Tiber  contains  a  marvelous  quantity  of  objects  of  value, 

THE    BED    OF    THE   RIVER  27 

from  bronze  statues,  masterpieces  of  GrEeco-Roman  art,  down  to 
the  smallest  articles  of  personal  wear,  from  Hint  arrowheads  of 
preliistoric  times  to  the  weapons  used  in  fighting  the  French  in 
1849.  The  dredging,  unfortunately,  has  been  only  superficial,  its 
purpose  being  to  give  the  stream  a  uniform  depth  of  9  feet ; 
while  the  objects  of  value  have  been  absorbed  to  depths  which 
vary  from  3  to  35  feet  below  the  bottom  of  the  river.  Twice 
only  the  maximum  depth  has  been  reached  (Ponte  Garibaldi, 
Ponte  Sisto),  and  on  either  occasion  a  great  mass  of  works  of 
art  or  antiquity  has  been  gathered.^  By  comparing  these  discov- 
eries with  those  made  in  the  foundation  of  the  embankment  walls, 
we  have  satisfied  ourselves  on  several  points :  — 

1.  That,  however  great  the  absorbing  power  of  mud  and  sand- 
banks is,  the  objects  are  not  so  deeply  hidden  as  to  be  beyond  the 
reach  of  man. 

"2.  That  the  i)ower  of  the  current  to  wash  lieavy  objects  down 
stream,  even  in  time  of  flood,  is  moderate.  A  fragment  of  the 
annals  of  the  Salii  palatini,  which  fell  or  was  thrown  into  the 
river  at  the  Sponda  della  Regola  towards  the  end  of  the  fifth 
century,  was  recovered  in  18W1,  .5.50  metres  below  that  point.  The 
fragment  had  traveled,  therefore,  at  the  slow  rate  of  39  metres  per 

3.  That  there  is  a  certain  chronological  regularity  in  the 
strata  of  sunken  objects,  each  stratum  corres})onding  to  one  of 
the  revolutions,  sieges,  and  political  disturbances  so  frequent  in 
the  history  of  Home.  The  higher  strata  are  contemporary  with 
the  siege  and  capture  of  the  city  by  General  Oudinot,  when 
thousands  of  "  improvised  "  war  weapons  were  thrown  into  the 
river  to  avoid  detection.  There  are  traces  of  the  disturbances 
of  1831,  of  the  French  Revolution,  and  of  the  Napoleonic  Avars. 
These  objects  are  more  curious  than  valuable.  The  real  wealth 
begins  with  the  layer  corresponding  to  the  Sacco  di  Roma  of  1527, 
not  to  speak  of  mediaeval  or  barbaric  invasions.  For  two  or  three 
years  the  average  of  coins  dredged  up  amounted  to  twelve  hun- 
dred per  month,  mostly  coppers  of  the  last  tM'o  centuries,  even 
of  popes  whose  reigns  were  peaceful  and  undisturbed.  How 
did  they  happen  to  be  there  ?  The  solution  of  the  mystery  lies, 
perhaps,  in  the  fact  that  the  dirt  collected  from  the  streets  or 
from  private  houses  was  thrown  daily  into  the  river  at  two  points, 
"la  Penna"  above  Ripetta,  and  S.  Giovanni  dei  Fiorentini.  To 
lose  money  in  the  streets  is  a  rare  occurrence,  but  at  home  it  hap- 
1  See  AncH-nt  Rome,  p.  257. 



pens  very  easily  :  coppers  may  drop  on  the  carpets  and  roll  under 

pieces  of  furniture,  and  when 
servants  sweep  the  rooms  the 
coins  may  get  mixed  up  with 
the  dust.  Such  refuse  has  been 
thrown  into  the  river  for 
many  centuries. 

4.  That  the  objects  sunk 
in  the  river  are  recovered  in 
good  condition,  whether  of 
terra-cotta,  or  marble,  or  metal, 
iroir  excluded.  Iron  not  only 
gets  rusty  and  almost  dis- 
solved in  water,  but  imparts 
to  marble  —  if  in  contact  with 
it  —  a  deep  reddish  hue,  which 
is  qiiite  characteristic  of  the 
Tiberine  scidpture.  Brass  Im- 
perial and  Republican  coins 
are  splendidly  preserved,  but 
W'ithout  "  patina,"  which 
makes  them  less  valuable  in 
tlie  market. 

I  can  give  no  better  evi- 
dence of  the  care  which  Old 
Father  Tiber  has  taken  of  the 
works  of  art  intrusted  to  him 
than  by  reproducing  liere  one 
of  the  marble  statues  found  in 
his  bed  not  long  ago.  This 
archaic  Apollo,  a  copy  of  a 
bronze  original,  is  now  exhib- 
ited in  a  cabinet  of  the  Museo 
delle  Terme  on  the  south  side 
of  the  quadrangle.  A  short 
notice  of  the  find  is  given 
in    the    "  Mittheilungen  "    of 

1891,  p.  802.     Compare  "  Notizie  degli  Scavi,"  1891,  pp.  287  and 

337 ;  Ilelbig's  "  Guide,"  vol.  ii.  p.  21-1,  n.  1028. 

Fig.  13.  —  Statue  found  in  the  Tiber. 

IX.  Cloac'.e  (drains).  —  The  hills  of  the  left  bank,  from  the 
Pincian  to  the  C'ajlian,  follow  one  another  so  as  to  make  three  val- 



leys,  each  having  its  o\Yn  outlet  for  spring,  rain,  and  waste  waters. 
The  northern  basin,  between  the  Pincian  and  the  Quirinal,  was 
di'ained  by  the  river  Petronia,  which  collected  the  Sallustian 
springs,  and  fell  into  the  Tiber  a  little  above  oui-  Ponte  Garibaldi ; 
the  middle  basin,  between  the  Quirinal  and  the  Esquiline,  by  a 
river  probably  called  Spinon,  which  collected  the  waters  of  the 
Vicus  Longus,  Vicus  Patricius,  and  the  Subura,  crossed  the  Argi- 
letum,  the  Forum,  and  the  Velabrum,  and  joined  the  Tiber  at  the 

Fig.  14.  —  The  Course  of  tlie  Cloaca  Maxima. 

present  mouth  of  tlie  Cloaca  ^Maxima  ;  the  southern  basin,  lietween 
the  Esquiline,  the  CcTelian,  and  the  Aventine.  by  a  third  river  (Xo- 
dinus),  :3G0()  metres  long.  After  receiving  eight  tributaries  from 
the  springs  of  Apollo,  of  the  Camoenaj,  of  ^lercury,  of  the  Piscina 
Publica,  etc.,  it  emptied  itself  into  the  Tiber  a  little  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima.     (See  map,  Fig.  1.) 

The  first  step  towards  the  regulation  of  these  three  rivers  was 
taken  even  before  the  advent  of  the  Tarquins.  Their  banks  were 
then  lined  with  great  square  blocks  of  stone,  leaving  a  channel 
about  5  feet  wide,  so  as  to  prevent  the  spreading  and  the  wander- 
ing of  flood-water,  and  provide  the  swampy  valleys  with  a  perma- 
nent drainage ;  but,  strange  to  say,  the  course  of  the  streams  was 
not  straightened  nor  shortened.  If  the  reader  looks  at  the  map 
above  (Fig.  14),  representing  the  course  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima 
tlirough  the  Argiletum  and  the  Velabrum,  he  will  find  it  so 
twisted  and  irregular  as  to  resemljle  an  Alpine  torrent  more  than 
a  drain  built  h\  skillful  Etruscan  engineers.  The  same  thing  may 
be  repeated  for  the  other  main  lines  of  drainage  in  the  valleys 
Sallustiana,  Murcia,  etc.  When  the  increase  of  the  population 
and  the  extension  of  the  city  bej'ond  the  boundaries  of  the  Pala- 
tine made  it  necessary  to  cover  those  channels  and  make  them  run 


underground,  it  was  too  late  to  think  of  straightening  their  course, 
because  their  banks  were  already  fixed  and  built  over. 

The  Roman  cloacae  have  been  overpraised.  It  is  certainly  a 
marvelous  fact  that  some  of  them  were  still  in  use  a  few  years 
ago,  after  a  lapse  of  twenty-six  centuries ;  but  they  bid  defiance 
to  modern  sanitary  principles.  First  of  all,  they  served  to  carry 
off  the  sewage  and  the  rain-water  together.  This  double  employ- 
ment made  it  necessary  to  have  large  openings  along  the  street, 
which  exposed  the  popidation  to  the  effluvia  of  the  sewers.  In 
the  third  place,  the  sewers  emptied  themselves  directly  into  the 
Tiber,  thus  polluting  its  waters,  which  were  vised  not  only  for 
bathing  but  also  for  drinking  purposes.  Only  six  years  ago  did 
the  Tiber  cease  to  be  the  cesspool  of  Rome.  It  must  also  be 
borne  in  mind  that  the  "latrina"  of  Roman  houses  was  incon- 
veniently placed  next  the  kitchen,  and  the  same  cloaca  was  used 
for  the  sinks.  Against  such  great  dangers  to  public  and  private 
health  the  Romans  had  but  two  protections :  the  masses  of  water 
by  which  the  drains  were  constantly  Hushed,  and  the  hilly  nature 
of  the  city  ground,  which  allowed  them  to  give  the  drains  a  steep 

Drains  dating  from  the  time  of  the  Kings  or  of  the  Republic 
are  built  of  blocks  of  peperino  and  lapis  Gabinus  (sperone),  those 
of  the  Imperial  period  of  bricks.  Two  tiles,  placed  against  each 
other  in  a  slanting  position,  form  the  roof ;  the  floor  is  made  of 
a  large  tile  slightly  convex.     There  are  no  sluices  or  flood-gates. 

The  Cloaca  Maxima  and  tliat  of  the  Vallis  Murcia  (described 
in  Ancient  Rome.  p.  54 ;  and  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1892,  \i.  279)  are  by 
no  means  alone  in  respect  of  their  size,  length,  and  magnificence 
of  construction.  There  is  a  third,  discovered  by  I^nrico  Narducci 
in  the  ])lain  of  the  Circus  Flaminius,  equal,  if  not  superior,  to 
them.  The  section  which  Narducci  explored  in  1880  begins  at 
the  corner  of  Via  Paganica  with  the  Piazza  Mattel,  and  runs  in  a 
straight  line  to  the  Tiber,  by  the  Ponte  Garibaldi.  Its  side  walls 
are  built  of  blocks  of  lapis  Gabinus,  some  of  which  measure  45 
cubic  feet ;  the  arched  roof  is  made  of  five  blocks  only,  wedged 
together ;  the  floor  is  paved  like  that  of  a  Roman  road.  It  runs 
at  the  considerable  depth  of  9.53  metres  under  the  modern  city. 
(See  Bull.  Inst..  1881,  p.  209.) 

We  must  remember  that  these  great  sewers  were  built  through 
marshes  and  ponds,  and  generally  through  a  soil  soaked  with 
spring-water.  Rome  may  be  said  to  be  floating  over  this  subter- 
ranean alluvium  even  now.     In  the  sixty  days  required  to  build 


the  sewer  of  the  Via  del  Babuino  in  1875,  650,000  cubic  metres  of 
water  were  absorbed  by  seven  steam  pumps.  The  inundation  of 
the  Coliseum  in  187S  could  not  possibly  be  got  under  control  : 
powerful  engines  only  lowered  it  by  a  few  inches,  and  it  cost  tlie 
city  nearly  one  million  lire  to  provide  the  Coliseum  with  a  regular 

The  level  of  the  subterranean  flood  has  risen  since  Roman 
times.  In  the  foundations  of  the  Banca  di  Roma  and  of  tlie 
Palazzo  Canale,  on  either  side  of  the  Via  Poli,  the  pavement  of  a 
street  was  found  under  two  feet  of  water.  The  cellars  of  the  wine 
docks,  discovered  in  1877  in  the  gardens  of  la  Farnesina  (celUe 
riiiarice  Nova  et  Arruntiana),  were  flooded  up  to  the  key  of  their 
vaulted  roofs.  The  chefs-d'oeuvre  of  Saitic  art,  discovered  by 
Tranquilli  in  1858  in  the  sacred  area  of  the  Iseum,  near  the  ajxse 
of  la  Minerva,  were  lying  on  the  floor  of  the  peristyle  tliree  feet 
under  water.  An  excavation  made  by  Parker  in  18(J9  in  Cara- 
calla's  Baths,  by  SS.  Nereo  and  Achiileo,  in  the  Via  di  Porta  8.  Se- 
bastiano,  had  to  be  given  up,  although  successful,  in  conseijuence 
of  the  invasion  of  spring-water. 

In  the  many  hundred  antique  drains  discovered  in  my  time,  I 
have  never  seen  a  sign  of  communication  with  the  houses  lining 
tlie  streets  through  whicli  the  drains  passed.  All  the  side  chan- 
nels which  emi)ty  into  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  from  the  Forum  Au- 
gustum  to  the  Tiber,  belong  to  streets  or  public  buildings  —  none 
to  private  dwellings.  The  same  observation  has  been  made  with 
regai'd  to  the  sewers  of  the  Escjuiline,  Viminal,  etc.  This  fact  would 
lead  us  to  believe  that  cesspools,  or  pozzl  neri,  were  more  popu- 
lar in  R(mie  than  the  latrina,  communicating  directly  with  the 
public  sewei-.  Yet  only  one  pozzo  ncro  has  been  found  in  our 
excavations.  It  is  described  in  the  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1892,  p.  285. 
In  the  same  periodical,  1873,  p.  24:$,  pi.  ii.,  .3,  there  is  a  description 
and  the  design  of  a  latrina  discovered  in  the  drilling  grounds  of 
the  Praetorians,  Via  Magenta.,  No.  2.  Fig.  15  (next  page)  repre- 
sents the  latrina  annexed  to  the  guest-rooms  of  the  Villa  Adri- 
an a. 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Antlke  Denkmdler  of  the  German  Arch.  Inst.,  vol.  i.,  1889, 
taf.  xxxvii.  — £«//.  arch,  com.,  1872,  p.  279;  1890,  p.  95,  pis.  7,  8.  —  Pietro 
NardiK'ci,  Focpintura  della  clttu  di  Roma  sulla  siniglra  del  Tevere,  Rome,  1884; 
and  Roma  notterranea,  Ulustraz.  della  cloaca  massima,  1885.  —  Codex  Ixxv.  68, 
in  the  Kinfj's  Lihvarv,  B.  M.,  p.  15.  — Theodor  Schreiber,  Berichte  der  sacks. 
GesellschaJ't  der  IViss.,  1885,  p.  78.  — Rudolfo  Lanciaui,  Ancient  Rome,  p.  54. 



Fig.  15.  —  The  Latrina  annexed  to  the  Guest-Rooms  of  tl 

X.   The   Quarries    from  which    Rome   was   built.  —  The 

materials  used  in  Roman  constructions  are  the  lapis  ruber  (tufa) ; 
tlie  lapis  Alhanus  (peperino)  ;  the  lapis  Gabinus  (sperone)  ;  the 
lapis  Tiburtinus  (travertino)  ;  the  silex  (selce) ;  and  bricks  and 
tiles  of  various  kinds.  The  cement  was  composed  of  pozzolana 
(0.67)  and  lime  (0.33).  Imported  marbles  came  into  fashion 
towards  the  end  of  the  Republic,  and  became  soon  after  the  pride 
and  glory  of  Rome.  . 

A.  Tufa  (lapis  ruber).  —  The  only  material  which  the  first 
builders  of  Rome  found  at  hand  was  the  volcanic  conglomerate 
called  tufa.  The  (quality  of  the  stone  used  in  those  early  days 
was  far  from  perfect.  The  walls  of  the  Palatine  hill  and  of  the 
Capitoline  citadel  were  built  of  material  quarried  on  the  spot  — 
a  mixture  of  charred  pumice-stones  and  reddish  volcanic  sand. 
The  quarries  of  the  Palatine  M-ill  be  described  in  the  proper 
place.  Those  used  for  the  fortifications  of  the  Capitol  were 
located  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  towards  the  Argiletum,  and  were  so 
important  as  to  give  their  name,  Lautumice,  to  the  neighboring 
district.  It  is  probable  that  the  pi'ison  called  Tullianum,  from  a 
jet  of  water,  tullus,  which  sprang  from  the  rock,  was  originally  a 
portion  of  this  quarry.     The  tufa  blocks  employed   by  Servius 


Tullius  for  the  building  of  the  city  walls,  and  of  the  agger,  ai> 
pear  to  be  of  three  (qualities  —  yellowish,  reddish,  and  gray;  the 
first,  soft  and  easily  broken  up,  seems  to  have  been  quarried  from 
the  Little  Aventnie,  near  the  church  of  S.  Saba.  The  galleries 
of  this  ([uarry,  much  disfigured  by  mediaeval  and  modern  use,  can 
be  followed  to  a  considerable  distance,  although  the  collapsing 
of  the  vaults  makes  it  dangerous  to  visit  them.  I  have  entered 
these  recesses  only  twice,  with  the  late  ^Ir.  J.  H.  Parker,  while 
trying  to  rediscover  the  channel  of  the  Aqua  Appia,  first  seen  and 
described  by  Raffaello  Fabretti  about  1675.  I  am  not  able  to  say 
where  Servius  found  the  reddish  tufa  (Cervara?).  The  quarries 
of  the  third  quality  were,  or  I'ather  one  of  them  was,  discovered 
on  February  7,  1^72,  in  the  Vigna  Querini.  outside  the  Porta  8. 
Lorenzo,  near  the  first  milestone  of  the  Vicolo  di  Valle  Cupa.  It 
was  a  surface  (juarry,  comprising  five  trenches  IG  feet  wide,  J)  feet 
deep.  Some  of  the  blocks,  already  scjuared,  were  lying  on  the  floor 
of  the  trenches,  others  were  detached  on  two  or  tliree  sides  oidy, 
the  size  of  others  was  sinqily  traced  on  the  rock  by  vertical  or 
horizontal  lines.  (See  illustration  in  Bull.  arch,  com.,  18S8,  pis. 
i.,  ii.,  figs.  3-G.)  This  tufa,  better  known  by  the  name  of  cap])el- 
laccio,  is  very  bad.  The  only  buildings  in  which  it  was  used, 
Itesides  the  inner  wall  of  the  Servian  agger,  are  the  platform  of 
the  temple  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus,  in  the  gardens  of  the  German 
Embassy,  and  the  puticuli  in  the  burial-grounds  of  the  Esqui- 
line.  Its  use  must  have  been  given  up  before  the  end  of  the 
period  of  the  Kings,  in  consecpience  of  the  discovery  of  better 
quarries  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tiber,  at  the  foot  of  the  liills 
now  called  Monte  Verde.  A  description  of  these  last,  still  in  use, 
can  be  found  in  the  — 

Nnthie  (h';/l!  Scnv!,  188(5,  p.  454;  1888,  p.  1.30;  188!t,  pp.  71  and  24:3.—  AV//. 
arch,  com.,  i892,  p.  288.  —  MittheUungen,  1891,  p.  14!i. 

They  cover  a  space  about  one  mile  in  length  and  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  wide  on  eacli  side  of  the  valley  of  Pozzo  Pantaleo.  In  fact, 
this  valle}-,  which  runs  from  the  Via  Portuensis  towards  the  lake 
of  the  Villa  Pamphili,  seems  to  be  artificial ;  I  mean,  produced  by 
the  extraction  of  the  rock  by  millions  of  cubic  metres  in  the 
course  of  twenty-four  centuries.  If  the  work  of  the  ancient 
quarrymen  could  be  freed  from  the  material  which  conceals 
it  from  view,  we  should  possess  within  a  few  minutes'  di'ive  from 
the  Porta  Portese  a  reproduction  of  the  famous  mines  of  El  ]Ma- 
sarah.  with  beds  of  rock  cut  into  steps  and  terraces,  with  roads 


and  lanes,  shafts,  inclines,  underground  passages,  and  outlets  for 
the  discluirge  of  rain-water.  The  cuttings  on  either  side  show  two 
strata  of  tufa :  the  upper,  8  metres  thick,  is  a  very  hard  ash-col- 
ored rock  resembling  in  texture  the  pudding-stone  ;  the  lower,  of 
a  light  red  color  and  less  comjaact,  is  fractured  by  seams  and  veins, 
so  that  it  cannot  be  obtained  in  large  blocks ;  and  as  the  purpose 
of  the  Romans  was  to  obtain  cubes  from  3  to  5  feet  long,  as  shown 
by  a  few  left  on  the  spot,  they  used  the  lower  or  reddish  stone 
only  to  make  prisms  for  reticulated  masonry.  The  gallei'ies  of 
the  qiiarry  vary  in  size  from  10  to  20  feet,  and  their  floor  is  lev- 
eled so  as  to  conduct  the  rain-water  to  one  central  outlet,  running 
towards  the  brook  of  Pozzo  Pantaleo.  AVhen  a  (piarry  had  given 
out,  its  galleries  were  filled  up  with  the  refuse  of  the  neighboring 
ones  —  chips  left  over  after  the  squaring  of  the  blocks  ;  so  that,  in 
many  cases,  the  color  and  texture  of  the  chips  do  not  correspond 
with  those  of  the  quarry  in  which  they  are  found.  Tins  layer  of 
refuse,  transformed  by  time  into  humus,  and  worked  upon  by  hu- 
man and  atmospheric  forces,  has  given  the  valley  a  different  aspect, 
so  that  it  looks  as  if  it  were  the  work  not  of  quarrymen,  but  of 
nature.  Some  of  the  abandoned  galleries  were  transformed  into 
tombs  and  columbaria.  One  raised  by  Aurelius  Niketa  to  his 
daughter  iElianetis  contains  the  following  inscription  :  Fossor,  vide 
ne  fodias !  Deus  inaynus  oculus  hahet.  Vide,  et  tu'JiHos  hales. 
Which  means,  "  Quarryman,  do  not  approach  this  tomb :  the 
great  God  watches  thee ;  remember  that  thou  also  hast  children." 
These  words  prove  that  tombs  and  (juarries  were  contemporary 
and  not  very  far  apart. 

Tufa  may  be  found  used  in  many  existing  monuments  of  an- 
cient Rome,  such  as  the  drains  of  the  middle  and  southern  basin 
of  the  left  bank,  the  channels  and  arches  of  the  Marcia  and  Anio 
vetus,  the  Servian  walls,  the  temples  of  Fortuna  Virilis,  of  Her- 
cules Magnus  Gustos,  the  Rostra,  tlie  embankment  of  the  Tiber, 
etc.  The  largest  and  most  magnificent  quarries  in  the  suburban 
district  are  the  so-called  Grotte  della  Cervara.  No  words  can 
convey  an  idea  of  their  size  and  of  the  regularity  of  their  plan. 
They  seem  to  be  the  work  of  a  fanciful  architect  who  has  hewn 
out  of  the  rock  halls  and  galleries,  courts  and  vestibules,  and  imi- 
tated the  forms  of  an  Assyrian  palace.  The  quarries  of  La  Ger- 
vara,  at  the  fiftli  milestone  of  the  Via  Gollatina,  are  described 
by  Strabo  (lib.  v.). 

B.  Pkpkrixo  (lapis  Albanus).  —  For  the  study  of  the  peperino 
mines,  which  contain  a  stone  special  to  tlie  Alban  district,  formed 


by  the  action  of  hot  water  on  gray  volcanic  cinders,  the  reader 
should  follow  on  foot  the  line  of  the  new  Albano  railway,  from  the 
place  called  II  Sassone  to  the  town  of  Marino.  Many  of  the 
valleys  in  this  district,  now  made  beautiful  by  vineyards  and 
oliveyards,  owe  their  existence  to  the  pickaxe  of  the  Roman 
stonecutter,  like  the  valley  of  Pozzo  Pantaleo.  The  most  curious 
sight  is  a  dolmen  or  isolated  rock  10  metres  high,  left  in  the 
centre  of  one  of  the  quarries  to  certify  the  thickness  of  the  bed 
of  rock  excavated.  In  fact,  the  whole  district  is  very  interesting 
both  to  the  archaeologist  and  to  the  paysaffiste.  The  mines  of  Ma- 
rino, still  worked  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  railway  station,  would 
count,  like  the  Grotte  della  Cervara,  among  the  wonders  of  the 
C'ampagna,  were  they  known  to  the  student  as  they  deserve  to  be. 

If  the  discovery  of  a  piece  of  "  xs  grave  signatum  "  in  a  seam 
of  peperino  near  the  Ponte  di  S.  Gennaro,  between  Civita  Lavinia 
and  Velletri,  could  be  proved  true  (by  the  exhilution  not  of  the 
l)iece  alone,  but  of  its  mould  on  the  rock  itself,  which  has  not  been 
done  yet),  the  stone  would  ap]iear  to  be  of  modern  formation. 

The  principal  Roman  buildings  in  which  the  lapis  Albanus 
has  been  used  are:  the  Claudian  acpieduct,  the  Cloaca  Maxima, 
tlie  temples  of  Antoninus  and  Faustina,  of  Cybele,  of  the  Eventus 
Bomis,  of  Neptune,  the  inclosure  wall  of  the  Forum  Augustum, 
Forum  Ti'ansitorium,  and  Forum  Pacis,  the  Porticus  Argonauta- 
rum,  Porticus  Pompeii,  the  Ustrinum  of  the  Appian  Way,  etc. 
The  sarcopliagus  of  Cornelius  Scipio  Barbatus  in  the  Vatican 
museum,  and  the  tomb  of  the  Tibicines  in  the  JNIuseo  Municipale 
al  Celio  are  also  of  this  stone. 

C.  Travertixo  (lapis  Tibiirtinus).  —  (Quarried  in  the  plains  of 
Tivoli  at  places  now  called  Le  Caprine,  Casal  Bernini,  and  II  Barco. 
This  last  was  reopened  aftei"  an  interval  of  many  centuries  by 
Count  (i.  Brazza,  brother  of  the  African  explorer.  Lost  in  the 
wilderness  and  overgrown  with  shrubs,  it  had  not  been  examined, 
I  believe,  since  the  visit  of  Brocchi.  It  can  be  reached  by  stop- 
ping at  the  station  of  the  Aqute  Albiilse,  on  the  Tivoli  line,  and 
following  the  ancient  road  which  led  to  the  works.  This  road, 
twice  as  wide  as  the  Appian  Way,  is  flanked  by  substructures,  and 
is  not  paved,  but  macadamized.  Parallel  with  it  runs  an  aqueduct 
which  supplied  the  works  with  motive  power,  derived  probably 
from  the  sulphur  springs.  There  are  also  remains  of  tombs,  one 
of  which,  octagonal  in  shape,  serves  as  a  foundation  to  the  farm- 
house del  Barco. 

The  most  remarkable  monument  of  the  whole  group   is   the 


Roman  quarry  froui  which  five  and  a  half  million  cubic  metres 
of  travertine  have  been  extracted,  as  proved  by  the  measurement 
of  the  hollow  space  between  the  two  opposite  vertical  sides.  That 
this  is  the  most  important  ancient  quarry  of  travertine,  and  the 
largest  one  used  by  the  Romans,  is  proved,  in  the  first  place,  by 
its  immense  size.  The  sides  show  a  frontage  of  more  than  two 
and  a  half  kilometres ;  the  surface  amounts  to  500,000  square 
metres.  The  sides  are  quite  perpendicular,  and  have  the  peculiar- 
ity of  projecting  buttresses,  at  an  angle  of  90°.  Some  of  these 
buttresses  are  isolated  on  three  sides,  and  still  preserve  the 
grooves,  more  or  less  deep,  by  means  of  which  they  could  be 
separated  from  the  solid  mass  ;  these  grooves  vary  in  dejith  from 
50  centimetres  to  2  metres,  and  look  fresh  and  sharp,  as  if 
the  quarry  had  been  abandoned  only  a  short  time  ago.  The 
second  argument  is  furnished  by  the  indirect  traces  of  the  work 
of  man,  which  show  that  the  excavation  must  at  least  be  many 
centuries  old.  In  order  to  keep  the  bottom  of  the  works  clean 
and  free  for  the  movenient  of  the  carts,  for  the  action  of  the 
cranes,  and  for  the  manoeuvres  of  the  workmen,  the  chips,  or 
useless  product  of  the  squaring  of  the  blocks,  were  transported  to 
a  great  distance,  as  far  as  the  banks  of  the  Anio,  and  there  piled 
up  to  a  great  height.  This  is  the  origin  of  that  chain  of  hills 
which  runs  parallel  to  the  river,  and  of  whose  artificial  formation 
no  one,  as  far  as  I  know,  had  the  least  suspicion.  One  of  these 
hills,  visible  from  every  point  of  the  neighbo)'ing  district,  from 
Hadrian's  villa  as  well  as  from  the  Suljihur  Baths,  is  elliptical  in 
shape,  22  metres  high,  90  metres  long,  and  65  metres  wide.  It 
can  with  reason  be  compared  with  our  Testaccio.  It  is  easy  to 
imagine  how  immense  must  have  been  the  number  of  blocks  cut 
from  the  Cava  del  Barco  during  the  period  of  the  formation  of 
this  hill  alone.  Another  proof  of  the  antiquity  of  the  quarry,  and 
of  its  abandonment  from  Imperial  times  down  to  our  own  day,  is 
given  by  this  fact.  The  Aqute  Albulse,  the  most  copious  sulphur 
springs  of  central  Italy,  collected  into  canals  by  the  Romans  and 
subjected  to  a  scientific  hydraulic  regime,  were  allowed  free  play 
from  the  first  barbaric  invasion  up  to  the  sixteenth  centuiy,  when 
Cardinal  Ippolito  d'  Este  gathered  them  again  into  the  channel 
which  takes  its  name  from  him,  and  w^hich  is  in  use  at  the  present 
day.  In  this  long  period  of  abandonment  it  seems  that  the  prin- 
cipal branch  of  the  wandering  waters  directed  its  course  towards 
the  Cava  del  Barco,  leaping  from  the  rim  of  the  nortli  vertical 
side  into  the  chasm  below.     This  fall  of  water,  saturated  with 



carbonate  and  sulpliate  of  lime,  and  la.sting  for  many  centuries,  pro- 
duced the  following  effect.  The  north  wall  was  concealed  under 
a  hard  chalky  incrustation,  and  transformed  into  a  slope  with  an 
inclination  of  45°  or  50°.  Tliis  stratum  of  recent  formation  is, 
on  an  average,  H  metres  wide  at  the  base,  and  only  a  few  centi- 
metres at  the  top.  Stonecuttei's  in  the  quarry  are  now  obliged  to 
remove  this  crust  before  reaching  the  ancient  walls  of  travertine, 
which  still  preserve  the  traces  of  the  blows  of  the  Roman  pickaxe. 
At  the  bottom  of  the  quarry  we  meet  with  arother  phenomenon. 
The  stratum  of  chips  which  covers  it  has  been  cemented  and 
pasted  over  by  chalky  sediments,  forming  beds  and  layers  of  a 
hard  breccia  resembling  the  pudding-stone.  The  southern  walls 
of  the  quaiTy,  on  the  contrary,  are  free  from  incrustations,  a.s  they 
have  never  been  in  contact  with  the  sulphur  water. 

The  system  now  followed  in  qnarr\'ing  tlie  l>locks  is  the  same 
as  that  which  prevailed  in   old  times.     The    fon-nian  ascertains 


Fig.  16.  —  The  Quarries  of  Travertine,  Cava  del  Barco. 

the  weak  point  of  the  rocky  mass,  and  the  vertical  or  horizontal 
line  of  the  seams,  and  directs  his  men  to  jilace  steel  wedges  alono- 
the  weak  line,  and  hammer  them  simultaneously,  the  moveiuent 
being  timed  to  the  rh\^hm  of  a  song.  This  illustration,  from  a 
photograph  which  I  took  in  December,  1893,  explains  the  process 


better  than  any  description  could  do.  The  large  block  in  the 
foreground  has  already  been  detached  on  four  sides,  and  the  men 
are  busy  placing  the  steel  wedges  on  the  weak  seam  at  the  bottom. 
I  need  not  say  that  as  many  men  are  required  to  hammer  as 
there  are  wedges.  Sometimes  the  task  is  accomplished  at  the  first 
stroke,  sometimes  it  requires  half  an  hour's  work. 

D.  SiLEX  (selce).  —  Used  for  rubble-work  in  small  fragments, 
and  for  paving  streets  and  roads  in  larger  pieces  of  iientagonal 
shape.  The  stone  was  quarried  from  four  lava  streams  which  had 
flowed  from  the  Alban  volcanoes  in  the  direction  of  Rome  (Capo 
di  Bove,  Acqua  Acetosa,  Borghetto,  and  Monte  Falcone),  and  from 
one  stream  of  the  Sabatine  range  (S.  Maria  di  Galera).  The 
working  of  the  quarries,  the  cutting  and  shaping  of  the  paving- 
stones,  the  laying  in  and  repairing  of  pavements,  was  intrusted 
to  a  large  body  of  trained  men,  organized  in  companies  and  di- 
rected by  government  officials.'  The  material  was  kept  in  store 
in  a  great  state  building  named  Castra  Silicariorum,  which  may 
have  served  also  as  barracks  for  the  Silicarii.  The  institution  is 
still  flourishing  under  the  name  of  "Magazzino  dei  Selci."  The 
present  works  occupy  a  large  tract  of  land  north  of  the  Protestant 
cemetery  in  the  plains  of  Testaccio. 

Pumice-stone  was  used  occasionally  by  Roman  masons  to  dimin- 
ish the  weight  and  lateral  pressure  of  great  vaulted  ceilings,  as  in 
the  baths  of  C'aracalla. 

LiTEKATURE.  —  The  introductory  chapters  of  W\([A\eUm'ii  Remains  of  An- 
cient Rome  (2d  ed.  1892),  dealing  with  the  site  and  sreneral  features  of  the  city, 
with  the  materials  of  which  it  is  built,  and  with  the  methods  of  construction, 
are  the  best  ever  written  on  the  subject.  The  author  shows  himself  a  special- 
ist of  unrivaled  knowledge.  So  thoroughly  has  he  mastered  the  technicalities 
of  ancient  masonry  and  stonework  that  he  makes  clear  and  almost  agreeable  a 
subject  which  students  have  usually  avoided  as  dry  and  difHcnlt  to  understand. 
An  abridged  memoir  on  the  same  subject,  issued  by  the  same  author,  is  to  be 
found  in  vol.  xli.  of  the  Ai-clHeolof/in,  1888:  "On  the  Chief  Methods  of  Con- 
struction used  in  Ancient  Rome." 

Compare  also,  Giovanni  Brocchi,  Delia  stafo  Jisico  del  svulo  di  Roma,  1820, 
p.  10!);  Antonio  Nibhv,  Dei  mnteriaU  imjrrer/ftti  nelle  fahhriche  di  Roma,delle 
cosli-Kzioni,  e  dello  stile  (in  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  p.  234);  Faustino  Corsi,  Delle 
pietre  antiche,  Rome,  1845,  pp.  11-76. 

XI.  Bricks.  —  There  are  three  collections  of  brick-stamps  in 
Rome  :  one,  of  little  value,  in  the  Kircherian  museum ;  the  second 

1  The  procurator  ad  silices,  cir  procurator  silicum  viarum  sacrce  urhis,  subject 
to  the  authority  of  the  Minister  of  Public  Works.  (See  Corpus  Inscriptionum, 
vi.  1598;  and  Orelli-Henzen,  n.  6519.) 


in  the  last  room  of  the  Vatican  Library,  past  the  "  Nozze  aldo- 
braudiue ;  "  the  third  and  best  in  tiie  INIiiseo  Municipale  al  Celio. 
This  last  contains  over  a  thousand  specimens,  and  a  unique  set 
of  the  products  of  Roman  kilns.  In  fact,  the  tirst  hall  of  the 
Museo  is  set  apart  exclusively  for  the  study  of  ancient  building 
and  decorative  materials. 

Roman  liricks  were  square,  oblong,  triangular,  or  round,  the 
latter  being  used  only  to  build  columns  in  the  Pompeian  style. 
The  square  species  comprises  the  tcfjukv  hlpcdales,  of  0.59  metre  x 
(K.ISJ;  the  teyuUe  sesquipedales,  of  0.45  metre  X  0.45;  and  the 
Idlercull  bessales,  used  in  hypocausts,  of  0.'J"2  metre  X  0.22.  Arches 
were  built  of  a  variety  of  the  hij)C(/(iles,  of  the  same  length,  but  only 
(1.22  in  width,  and  slightly  wedged.  The  triangular  bricks  were 
obtained  by  cutting  diagonally  a  liijidn  Iwssalh  witii  a  wooden  rule 
or  a  string  before  it  was  put  into  the  kiln.  T]u>  largest  bricks 
discovered  in  my  time  measure  1.05  metre  in  length.  They  were 
set  into  an  arch  of  one  of  the  great  stairs  leading  to  tiie  avenue  or 
boulevard,  established  in  Inqtciial  times  on  tlie  lop  of  the  agger 
of  Servius  (railway  station). 

Roman  l)ricks  aic  very  often  stamped  with  a  seal,  the  legend 
of  which  contains  tlie  names  of  the  owner  and  manager  of  the 
kihis,  of  tlie  maker  of  the  tile,  of  the  merchant  intrusted  with  tlie 
sale  of  the  products,  and  of  the  consuls  under  whose  term  of  office 
the  bricks  were  made.  These  indications  are  not  necessarily  found 
all  in  one  seal. 

The  most  inq)oi'tant  of  them  is  tlie  consular  date,  because  it 
hel|is  tlie  student  to  determine,  within  certain  limits,  the  date  of 
tJH^  l)uildiiig  itself.  The  rule,  however,  is  far  from  being  absolute, 
and  before  iixing  the  date  of  a  Roman  structure  from  that  of  its 
brick  stanq)S  one  must  take  into  eonsideratitni  many  other  points 
of  circumstantial  evidence. 

When  we  examine,  for  instance,  the  grain  warehouses  at  Ostia, 
or  Hadrian's  villa  at  Tivoli,  and  find  that  their  walls  have  never 
undergone  repairs,  that  their  masonry  is  characteristic  of  the  first 
quarter  of  the  second  century,  that  their  bricks  bear  the  dates  of 
Hadrian's  age  and  no  others,  we  may  I'est  assured  that  the  stamps 
s])eak  the  truth.  Tlieir  evidence  is,  in  such  a  case,  conclusive. 
Rut  if  the  l)ricks  are  variously  dated,  or  bear  the  names  of  various 
kilns,  and  not  of  one  or  two  only,  then  their  value  as  an  evidence 
of  the  date  of  a  building  is  diminished,  if  not  lost  altogether. 

The  following  case,  derived  from  personal  experience,  will  ex- 
plain the  point.     Professor  Jordan,  in  a  remarkable  speech  deliv- 


ered  on  April  25,  1884,  at  the  German  Institute,  attributed  the 
house  of  the  Vestals  to  the  age  of  Hadrian,  because  he  had  found 
a  stamp  of  Domitius  Tullus  (a.  d.  59-95)  on  the  south  wing  of 
the  atrium  ;  three  of  Cn.  Domitius  Clemens  (111-128)  in  the  stairs 
leading  to  the  first  floor ;  two  of  Rutilius  Lupus  (110-122)  in  one 
of  the  cells  of  the  first  floor ;  and  so  on.^  Yet  there  was  no  doubt 
in  my  mind  that  the  building  was  renewed  from  the  foundation, 
and  on  a  different  plan,  by  Septimius  Severus  and  Julia  Domna, 
and  tliat  Hadrian  had  nothing  to  do  with  it.  I  was  able  to  prove 
the  case  so  clearly  -  that  Jordan's  theory  was  abandoned,  and  my 
contention  as  to  the  date  was  adopted.  The  presence  of  bricks  of 
Hadrian's  time  can  be  easily  explained.  When  Severus  undertook 
the  reconstruction  of  the  house  of  the  Vestals  and  of  the  whole 
adjoining  quarter,  which  had  been  devastated  by  the  fire  of  Corn- 
mod  us,  he  began  by  leveling  to  the  ground  the  remains  of  the 
buildings  which  had  partly  withstood  the  violence  of  the  flames. 
The  materials  so  saved  were  put  aside  and  used  in  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  the  Atrium  Vestae. 

The  circular  seals  have  often  a  symbol  in  the  centre  —  a  figure 
of  a  god  or  a  goddess,  a  leaf,  a  fruit,  etc.  Sometimes  the  symbol 
has  a  phonetic  value.  Thus  we  find  the  image  of  the  wolf  im- 
pressed on  the  tiles  of  INI.  Rutilius  Lupus ;  of  the  wild  boar  on 
those  of  Flavins  Aper  ;  of  the  eagle  on  those  of  Aquilia  Sozomena ; 
the  wreath  {(rTf<  on  those  of  C.  Jiilius  Stephanus,  etc. 

The  name  of  the  building  for  which  the  bricks  were  destined 
appears  only  in  three  seals  :  Castris  Pra'toris,  "  for  the  prsetorian 
camp;"  Partus  Atu/usli,  "for  the  Claudian  harbor  at  Ostia ;  "  and 
Partus  Traiani,  "  for  the  harbor  of  Civitavecchia." 

Brick-kilns  were  called  figUnct.,  theu"  sections  or  workshops 
ojficince.  The  kilns  were  named  either  after  their  owner,  Ac'dia- 
nce,  Fulviance,  etc. ;  from  their  being  situated  in  a  district,  Sala- 
renses,  de  via  Aurelia,  etc.;  or  from  the  street  on  which  they  were 
placed,  a  Pila  alta,  ah  Euripa,  ad  Mercurium  felicem.  It  is  possi- 
ble, however,  that  some  fanciful  name  might  have  been,  selected 
without  any  reference  to  the  owner  or  to  the  site  of  the  works. 
The  sheds  under  which  the  materials  were  kept  ready  for  sale  or 
for  shijiment  were  called  horrea  and  partus  respectively. 

The  legends  sometimes  show  curious  mistakes  of  spelling  :  opup 
for  opus;  phi</([mi^.)  iov  Jig  (\ms^)  ;  pradia  ior  pra'dia,  etc. 

The  bricks,  again,  occasionally  bear  curious  signs,  such  as  foot- 
marks of  chickens,  dogs,  or  pigs,  which  stepped  over  them  while 
1  See  Bull.  Inst.,  1884,  p.  92.  2  Jhid,^  p.  145. 


still  fresh,  impressions  of  coins  and  medals,  words  or  sentences 
scratched  with  a  nail,  etc.  A  bricklayer,  who  had  perhaps  seen 
better  times  in  his  youth,  wrote  on  a  tegula  bipedalis  the  first 
verse  of  the  ^neid,  "  Anna  virnmque  cano,"  etc. 

Names  of  murdered  Emperors  were  sometimes  struck  off  the 
stamp,  like  that  of  Commodus  in  No.  541,  b  (Corpus  Inscriptio- 
niim,  XV.  1).  After  the  murder  of  Geta,  the  seal  avggg  •  nnn, 
which  meant  "  of  our  three  Emjierors,  Severus,  Caracalla,  and 
Geta,"  was  changed  into  AVGG//iNN/y/  by  the  erasure  of  the  third 
G  and  of  the  third  N. 

Antiquarians  have  discussed  the  question  whether  the  seals 
were  cast  in  metal  or  carved  in  hard  wood,  or  whether  they  were 
made  up  of  movable  types,  incased  in  a  metal  frame.  The  fact 
that  letters  upside  down  are  not  uncommon  (like  sacckssi  for 
svccESSi)  has  been  adduced  to  prove  that  the  types  were  mova- 
ble; but,  on  the  other  hand,  we  have  specimens  of  seals  cast 
bodily  in  lead  or  bronze,  such  as  those  found  in  the  Tiber  in 
1879  (Visconti,  Bidl.  arch,  com.,  1879,  pp.  197,  212).  There  is  a 
stamp  (No.  1440,  a)  in  which  the  name  of  the  consul  balbin 
has  been  changed  into  that  of  brttio  (Brittio)  so  imperfectly 
that  both  can  be  read  at  the  same  time.  In  another  (No.  68,  d) 
the  letter  s  in  the  name  ravsi,  omitted  by  the  engraver  of  the 

seal,  has  been  added  so,  t-ravi.  This  expedient  shows  that  the 
missing  letter  coul<l  not  have  been  wedged  into  its  proper  place. 
We  must  discredit,  however,  the  idea  that  movable  types  were 
not  known  to  the  ancients.  Albert  Dumont  (Inscriptions  ccra- 
miques  de  Grece,  pp.  40  and  -V.)'))  brings  strong  evidence  in  favor 
of  it;  and  A.  iNIilchhoefer  (Ann.  Inst.,  1879,  p.  90)  has  traced  the 
use  of  sucli  types  in  an  Etruscan  sarcophagus. 

The  great  manufacturing  centre  of  Roman  bricks  was  the  dis- 
trict between  the  via?  Triumphalis,  Cornelia,  and  the  two  Aurelife, 
now  called  the  Monti  della  Creta,  which  includes  the  southern 
slojjes  of  the  Vatican  ridge  and  the  northern  of  the  Janiculum. 
Here  also,  as  at  Pozzo  Pantaleo,  the  traces  of  the  work  of  man 
are  simply  gigantic.  The  valleys  del  Gelsomino,  delle  Fornaci, 
del  Vicolo  delle  Cave,  della  Balduina,  and  a  section  of  the  Val 
d'  Inferno,  are  not  the  work  of  nature,  but  the  result  of  excava- 
tions for  "  creta  figulina,"  which  began  2300  years  ago,  and  have 
never  been  interrupted  since.  A  walk  through  the  Monti  della 
Creta  will  teach  the  student  many  interesting  things.  The  best 
point  of  observation  is  a  bluff  between  the  Vicolo  della  Cave  and 


the  Vicolo  del  Gelsomino,  marked  with  the  word  "  Ruderi "  and 
with  the  altitude  of  75  metres,  in  the  military  map  of  the  suburbs. 
The  bluff  rises  o7  metres  above  the  floor  of  the  biick-kilns  of  the 

There  were  other  important  establishments  in  the  plains  of 
the  Tiber  (I'rati  di  Castello,  Monti  della  Greta  beyond  8.  Paolo) 
and  of  the  Anio  (Ponte  Salario,  Givitas  Figlina),  to  whicli  the 
alluvial  marls  furnished  the  "materia  prima." 

lionuxn  bricks  were  exported  to  all  the  shores  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean :  they  have  been  found  in  the  Riviera,  on  the  coasts  of 
Venetia,  of  Narbonensis,  of  Spain  and  Africa,  and  in  the  island 
of  Sardinia.  One  brick  from  Syria  (No.  2415)  and  two  fi'om  the 
gulf  of  Genoa  (Nos.  2412,  241o)  have  been  j^icked  up  in  Rome, 
l)ut  they  must  have  been  transported  liere  incidentally  by  ships  in 

The  brick-making  business  must  have  been  very  remunerative, 
if  we  judge  from  the  rank  and  wealth  of  many  personages  who 
had  an  interest  in  it.  Many  names  of  Emperors  appear  in  brick- 
stamps,  and  even  more  of  Empresses  and  princesses  of  the  Imperial 
family.     (See  index  to  de  Rossi's  Iscrizioni  doliari,  pp.  525,  527.) 

LiTERATUKE.  —  Gaetaiio  Marini,  Iscrizioni  dulia rl jmbliciite  dal  comm.  G.B. 
de.  Rosd,  can  annotazioni  di  Enrico  Dressel.  Rome,  1884.  —  Descemet,  3Iar- 
ques  de  briqnes  relatives  a  une  ■partie  de  la  (/ens  Dumitla  (Bibl.  des  Ecoles  fr. 
d'Atheiies  et  de  Rome,  vol.  xv.  p.  2) ;  and  Inscriptions  doliaires.  —  C.  Ludovico 
Visconti,  On  Urick  Stamps  (in  Parker's  Archreology  of  Rome,  vol.  or  part  iv. 
p.  41.  London,  1870).  —  Heinrieh  Dressel,  Alcnne  osservazioni  intorno  ai  Ixdli 
dei  mattoni  urbaul  (in  Bull.  Inst.,  1885,  p.  98). —  Untersuchun<ien  iibcr  die 
Kronoloijie  der  Zier/elstempel,  188(i. —  Corpus  Inscriptioniim  Latinarum,,yol. 
XV.  1.  Berlin,  1891.  —  Gio.  Battista  Liigari,  Sopra  /'  etcc  di  alcuni  bolli  di 
fijuline  (in  Bull.  arch,  com.,  18'J5,  p.  (10). 

XII.  Makbles.  —  It  would  not  be  consistent  with  the  spirit  of 
this  present  work  to  enter,  even  superficially,  on  the  question  of 
Roman  marbles.  From  the  topographical  point  of  view  (marble 
wharves,  warehouses,  and  sheds,  places  of  sale,  offices  of  adminis- 
tration, artists'  studios,  and  stonecutters'  shops)  it  will  be  illus- 
trated in  Book  IV.  §  vii.  I  refer  the  reader,  in  the  mean  time,  to 
the  following  standard  works  :  — 

Faustino  Corsi,  Delle  pietre  nntlche,  M  cd.,  Rome,  1845.  —  The  Rev.  H.  W. 
Pullen,  J fandbook  of  Ancient  Roman  Marbles,  Londim,  Murra}',  1894.  —  Luigi 
Brnzza,  Iscrizioni  dei  marmi  (in  Annal.  Inst.,  1870,  p.  106). 

The  perusal  of  these  three  volumes  must  go  hand  in  hand 
with  the  study  of  the  marbles  which  they  describe,  so  as  to  enable 
the  student  to  tell  them  apart.     For  this  jiurpose  sjilendid  coUec- 

.)fARBLES  43 

tions  have  been  placed  at  our  disposal :  one  at  Oxford,  whicli 
numbers  1000  tablets;  one  in  the  geological  museum  in  Jermyn 
Street,  London  ;  a  third  in  the  University  of  the  Sapienza  in 
Rome,  consisting  of  (JOO  large  and  about  1000  smaller  slabs.  The 
best  of  all  is  the  set  bequeathed  by  Baron  Ravenstein  to  the  mu- 
seum of  the  Porte  de  Hal,  Brussels.  It  contains  76i  specimens, 
which  were  arranged  and  catalogued  by  Tommaso  and  Francesco 
Belli.  The  variety  and  richness  of  Roman  marbles  may  be 
estimated  from  the  fact  that  there  are  4:5  qualities  of  bigio,  and 
151  of  alabaster.  The  rarest  marbles  known  are  the  breccia 
d'  Egitto,  the  breccia  di  Villa  Adriana  and  the  breccia  di  Villa 
Casali.  There  are  specimens  of  these  exhibited  in  the  first  hall  of 
tlie  jSIuseo  ISIunicipale  al  Celio.  The  churches  of  S.  INIaria  in 
Aracd'li,  della  Minerva,  and  della  Vittoria,  and  tlie  Capella  Bor- 
gliesiana  in  8.  Maria  jNIaggiore,  are  noted  for  their  wealth  in  rare 
marl  lies. 

XIII.  Metiious  of  Constkuction.  —  For  this  suliject  also  1 
must  refer  the  student  to  the  works  quoted  on  page  :5S.  Tlie  Ro- 
mans have  built  in  opus  quadratuin,  incertiim,  rcticulaluin,  htteritiuiii, 
lateritio-reticulatum,  and  in  concrete.  An  excellent  set  of  plioto- 
tyjies  explaining  these  various  styles  of  masonry  can  be  found  in 
vol.  i.  part  ii.  of  Parker's  "  Archaeology  of  Rome,"  Oxford,  London, 
1874  :    The  Historical  Comtrurtion  of  Walls. 

The  following  rules  are  useful  to  the  student  for  determining  the 
age  of  a  Roman  building  : : — 

L  In  Rome  there  are  no  traces  of  the  so-called  Pelasgic  or 
polygonal  style  of  masonry. i  The  oldest  remains,  like  tlie  walls 
of  the  Palatine  and  of  the  Capitol,  are  built  in  ojyus  fjuadratum 
in  the  Etruscan  style,  with  the  blocks  of  tufa  placed  lengthwise 
in  one  tier  and  crosswise  in  the  next.  This  ride  was  followed 
tlirough  the  Republican  period.  I  know  of  very  few  exceptions  : 
one  is  the  great  wall  upon  which  the  Constantinian  basilica  of  S. 
Clement  is  biult,  where  the  blocks  are  all  placed  lengthwise. 

In  Imperial  times  the  exception  becomes  the  rule.  The  in- 
closure  walls  of  the  Forum  Angustum,  of  the  Forum  Transi- 
torium,  etc.,  and  the  cella>  of  many  temples,  show  the  blocks 
placed  in  one  direction  only. 

The  opus  (piadratum  was  given  up  (except  in  case  of  restora- 
tions) in  the  third  century  after  Christ,  and  imitations  in  plaster 
were  substituted  for  it.    The  facade  of  the  Senate-house,  rebuilt  by 

1  Rodolfii  Fonteauive,  Avanzi  detii  Cidopici  ndla provincia  di  Roma.  Rome, 
Sciolla,  1887. 



Diocletian,  the  Thei-mas  of  Constantine,  and  liis  Basilica  Nova, 
the  Thermaii  of  Diocletian,  and  parts  of  the  Sessorian  palace,  were 
plastered  in  this  style.  (See  plates,  Nos.  2,  26,  30,  etc.,  in  Stefano 
du  Perac's  "  Vestigi  dell'  antichita  di  Roma  "  and  "  Atti  Lincei," 
an.  1883,  vol.  xi.  serie  iii.  pi.  3.) 

2.  The  ojnis  incertum,  of  which  Fig.  17  gives  a  specimen  from 
the  Porticus  iEmilia,  176  b.  c,  marks  a  transition  from  the 
polygonal  to  the  reticulated  work.     The  Romans  must  have  im- 

Fig.  17. —The  Opus  Incertum. 

ported  it  from  Tibur,  where  it  was  in  great  favor.  Resides  the 
l\n-ticus  ^^milia,  tliere  are  (or  were  in  1872)  other  remains  built  in 
this  style  under  the  cliff  of  the  Viminal,  opposite  S.  Vitale.  Pho- 
tograiths  of  them  are  given  by  Parker  in  "  Archaeology  of  Rome," 
voL  i.  1874,  Construction  of  Walls,  pi.  vi.  2.  The  opus  incertum 
was  given  up  about  the  time  of  Sulla,  and  replaced  by  the  opus 
reticiilatum,  made  of  regular  tufa  prisms  in  imitation  of  network. 
There    are    three   kinds   of  opus    reticulatiim :   in   the  oldest  the 


prisms  are  small,  and  the  intersecting  lines  of  the  network 
slightly  irregular ;  it  marks  the  infancy  of  the  new  style.  A 
specimen  may  be  found  on  the  Palatine,  on  the  left-hand  side  of 
the  path  which  ascends  from  the  foot  of  the  Seal*  Caci  to  the 
Temple  of  Jupiter  Propugnator. 

In  the  second  stage  the  prisms  become  larger,  and  the  cross  lines 
of  the  network  perfectly  straight,  while  the  angles  of  the  walls  are 
strengthened  with  rectangular  pieces  of  tufa  resembling  large 
bricks.  The  house  of  Germ  aniens  on  the  Palatine  is  the  best 
specimen  of  this  style,  which  seems  to  have  lasted  until  the  time 
of  Trajan. 

The  last  period,  from  Trajan  to  the  first  Anton ines,  marks  a 
decided  improvement  in  the  solidity  of  the  work.  The  angles  and 
arches  are  built  of  bricks,  and  the  wall  itself  is  strengthened  by 
horizontal  bands  of  the  same  material  (Fig.  18).  The  netwoi-k. 
therefore,  does  not  cover  the  whole  face  of  the  wall,  but  is  divided 
into  panels  from  four  to  five  feet  high.  At  the  end  of  the  second 
century  the  opus  reticulatiim  was  given  up  altogether.  1  have 
never  discovered  what  its  advantages  were.  It  did  not  contribute 
certainly  to  the  solidity  of  the  building,  and  it  demanded  more 
skill  and  time  from  the  mason  than  the  brickwork.  In  the  last 
place,  its  elegance  and  beauty  were  generally  concealed  by  a  coat- 
ing of  plaster.  Yet  builders  and  architects  like  Trajan  and  Ha- 
drian preferred  it  to  any  other  kind  of  masonry.  The  extensive 
warehouses  of  Ostia,  the  substructures  of  the  Tliermse  Traianaj, 
Hadrian's  villa  near  Tibur,  the  inner  harbor  and  docks  at  Porto, 
and  a  hundred  contemporary  edifices,  are  built  in  this  style.  (See 
Fig.  18,  i>.  46.) 

•3.  Opus  lateritium.  —  The  fundamental  rule  for  the  chronology 
of  brick  structures  is  this :  the  thinner  the  bed  of  cement  be- 
tween the  layers  of  bricks,  the  older  the  structure.  In  other 
words,  in  the  opus  lateritium  of  the  golden  age  the  bricks  are  so 
close  together  that  the  line  of  cement  is  hardly  visible ;  while  at 
the  end  of  the  third  century  the  layer  of  cement  is  even  thicker 
than  the  line  of  bricks.  The  rule  is  obviously  subject  to  exce2> 
tions,  especially  when  the  brick  facing  was  destined  to  be  seen 
and  not  to  be  plastered  over.  In  such  cases  we  are  apt  to  find 
excellent  specimens  of  brick  "  cortina,"  even  in  times  of  decadence. 

The  most  perfect  specimens  of  brickwork  in  Rome  are  some 
portions  of  the  Pra?torian  camp  (the  Porta  Decumana,  Porta  Princi- 
palis Sinistra),  the  Amphitheatrum  Castrense,  and  the  Arcus  Ne- 
roniani  on  the  Ca'lian.     The  decline  in  the  stvle  can  be  followed 



almost  year  by  year  from  the  time  of  the  Fhivians  to  that  of 
Constantiue.  I  suggest  as  representatives  of  periods,  more  than 
years,  the  Domus  Augustana  for  tlie  time  of  Domitian ;  the  so- 
called  "  baths  of  Titus  "  for  the  time  of  Trajan ;  the  Pantheon 
and  the  spiral  staircase  of  the  Mausoleum  for  that  of  Hadrian  ; 
the  Villa  Quinctiliorum  for  that  of  Commodus ;  the  Thermaj  An- 
toninianae  for  that  of  Caracalla  ;  the  substructures  of  the  Temple 
of  the  Sun  in  the  Villa  Colonna  for  that  of  Aurelian ;  the  Baths 
of  Diocletian,  the  Basilica  Nova,  the  Senate-liouse,  for  the  end  of 
the  third  century  and  the  beginning  of  the  fourth.  These  types 
of  construction  are  carefully  illustrated  in  vol.  i.  of  Parker's 
"  Archaeology  of  Rome." 



Fig.  18.  — Tlie  Opus  Reticulatum. 

I  have  said  that  when  the  brickwork  was  intended  to  remain 
exposed  to  view,  and  not  to  be  concealed  l>y  plaster,  it  is  always 
more  perfect  than  we  should  exjiect  from  the  general  style  pre- 
vailing at  the  time. 

The  best  period  for  ornamental  brick-carving  in  three  shades  of 
color  —  yellow,  red,  and  brown  —  includes  the  second  half  of  the 
second  century  and  the  beginning  of  the  thii'd.  The  tomb  attri- 
buted to  Annia  Regilla  (Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  201),  the 
tombs  of  the  Via  Latina,  the  door  of  the  Excubitorium  Vigilum 
at  the  ]\Ionte  de'  Fiori,  Trastevere  (Ancient  Rome.  p.  'JoO),  the 


door  of  the  Catacombs  of  Pra?textatus,  the  temple  at  S.  Urbano 
alia  Caifarella  (Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  294)  are  the  best 
specimens  of  this  kind  of  work. 

There  is  another  peculiarity  of  the  opus  laterilium  wliicli  may 
help  the  student  to  determine  the  age  of  an  edifice  in  doubtful 
cases.  The  brick  facing  of  a  wall  is  sometimes  interrupted  by 
parallel  horizontal  lines  of  tegulai  bipedales  of  a  different  line, 
from  three  to  six  feet  apart.  These  lines  appear  for  the  first  time, 
I  believe,  in  the  Pantheon  and  in  the  spiral  staircase  of  Hadrian's 
tomb,  and  are  most  conspicuous  in  the  buildings  of  the  time  of 
Severus  and  Caracalla. 

XIV.  Aqueducts.  —  One  of  IIh-  praises  liestowed  by  Cicero  on 
the  founder  of  the  city  is  locum  t'li(/it  fonlihus  ahunduntem,  "he 
selected  a  district  very  rich  in  springs."  A  glance  at  llie  plan 
(Fig.  1)  will  at  once  prove  the  accuracy  of  the  statement.  Twenty- 
three  springs  have  been  described  within  the  walls,  several  of 
which  are  still  in  existence ;  others  have  disappeared  owing  to  the 
increase  of  modern  soil.  "  For  four  hundred  and  forty-one  [442] 
years,"  says  Frontinus  (i.  4),  "the  Romans  contented  themselves 
with  such  water  as  they  could  get  from  the  Tiber,  from  wells,  and 
from  s]>rings.  Some  of  these  springs  are  still  held  in  great  venera- 
tion on  account  of  their  health-restoring  qualities,  like  the  spring 
of  the  Camcena;,  that  of  Apollo,  and  that  of  Jutnrna." 

Tiie  springs  of  the  Camrena'  were  just  outside  the  I'orta  Capeiia, 
in  the  slope  of  the  Cadian,  behind  tlie  church  of  S.  Cregorio,  and 
under  the  wall  of  the  Villa  Mattel.  The  remains  of  the  tem])le 
descrilied  by  Juvenal  (Sat.,  iii.  11)  were  discovered  and  delineate<l 
by  Pin-o  Ligorio  about  35(>(>. 

Nothing  is  known  of  the  springs  of  Apollo.  Tiiose  of  .lutiirna 
are  described  at  length  in  P>o()k  IT.  p.  125.  The  celebrated  foun- 
tain of  Egeria  remained  visible  in  the  lower  grounds  of  tlie  Vigna 
P>etliiii  (between  the  Via  di  S.  Stefano  Rotondo  and  the  Via  della 
Ferratella)  until  1882,  when  the  vigna  was  buried  under  an  em- 
l)aidcnient  11  metres  high;  but  although  the  nymphfeum  itself 
has  disai)[:)eared,  the  waters  still  seem  to  find  their  way  to  another 
fountain  lower  down  the  valley  of  P^geria.  This  graceful  building 
of  the  Renaissance  stands  in  the  grounds  of  the  Villa  Mattel  (von 
Hoffman),  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  di  Porta  S.  Sebastiano  and 
delle  INIole  di  S.  Sisto,  and  the  water  which  inundates  its  lower 
floor  has  some  medicinal  power.  Another  famous  spring,  that  of 
the  Lupercal.  has  been  identified  with  our  Sorgente  di  S.  Giorgio, 



which  bubbles  \\\)  in  the  very  bed  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  near 
the  church  of  that  name.  The  identity  is  uncertain.  The  Tullia- 
num  still  flows  in  the  lower  crypt  of  the  prison  of  that  name ;  the 
Aqua3  Fontinales  in  the  Cortile  di  S.  Felice,  Salita  della  Dateria, 
and  in  the  house  No.  2,5  Salita  del  Grillo ;  the  Aqua  Damasiana 
in  the  Cortile  di  S.  Damaso  of  the  Vatican  palace,  in  the  foun- 
tain modeled  by  Algardi 
by  order  of  Innocent 
X.  (1649);  the  Aqua 
Lancisiana  in  front  of 
the  Palazzo  Salviati  alia 
Lungara,  where  there  is 
a  basin  with  three  jets, 
designed  by  Lancisi  in 
the  time  of  Clement  XI. 

The  first  aqueduct, 
that  of  the  Aqua  Appia, 
is  the  joint  work  of  Ap- 
pius  Claudius  Csecus  and 
C.  Plautius  Venox,  cen- 
sors in  312  B.  c.  The 
first  built  the  channel, 
the  second  discovered 
the  sjirings  1153  metres 
northeast  of  the  sixth  and  seventh  milestones  of  the  Via  Collatina. 
They  are  still  to  be  seen,  much  reduced  in  volume,  at  the  bottom 
of  some  stone  quarries  near  the  farmhouse  of  La  Rustica.  The 
channel  followed  the  Via  Collatina,  entered  Rome  ad  Spem  Vetcrcm 
(Porta  ]\Iaggiore),  crossed  the  valley  of  the  Piscina  Publica  (Via 
di  Porta  S.  Sebastiano)  close  to  the  Porta  Capena,  and  ended  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Tiber  at  the  foot  of  the  Clivus  Publicius  (S. 
Anna,  Via  della  Salara)  ;  length  of  channel,  16,445  metres;  vol- 
ume of  water  discharged  in  twenty-four  hours,  115,303  cubic  me- 
tres. The  aqueduct  of  the  Appia  has  been  discovered  thrice  :  by 
Fabretti,  in  the  Vigna  Santoro  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  di  Porta  S. 
Paolo  and  the  Vicolo  di  S.  Balbina  (an.  1607) ;  by  Parker  in  1867, 
in  the  tufa  quarries  of  S.  Saba ;  and  by  myself  in  1888,  under  the 
remains  of  the  palace  of  Annia  Cornuficia  Faustina  in  the  Vigna 
Maciocohi,  Via  di  Porta  S.  Paolo.  It  differs  in  shape  from  all 
other  Roman  aqueducts,  as  shown  in  Fig.  20. 

Anio  vetus.  —  The  second  aqueduct  was  begun  in  272  b.  c.  by 

Fig.  20.  —  The  Channel  of  the  Aqua  Appia  under 
the  Aventine. 


Manius  Curius  Dentatus,  censor,  and  finished  three  yeai's  later  by 
Fulvius  Flaccus.  The  water  was  taken  from  the  river  Anio  850 
metres  above  S.  Cosimato,  on  the  road  from  Tivoli  to  Arsoli 
(Valeria).  The  course  of  the  channel  can  be  traced  as  far  as 
(iallicano ;  from  Gallicano  to  Rome  it  is  uncertain.  It  entered  the 
city  ad  Spem  A'eterem,  a  little  to  the  right  of  the  Porta  ^laggiore, 
where  Piranesi,  Xil)by,  and  myself  have  seen  and  delineated  the 
I'emains  of  the  suJistructio  supra  terrain  passuum  ccrxi  men- 
tioned by  Frontinus  (i.  0).^  From  the  Porta  Maggiore  to  the  Arch 
of  (iallienus  (Porta  Esquilina)  the  aqueduct  can  be  followed  step 
by  step,  having  been  laid  bare  at  least  twenty  times  during  the 
construction  of  the  railway  station  and  of  the  Esquiline  qiuirter. 
Length  of  channel,  63,704  metres ;  volume  of  water  discharged 
in  twenty-four  hours,  277,806  cubic  metres.  The  Anio  Vetus  was 
set  apart  for  the  irrigating  of  gardens  and  for  the  flushing  of  drains. 

Marc'ia.  —  Tn  144  u.  c.  tlie  Senate,  considering  that  the  increase 
of  the  population  had  diminished  the  rate  of  distriltution  of  water 
(from  530  to  430  litres  i)er  head),  detenuined  that  the  old  aipie- 
ducts  of  the  Appia  and  tlie  Anio  should  be  repaired,  and  a  new  one 
built;  the  appropriation  for  both  works  being  8,000,000  sesterces, 
or  1,760,000  lire. 

The  execution  of  the  scheme  was  intrusted  to  Q.  Marcius  Rex. 
He  selected  a  group  of  sjirings  at  the  foot  of  the  Monte  della 
Prugna,  in  the  territoiy  of  Arsoli,  4437  metres  to  the  right  of  the 
thirty-sixth  milestone  of  the  Via  Valeria ;  and  after  many  years 
of  untiring  efforts  he  succeeded  in  making  a  display  of  tlie  water 
on  the  highest  platform  of  the  Capitol.  Agrippa  restored  the 
aqueduct  in  33  b.  c.  ;  Augustus  doubled  the  volume  of  the  water 
in  5  B.  c.  by  the  addition  of  the  Aqua  Augusta ;  in  a.  d.  79 
Titus  rivom  aqua'  Marcue  vetustate  dilapsiim  refecit  et  aquam  qiue 
in  vsu  esse  desierat  reduxit  (Corpus  Inscriptionum,  vi.  1246)  ;  in 
lf(6  Septimius  Severus  brought  in  a  new  supply  for  the  use  of  his 
Thermaj  Severiana^ ;  in  212-213  Caracalla  aquam  Marciam  variis 
l-asihus  im/)edita7n,  purgato  fonte,  excisis  et  perfnratis  )nnntil)us, 
adquisifo  fonte  novo  Antonlniano,  in  urhem  perdurendam  curarit 
(ibid.  1245),  and  built  a  branch  aqueduct,  four  miles  long,  for  tlie 
use  of  his  baths ;  in  305-306  Diocletian  did  the  same  thing  for  his 
great  thermae ;  and,  finally,  Arcadius  and  Honorius  devoted  to  the 
restoration  of  the  aqueduct  the  money  seized  from  Count  Gildo, 
the  African  rebel. 

1  Piranesi,  Antichita,  vol.  i.  pi.  10. —  Nibby,  Komn  anfica,  vol.  i.  p.  339. — 
LaiU'iaiii,  AcqutJutti.  \\.  50,  jil.  iv.  Ulc.  7. 



The  Marcia  followed  the  right  bank  of  the  Anio  as  far  as  S. 
Cosimato,  and  the  left  as  far  as  Tivoli,  where  it  turns  round  the 
slope  of  the  Monte  Ripoli  towards  S.  Gericomio  and  Gallicano. 
Here  begins  a  line  of  viaducts  and  bridges,  the  most  magnificent 
of  any  that  can  be  found  in  the  whole  district  of  Rome.  The 
course  of  the  Marcia  (and  of  her  three  companions,  Anio  Vetus, 
Claudia,  and  Anio  Novus)  being  pei'pendicular  to  that  of  the 
valleys  by  which  this  part  of  the  land  is  thickly  furrowed,  and 
their  level  running  halfway  between  the  ihahref/  and  the  summit 
of  the  intervening  ridges,  the  engineers  were  obliged  to  alternate 
bridges  and  tunnels,  some  of  which  ai'e  still  perfect. 

A  visit  to  these  beautiful  highlands  will  prove  most  satisfactory 

Fig.  21.  —  Ponte  Lupo. 

to  the  student.  It  can  be  made  in  a  day,  from  the  station  of 
Zagarolo  on  the  Naples  line,  thence  by  diligence  to  Gallicano,  and 
on  foot  (guide  necessary)  to  the  ruins.  The  bridges  are  seven  in 

Ponte  Lvpo,  in  the  Valle  dell'  Acqua  Rossa,  for  the  transit  of 
four  waters,  Marcia,  Anio  Vetus,  Anio  Novus,  and  Claudia,  be- 
sides a  carriage-way  and  a  bridle-path.  Originally  it  was  built 
for  the  Anio  Vetus  alone,  and  its  dimensions  were  11.20  metres  in 
heisht,  81.10  metres  in  length,  2.75  metres  in  thickness.     After 


the  addition  of  the  JNIarcia,  side  by  side  and  above  it,  the  struc- 
ture became  16.0(1  metres  high,  88.00  metres  long,  12  metres  thick. 
Lastly,  after  the  addition  of  the  Claudia  and  Anio  Novus,  it  be- 
came 32  metres  high,  155  metres  long,  1-4  metres  thick,  without 
counting  the  buttresses,  which  are  clearly  visible  in  the  illustra- 
tion opposite  (Fig.  21).  All  ages,  all  styles  of  masonry  are 
represented  at  Ponte  Lupo,  and  in  the  four  tunnels  whicli  con- 
verge towards  it  or  radiate  from  it. 

Pond  deir  Inferno  in  the  Valle  dell'  Inferno,  for  the  transit  of 
the  Claudia  and  of  the  Anio  Novus ;  and 

Ponti  (lelle  Forme  Rotte,  for  the  same,  in  the  Valle  del  Fosso  di 
S.  Gregorio. 

Ponte  (li  S.  Pietro,  in  the  Valle  delle  Forme  Rotte,  for  the 
transit  of  the  Aijua  Marcia. 

Ponte  (li  S.  Giovanni,  in  the  same  valley,  for  the  transit  of  the 
Anio  Vetus.  The  bridge  was  rebuilt  by  Augustus  in  reticulated 
work,  ami  again  repaired  in  brickwork  by  one  of  the  late  Emper- 
ors  (first  arch  on  the  left). 

From  (iallicano  to  the  sixth  milestone  of  the  Via  Latina  tlie 
Marcia  runs  underground;  from  the  sixth  milestone  to  the  Porta 
Maggiore,  I'orta  S.  Lorenzo,  and  to  the  present  railway  station  it 
was  borne  on  almost  triumphal  arcades,  built  of  tufa  with  mould- 
ings of  travertine.  The  same  arcades  were  afterwards  used  to 
carry  the  Aqua  Tepula  and  the  Julia.  The  following  photograph 
gives  the  section  of  the  channel  at  a  point  where  it  emerges  from 
the  ground  in  the  farm  of  Roma  Vecchia.  A.  The  channel  of 
the  Marcia.  B.  Renuiins  of  that  of  the  Tepula  above  it.  C.  A 
buttress,  probably  of  the  time  of  Hadrian.  D.  Another,  probably 
of  the  time  of  Severus.  E.  The  channel  of  the  Acqua  Felice, 
built  by  Sixtus  V.  FF'.  The  arcades  of  the  Claudia  and  of  the 
Anio  Xovus. 

The  afjueduct  reaches  Rome  at  the  Porta  ISIaggiore  (the  meet- 
ing-point of  ten  waters,  Appia,  Appia  Augusta,  Anio  Vetus, 
Mai-cia,  Tepula,  Julia,  Claudia,  Anio  Novus,  Alexandrina,  Felice), 
and  follows  the  line  of  the  walls  of  Am-elian  as  far  as  the  Porta 
S.  Lorenzo.  The  course  beyond  this  gate  is  so  complicated  that  I 
think  it  well  to  refer  the  student  to  sheets  xvii.  and  xviii.  of  the 
"Forma  L'rbis,"  in  which  all  particulars  are  carefully  mapped, 
rather  than  describe  it  here. 

Aqua  Tepula  —  Aqua  Julia.  —  The  veins,  so  named  from 
their  almost  tepid  temperature  of  17°  Cent.,  and  now  called  Sor- 
genti  deir  Acqua  Preziosa,  were  collected  at  the  foot  of  the  Alban 



hills  (Valle  Marciaiiii)  in  125  b.  c.  by  the  censors  Cn.  Servilius 
Ca?pio  and  L.  Cassius  Longinus.  For  ninety-two  years  the  Tepula 
reached  Rome  by  its  own  channel ;  but  in  33  b.  c.  Agrippa,  after 
he  had  collected  the  springs  of  the  Aqua  elulia  —  higher  up  the 
same  valley  at  a  place  now  called  '*  II  Fontanile  degli  Squarcia- 
relli  di  Grottaferrata,"  which  were  much  colder  and  purer,  and 
double  in  volume  —  determined  to  mix  the  two  and  obtain  a  corn- 

Fig.  22.  —  The  Aqueducts  at  Roma  Vecchia. 

jionnd  water  superior  in  quality  to  the  Tejiula,  though  slightly  in- 
ferior to  the  Julia.  The  Julia  was  admitted  accordingly  into  the 
channel  of  the  Tepula  at  tlie  tenth  milestone  of  the  Via  Latina, 
and  the  amalgamation  allowed  to  proceed  for  the  space  of  four 

A  QUE  DUCTS  53 

miles.  At  the  sixth  milestone  the  compound  water  was  again  di- 
vided in  two  conduits,  proportioned  to  the  volume  of  the  springs 
(400  quinaria;  for  the  Tepula,  and  12()<3  for  the  Julia).  The  tem- 
perature of  the  Tepula  being  17°  Cent.,  that  of  the  Julia  10°,  and 
tlieir  volumes  1  :  8,  the  mixture  must  have  marked  at  the  Piscina 
a  temperature  of  about  12°,  which  is  the  best  for  drinking  pur- 
poses. Length  of  channel  for  the  Tepula,  17,74.5  metres  ;  for  the 
Julia,  22,853  metres.  Volume  of  the  first,  28,115  cubic  metres  in 
twenty-four  hours ;  of  the  second,  76,195,  Both  were  borne  on 
the  same  arches  which  carried  the  Marcia. 

Aqua  Virgo.  —  The  springs,  located  at  the  eighth  milestone  of 
the  Via  Latina,  above  the  farmhouse  of  Salone  in  the  Val  del 
Ponte  di  Nona,  were  drawn  into  a  canal  by  Agrippa,  and  reached 
tiie  city  on  June  9,  19  h.  c.  Length  of  channel,  20,(397  metres; 
volume  in  twenty-four  hours,  158,203  cubic  metres. 

Aqua  Alsietina.  —  "1  cannot  conceive,"  says  Frontinus  (i.  11), 
"  why  such  a  wise  prince  as  Augustus  should  have  brought  to 
Rome  such  a  discredit al)le  and  unwholesome  water  as  the  Alsie- 
tina, unless  it  was  for  the  use  of  the  naumachia  "  (an  oval  pond 
531  metres  long,  354  metres  wide,  for  naval  sliam  fights).  It  was 
destined  afterwards  for  the  irrigation  of  the  Transtiberine  or- 
chards. Length  of  channel,  32,848  metres ;  volume,  24,767  cubic 
metres  per  day.     (See  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1887,  p.  182.) 

Aqua  Claudia.  —  None  of  the  Roman  aqueducts  are  eulo- 
gized by  Frontinus  like  tlie  Claudian.  lie  calls  it  "  opus  magni- 
ficentissiine  consummatum ;  "  and  after  demonstrating  in  more 
than  one  way  that  the  volume  of  the  springs  collected  by  Claudius 
amounted  to  4607  quinari;r,  he  says  that  there  was  a  reserve  of 
1()00  always  ready. 

The  works,  begun  liy  Caligida  in  a.  d.  38,  lasted  fourteen  years, 
the  water  having  reached  Rome  only  on  1,  52  (the  birth- 
day of  Claudius).  The  course  of  the  aqueduct  was  first  around 
the  slopes  of  the  Monte  Ripoli.  like  that  of  the  ]\rarcia  and  of  the 
Anio  Vetus  :  Domitian  shortened  it  by  several  miles  by  boring  a 
tunnel  4950  metres  long  through  the  Monte  Affliano.  (See  An- 
cient Rome,  p.  63.)  Lengtli  of  channel,  68,750  metres,  of  which 
15,000  on  arches;  volume  per  day,  209,252  cubic  metres.  The 
Claudia  was  used  for  the  Imperial  table  :  a  branch  aqueduct,  2000 
metres  long,  left  the  main  cliannel  ad  Spem  A^terem  (Porta  Mag- 
giore),  and  following  the  line  of  the  Via  Ca'limontana  (Villa 
Wolkonsky),  of  the  Campus  Ca'limontanus  (Lateran),  and  of  the 
street  now  called  di  S.  Stefano  Rotondo,  reached  the  temple  of 


Claudius  l)y  the  church  of  SS.  Giovauni  e  ruolo,  and  the  Imperial 
palace  by  tlie  churcli  of  S.  Bouaventura.     (See  Boolv  11.  §  xxv.) 

Anio  Novus.  —  The  Aiiio  Novus,  like  the  Vetus,  was  at  first 
derived  from  the  river  of  the  same  name  at  the  forty-second  mile- 
stone of  the  road  to  Subiaco,  great  precautions  being  taken  for 
purifying  the  water  by  means  of  a  piscina  limaria.  The  works 
were  begun  by  Caligula  in  a.  d.  38,  and  completed  by  Claudius  on 
August  1,  52,  on  a  most  magnificent  scale,  some  of  the  arches 
reaching  the  height  of  thirty-two  metres  above  ground  ;  and  there 
were  eight  miles  of  them.  Yet,  in  spite  of  the  purifying  reser- 
voir, and  of  the  clear  springs  of  the  Rivus  Herculaneus  (Fosso  di 
Fioggio),  which  had  been  mixed  with  the  water  from  the  river,  the 
Anio  Novus  was  hardly  ever  drinkable.  Whenever  a  shower  fell 
on  the  Simbruine  mountains,  the  water  would  get  troubled  and 
saturated  with  mud  and  carbonate  of  lime.  Trajan  improved  its 
condition  by  carrying  the  head  of  the  a(pieduct  higher  up  tlie 
valley,  where  Nero  had  created  three  artificial  lakes  for  the  adorn- 
ment of  his  Villa  Sublacensis.  These  lakes  served  more  efficiently 
as  piscinm  limarkE,  or  "  purgatories,"  than  the  artificial  basin  of 
Caligula,  nine  miles  below.  The  Anio  Novus  reached  Rome  in  its 
own  channel  after  a  course  of  86,964  metres,  but  for  the  last 
seven  miles  it  ran  on  the  same  arches  with  the  Aqua  Claudia. 
The  Anio  Novus  was  the  largest  of  all  Roman  aqueducts,  dis- 
charging nearly  three  hundred  thousand  cubic  metres  per  day. 

There  are  two  places  in  the  suburbs  of  Rome  where  these 
marvelous  arches  of  the  Claudia  and  Anio  Novus  can  be  seen  to 
advantage  :  one  is  the  Torre  Fiscale,  three  miles  outside  the  Porta 
S.  Giovanni  on  the  Albano  road  (to  be  reached  also  from  the 
Tavolato  station,  on  the  upper  Albano  railway)  ;  tlie  other  is  the 
Vicolo  del  Mandrione,  which  leaves  the  Labicana  one  mile  outside 
the  Porta  Maggiore  and  falls  into  the  Tusculana  at  the  place 
called  Porta  Furba.  A  walk  through  the  Vicolo  del  INIandrione 
will  make  the  student  more  familiar  with  the  aqueducts  of 
ancient  Rome,  their  structure  and  management,  their  respective 
size  and  importance,  than  many  books  written  on  the  subject. 
He  must  remember  that  the  higher  of  the  two  lines  of  arches 
carried  the  Claudia  and  the  Anio  Novus,  the  lower  cai'ried  the 
Marcia,  Tepula,  and  Julia.  The  ugly  channel  of  the  Acqua  Felice 
takes  advantage  of  the  remains  of  both  ;  the  Alexaudrina,  Anio 
Vetus,  and  Appia  run  underground  (see  Fig.  23). 

Aqua  Traiana.  —  A  rule  was  strictly  followed  under  the  Em- 
pire, that  no  one  should  be  allowed  to  build  and  open  tlierni;>3  for 


l>nl)Iic  use  unless  a  sj)ecial  supply  of  water  was  secured  at  the  same 

time.    The  Aqua  A'irgo  served  for  Agrippa's  thermae  and  Euripus, 
the  Alsietina  for  the  naumachia  of  Augustus  ;  Titus  repaired  and 


increased  the  volume  of  the  Marcia  for  the  use  of  his  baths,  and 
so  did  Severus,  Caracalla,  and  Diocletian.  The  construction  of 
the  Thermse  Alexandrinse  is  contemporary  with  the  canalization 
of  the  Aqua  Alexandrina,  etc.  That  of  the  Aqua  Traiana  seems 
to  be  also  connected  with  the  construction  of  the  Thermal  Surianse, 
which  Trajan  had  built  on  the  table-land  of  the  Aventine  in  honor 
of  his  friend  and  supporter  Licinius  Sura.  An  inscription  dis- 
covered in  1830  at  la  Conetta,  on  tlie  Bracciano  road  (Corpus  In- 
scriptionum,  vi.  1260),  and  the  medal  (Cohen,  Imper.,  ii.  49,  n. 
305)  give  the  date  of  a.  d.  109  for  the  completion  of  the  aqueduct. 
Its  sources  were  on  the  western  shore  of  the  Lago  di  Bracciano, 
along  the  chain  of  hills  between  Oriolo  and  Bassano.  The  va- 
rious branches  met  at  a  central  reservoir  near  Vicarello,  where  the 
true  aqueduct  begins.  It  was  57,000  metres  long,  and  discharged 
118,127  cubic  metres  per  day. 

The  Aqua  Paola  of  the  present  day  is  not  at  all  so  good  as  the 
Traiana,  since  Paul  V.,  the  restorer  of  the  aqueduct,  mixed  up  the 
good  springs  with  the  inferior  water  of  the  lake. 

The  last  water  brought  into  Imperial  Rome  is  the  Aqua  Alex- 
ANDKiNA.  Its  springs,  at  the  foot  of  Monte  Falcone,  on  the  Via 
Prsenestina,  were  collected  in  226  by  Severus  Alexander,  for  the 
use  of  his  baths.  The  aqueduct,  most  minutely  described  by 
Fabretti  (De  Aquis,  dissert,  i.),  was  about  22  kilometres  long,  and 
increased  the  daily  supply  of  the  city  by  21,632  cubic  metres. 
Its  most  conspicuous  remains  are  to  be  seen  in  the  Valle  di  Acqua 
Bollicante  (Via  Labicana). 

The  Roman  waters  were  not  equally  good.  In  the  scale  of 
perfection  the  Marcia  and  the  Claudia  occupy  the  first  place,  the 
Virgo  comes  next,  followed  by  the  Appia,  Julia,  Traiana,  Anio 
Nevus,  Alexandrina,  Tepula,  Anio  Vetus,  and  Alsietina. 

The  Traiana  reached  Rome  at  the  considerable  height  of  71.16 
metres  above  the  sea,  the  Anio  Novus  at  70.40,  the  Claudia  at 
67.40,  the  Julia  at  63.73,  the  Tepxda  at  60.63,  the  Marcia  at  58.63, 
the  Anio  Vetus  at  48,  the  Alexandrina  at  about  43,  the  Virgo  at 
20,  the  Appia  at  20  (?),  the  Alsietina,  "  omnium  humilior,"  at  16.50. 

At  the  time  of  Constantine  there  were  in  Rome  11  great 
thermge,  926  public  baths,  1212  public  fountains,  247  reservoirs, 
a  "stagnum  Agrippce"  without  speaking  of  private  houses,  of 
public  and  private  gardens,  of  docks  and  warehouses,  each  well 
provided  with  water. 

Some  of  the  fountains  were  of  monumental  character,  and  rich 
in  works  of  art.     Agrippa,  while  sedile,  decorated  those  existing 


at  the  time  with  tliree  hundred  marble  and  bronze  statues  and 
four  hundred  columns.  We  know  of  one  work  of  art  only,  —  an 
"  <#i'«<^-'*  Hydne  "  which  he  placed  on  the  Servilian  fountain  "  a<l 
Serviliam  lacu7n."  The  fountains  of  Prometheus,  of  the  Shep- 
iierds,  of  Orpheus,  of  Ganymede,  of  the  Four  Fish  (Scari),  of  the 
Tliree  Masks,  etc.,  must  have  been  so  named  from  the  statues  and 
marbles  with  which  they  were  decorated. 

One  only  of  the  great  fountains  has  escaped  destruction,  that 
popularly  called  "  I  Trofei  di  iNlario,"  in  the  Piazza  Yittorio  Em- 
manuele  on  the  Esquiline.  Its  ancient  name  is  not  known  for 
certain  :  Lenormant  has  suggested  that  of  Nymplniium  Alexandri ; 
I  prefer  that  of  Lacus  Orphei.  Its  mediajval  name  was  Cimbrum 
INIarii,  a  recollection  of  tlie  monument  erected  here  in  memory  of 
the  victory  of  the  Campi  Raudii ;  while  in  the  early  Renaissance 
it  was  called  "  Le  Oche  Armate."  The  trophies  which  adorned  it 
were  removed  to  the  Piazza  del  Campidoglio  under  Sixtus  V. 

Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  II  Castello  fleW  Acqua  Giulut ;  and  Tro/'ei  di 
Ottnviano  Augusto.  Rome :  K.  Calcografia.  —  Francois  Lenormant,  Jlemoire 
mr  la  veritable  designntiun  du  monuinvnt  connu  sous  It  nom  de  Trophees  de 
Marius.  (R^vue  Numism.,  1840.)  —  Rodolfo  Lanciaiii,  /  coinentarii  di  Fron- 
tino,  p.  173. 

Supposing  the  inhabitants  of  Rome  to  have  numbered,  suburbs 
included,  one  million,  there  was  a  daily  water  supply  of  IHOO 
litres  per  head.  In  modern  Rome,  for  a  population  of  half  a 
million,  there  are  about  760  litres  per  head. 

The  volume  of  water  which  supplied  Rome  may  be  estimated 
by  comparison  with  the  Tiber,  which  discharges  only  1,296,000 
cubic  metres  per  day,  while  the  old  aqueducts  carried  not  less 
than  1,747,311  cubic  metres. 

LiTERATUKK.  —  Raphael  Fabretti,  Be  aqnis  et  ar/ucedurtilms  veteris  Romce, 
2d-ed.  Rome,  1788.  —  Alberto  Cassio,  Corso  delle  acque  antiche.  Rome, 
1757-59.  —  Carlo  Fea,  Storia  delle  acque  di  Roma.  — John  Henry  Parker,  The 
Aqueducts  of  Ancient  Rome.  Oxford,  London,  1876. — Alessandro  Bettoehi, 
Le  acque  e  gli  acquedotti  di  Roma  antica  e  moderna.  (Monografia  della  citta 
di  Roma,  voL  ii.  ch.  xix.  1881.)  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  /  comentarii  di  Frontino 
intovno  le  acque  e  gli  ncquedoUi.     Rome,  Salviucci,  1880. 

An  interesting  collection  of  objects  connected  with  the  suppl}- and  distribu- 
tion of  water  in  ancient  Rome  is  exhibited  in  Hall  No.  VI.  of  the  Museo 
Municipale  al  Celio. 

The  following  table  concerning  the  Roman  aqueducts  may  be 
useful  to  the  student :  — 








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THE    WALLS  59 

XV.  MuRi  Urbis  (the  Walls).  —  Rome  has  been  fortified 
seven  times,  witli  seven  lines  of  walls  :  by  the  first  King,  by 
Servins  Tullius,  by  Aurelian,  by  Honorius,  by  Leo  IV.,  by  Urban 
VIII.,  and  by  the  Italian  government. 

The  literature  on  this  point  of  Roman  history  and  topography 
is  very  copious.  The  works  in  which  the  subject  is  treated  from 
a  general  [)oint  of  view  are  — 

Antonio  Niljby,  Lt  mura  di  Roma,  diser/nate  da  Sir  IV.  Gell.  1820.  —  Ste- 
fano  Pialt;,  .Six  Memoirs,  rei)rinted  from  the  Atti  dtlla  jiont.  Accadtmia  rom. 
d' Archevlijijiu.  18'20-;J.5.  —  Adolf  Becker,  Dv,  Jiomw  veteris  muris  u/i/iie  portis. 
I^eipsic,  1842.  —  Kodolfo  J^anciani,  Lt  mnra  e  la  parte  di  Servio  (in  Annal.  Inst., 
1871,  p.  40)  ;  and  Bull.  arch,  com.,  187(i,  pp.24,  121  (1888,  p.  12).  —  Heinrieh 
.Jordan,  Topoiinijihic,  vol.  i.  p.  200,  Desclireilinng  der  .servianisclien  Maner  ; 
]p.  .'}4(),  die  aureliauisclie  Mauer.  —  C'esare  (iuareiigiii,  Lt  mura  di  Roma. 
Konie,  1882. 

XVr.  MuRUS  RoMULi  (Walls  of  the  Palatine).  It  is  probable 
that  the  Alban  colonists  of  the  "  hill  of  Pales,"  protected  by 
marshes  and  cliffs,  contented  themselves  with  raising  a  palisade 
and  cutting  a  ditch  at  the  only  weak  point  of  their  natural  for- 
tress, viz.  across  the  neck  of  the  Velia.  After  coming  in  contact 
with  their  more  advanced  neighbors,  like  the  inhabitants  of  the 
turrif/era;  Antemnd',  they  thought  it  more  expedient  to  follow 
tlieir  exami>le,  and  wall  in  and  fortify  their  village,  which  was  at 
the  same  time  the  fold  of  their  caf  tie. 

The  text  most  freijuently  quoted  in  reference  to  the  IVIurus 
Romuli  is  that  of  Tacitus  (Ann.,  xii.  24),  according  to  which  the 
furrow  ploughed  by  the  hero  —  the  sulcus  primiyeiiius  —  started 
from  a  })oiut  in  the  Forum  Boarium,  marked  in  later  times  by  the 
bronze  Bidl  of  INIyron  ;  and  followed  the  valley  between  the  Palatine 
and  the  Aventine  as  far  as  the  altar  of  Consus,  the  valley  between 
the  Palatine  and  the  Ca;lian  as  far  as  the  Curiae  Veteres,  the  east 
slope  of  the  hill  as  far  as  the  Sacellum  Larum.  The  same  historian 
says  that  the  Ara  ISIaxima  of  Hercules  was  included  within  the  fur- 
row, and  Dionysius  states  that  Vesta's  temple  was  outside  it.  The 
furrow  followed  the  foot  of  the  cliffs  or  slopes  of  the  Palatine,  its 
course  being  marked  with  stone  cippi.  Others  affirm  that  the  city 
of  Romulus  was  square  (jerpaywvos —  Ronui  (.^uadrata).  The  truth 
is  that  neither  the  walls  nor  the  ))omerium  of  Romulus  can  be  said 
to  make  a  square;  that  a  line  drawn  from  l)eyond  the  Ara  Maxima 
to  the  Ara  Consi  cannot  be  said  to  go  "  along  the  foot  of  the 
cliffs  of  the  Palatine"  {per  Ima  mantis  Palatini);  that  the  valley 
in  those  days  was  covered  with  water,  deep  enough  to  be  navi- 


gated  by  canoes,  so  that  neither  a  furrow  could  be  ploughed 
through  it,  nor  stone  cippi  set  up  to  mark  the  line  of  the  furrow. 
Moreover,  the  same  marshes  extended  on  the  southeast  side  as  far 
as  the  Curiaj  Ve teres,  on  the  northwest  as  far  as  the  Temple  of 
Vesta ;  and  the  shape  of  the  Palatine  walls  was  rather  trapezoid, 
like  that  of  a  terramara  of  the  valley  of  the  Po,  than  square  like 
an  Etruscan  templum ;  while,  lastly,  the  name  of  Roma  Quadrata 
did  not  belong  to  the  city  on  the  hill,  but  to  the  altar  described  in 
"  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,"  p.  70,  which  stood  in  front  of  the 
Temple  of  Apollo. 

There  is  manifestly  a  chronological  error  in  speaking  of  places 
and  things,  not  as  they  were  in  the  earliest  days  of  Rome,  but  as 
they  appeared  after  the  draining  of  the  marshes.  A  confusion  is 
also  to  be  observed  in  ancient  and  modern  writers  with  regard  to 
the  line  of  the  walls  and  the  line  of  the  pomerium  marked  by 
stone  cippi.  The  two  are  almost  independent,  and  wide  apart. 
The  existing  remains  of  the  walls,  at  the  west  corner  of  the  hill, 
are  220  metres  distant  from  the  site  of  the  Ara  Maxima,  which 
was  itself  within  the  pomerium.  The  walls  of  Romulus  have 
been  discovered  in  six  places,  marked  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F  in  the 
annexed  map.     They  will  be  described  in  Book  II.  §  viii. 

XVII.  Other  Walls  of  the  Kingly  Period.  —  Although 
we  find  in  classic  texts  mention  of  what  may  have  been  fortifica- 
tions, independent  of  those  on  the  Palatine,  —  like  the  Murus  Ter- 
reus  Carinarum,  the  Capitolium  Vetus,  and  the  arx  or  citadel  on 
the  Aracoeli  summit  of  the  Capitoline  hill,  —  yet  there  is  but  one 
existing  relic  which  can  possibly  be  considered  as  such :  a  frag- 
ment of  a  wall  in  a  garden,  Via  dell'  Arco  di  Settimio,  No.  1.  It 
is  identical  in  material  and  style  of  masonry  with  the  walls  of  the 

Literature. —  Stefano  Piale,  Del  secondo  recinfo  di  Romafatto  da  Numa, 
e  delh  af/f/wnte  def/li  altrt  re.  Rome,  183.3.  —  Rodolfo  LaiU'iani,  Annali  Imti- 
ttito,  I9,i\,  p.  42.  — Arthur  Scheiner,  Aua  Roms  Frnhezeit.  (Mittheil.,  1895,  p. 

XVIII.  The  Walls  of  Servius  Tullius.  — In  the  eulogy 
of  Bartolomeo  Borghesi  the  late  Comm.  de  Rossi  remarks  justly 
that  we  know  more  on  some  points  of  Roman  history,  institutions, 
religion,  etc.,  than  the  ancients  did.  The  same  thing  may  be  re- 
peated as  regards  some  points  of  Roman  topography.  Dionysius, 
for  instance,  says  that  the  walls  of  Servius  Tidlius  had  become 
5v(T(vpfTot  1  in  tlie  Augustan  age,  on  account  of  the  structures  of 

1  Difficult  t(i  trace. 



'//jarlLi/,  /■'■■■ 


Fig.  25. 

every  descrii^tion,  public  and  private,  which  had  been  built 
against,  across,  and  above  them.  Owing  to  discoveries  made  since 
1860  we  can  trace  the  line  of  the  Servian  walls  and  of  the  agger, 
describe  its  structure,  and  locate 

its  gates  more  exactly  than  Dio-  SECTION   OF  WALLS 

nysius  could  have  done. 

The  walls  run  against  the  face 
of  the  cliffs  (of  the  Capitoline, 
(iuirinal,  Oppian,  Ca^lian,  and 
Aventine)  at  two  thirds  of  their 
height  above  the  plain,  and  cross 
the  intervening  vallej's  at  their 
narrowest  point. 

They  are  built  of  blocks  of 
tufa,  exactly  2  feet  high  (0.59 
metre),  placed  alternately 
lengthwise  and  crosswise,  the 
tufa  being  of  an  inferior  quality 
and  yellowish  gray  in  color. 
The  thickness  of  the  wall  varies  from  2  to  Z\  metres  ;  the  maxi- 
mum height  yet  discovered  is  12.98  metres  (Vigna  Torlonia,  Aven- 
tine, Fig.  29).  The  blocks  are  not  cemented,  at  least  not  in  the 
original  structure.  I  have  only  once  found  traces  of  lime,  in  a 
joint  of  one  of  the  buttresses  (corner  of  Via  Volturno  and  Gaeta) ; 
but,  as  a  rule,  the  use  of  cohesive  substances  seems  to  have  l)een 
unknown  to  or  despised  by  the  engineers  of  Servius.  The  blocks 
which  form  the  face  of  the  wall  are  well  squared,  and  fit  into 
each  other  so  that  the  joints  are  rendered  almost  invisible,  but 
they  are  irregularly  cut  inside.  On  the  Aventine,  however,  and 
especially  in  the  space  between  the  church  of  S.  Saba  and  that  of 
II  Priorato  di  Malta,  the  walls,  instead  of  resting  against  the  live 
rock  of  the  cliffs  or  the  earth  of  the  slopes,  have  an  inside  lin- 
ing of  concrete,  the  thickness  of  which  equals  or  exceeds  that  of 
the  opus  quadratum  itself.  This  part  of  the  fortifications  is  not 
original,  but  seems  to  have  been  rebuilt  or  strengthened  by 

Across  the  valleys  or  tablelands  the  system  of  defense  varies 
altogether.  There  is  a  ditch,  and  an  embankment  made  with  the 
earth  excavated  from  the  ditch.  Tlie  embankment  is  supported 
on  the  outer  side  by  a  strong  wall,  fortified  with  buttresses,  while 
on  the  inner  side  it  slopes  down  at  an  incline  of  35°  or  40°. 
Sometimes  there  is  a  .second  supporting  wall  on  the' inner  side, 



weaker  and  much  lower  than  the  outer  one.  Two  roads  run  par- 
allel with  the  fortification,  one  at  the  foot  of  the  inner  wall,  one 
on  the  outer  edge  of  the  ditch.  This  system  of  defense  was 
called  an  agger. 

Topographical  books  state  that  in  the  circuit  of  tlie  Servian 
city  there  was  but  one  agger,  between  the  Colline  and  the  Esqui- 
line  gates  ;  but  recent  discoveries  prove  that  all  weak  points  of  the 
circuit  were  fortified  in  that  way.  We  have  found  the  agger  in 
the  higher  part  of  the  Esquiline,  near  tiie  Palazzo  Field,  Via 
Merulana ;  on  the  Smaller  Aventine,  near  S.  Saba  ;  and  on  the  Quiri- 
nal,  by  the  Piazza  di  Magnanapoli,  etc.  Yet  there  is  no  denying 
that  the  one  between  the  Colline  and  Esquiline  gates,  for  strength, 
size,  elevation,  and  length,  is  the  agger  juor  excellence,  from  which 
a  street  (subager)  and  a  promenade  {nunc  licet  aggere  in  aprico 
spatiari)  were  named  in  classic  times,  and  a  whole  district  (Mons 
Superagius)  in  the  Middle  Ages. 

I  shall  point  out  to  the  reader  now  which  of  the  remains  of  this 


Fig.  2C. 

venerable  fortification  deserve  a  visit,  and  which  are  the  sites  of 
its  historical  gates.  (See  map  of  Walls.)  First,  as  to  the  river- 
front, Livy  (ii.  10)  and  Dionysius  (v.  23)  distinctly  as.sert  that  the 
bank  was  unprotected,  because  the  river  itself,  with  its  wide  bed 
and  swift  current,  was  considered  to  afford  a  sufficient  protection. 
Yet  there  is  no  portion  of  the  whole  circuit  of  the  Servian  city  at 
which  the  fortifications  are  more  evident  or  better  preserved  than 
at  the  river-front.  I  made  designs  of  every  fragment  of  them 
before  the  construction  of  the  modern  quays,  and  I  do  not  think 
there  is  a  break  of  50  metres  between  the  two  extreme  points 
(marked  approximately  by  the  Pons  Fabricius  and  the  Pons  Sub- 


licius).  The  construction  is  the  same  everywhere  :  a  foundation- 
wall  about  2  metres  high  above  low-water  mark,  forming  a  step 
or  a  landing  3  metres  wide,  and  a  wall  6  metres  high  sujjporting 
the  bank.  I  have  found  traces  of  cement  in  the  upper  layers  of 
stones,  as  well  as  traces  of  an  inner  lining  of  concrete.  Both  may 
l>ertain  to  later  restorations. 


Fip.  27. 

The  walls  left  the  river  halfway  between  the  clinrclies  of  S. 
Maria  Egiziaca  and  S.  Nicola  in  Carcere,  and  readied  the  rocks  of 
the  Capitol  at  the  Via  della  Bufola.  Three  gates  opened  in  this 
short  tract :  the  Fluinentana  by  the  river  (Via  della  Fiumara, 
destroyed  1882),  the  Triumphalis  (Via  della  Bocca  della  Veritk), 
and  the  Carmentalis  (Via  delhi  Bufola).     Consult  — 

Adolf  Becker,  De  niurl.%  p.  81.  —  Eniil  Braun,  ^foniiment.  InM.,  1854,  p.  78, 
tav.  X.  —  Alessandvo  Donati,  De  urbe  Rama,  p.  7!t. 

The  Capitoline  was  strongly  fortified  on  the  side  facing  the 
Campus  Martins.  Remains  of  the  wall  can  be  seen  on  the  edge  of 
the  rock  which  supports  the  Caffarelli  palace  (I)  ;  on  the  ascent  to 
the  Piazza  del  Campidoglio,  called  "  La  salitadelle  tre  Pile  "  (II)  ; 
and  in  the  substructures  of  the  monument  to  Victor  Emmanuel 
(III).  They  intersected  the  Via  di  IMarforio  between  Nos.  Sl'^ 
and  8P,  where  the  Porta  Ratumena  must  1)e  located.  The  direc- 
tion of  the  Via  Flaminia,  which  issued  from  this  gate,  is  marked 
by  the  tomb  of  C.  Poplicius  Bibulus  on  one  side,  and  the  so-called 
tomb  of  the  Claudii  on  the  other. 

From  the  Porta  Ratumena  to  tlie  Porta  Foiitinalis,  under  the 
Palazzo  Antonelli,  Piazza  Magnanapoli,  the  walls  must  have  been 
destroyed  by  Trajan  when  he  cut  away  the  sjwr  of  the  Quirinal 
to  make  room  for  his  forum.  The  Porta  Fontinalis  is  the  only 
one  left  standing  in  the  whole  circuit  (IV).     Other  remains  are 


to  be  seen  in  the  beautiful  Villa  Colonna  (V),  upon  which  rest 
those  of  the  Temple  of  the  Sun ;  others  under  the  Villa  Spithoever, 
Via  delle  Finanze  (VI).  Two  gates  opened  in  this  tract :  the 
Sanqvialis,  the  approximate  site  of  which  is  shown  by  the  tomb 
of  the  Sempronii,  discovered  in  1866  near  the  top  of  the  Salita 
della  Dataria ;  and  the  Porta  Salutaris,  under  the  Palazzo  Craw- 
shay,  Via  delle  Quattro  Fontane.  The  agger  began  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Via  di  Porta  Salaria  with  the  Via  venti  Settembre, 
crossed  the  Treasury  buildings,  the  Via  Volturno,  the  railway 
station,  the  Piazza  Fanti,  the  Via  Carlo  Alberto,  and  ended  near 
the  conservatory  of  the  gardens  of  Msecenas  in  the  Via  Merulana. 
It  was  almost  intact  before  the  construction  of  the  new  quarters 
and  of  the  railway  station ;  now  thex'e  are  scanty  remains  to  be 
seen  (VII)  in  the  Piazza  del  Maccao ;  in  the  goods  station.  Via  di 
Porta  S.  Lorenzo  (VIII)  ;  in  the  gardens  of  the  Acquario  Romano 
(IX)  ;  and  in  the  Via  Carlo  Alberto  (X).  The  Porta  Collina,  dis- 
covered in  1873  at  the  junction  of  the  Via  Goito  and  the  Via  venti 
Settembre,  was  destroyed  for  the  erection  of  the  northeast  pavilion 
of  the  Treasury  buildings.  (See  map  in  "  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  14.5.) 
Traces  of  the  Porta  Viminalis  are  visible  in  the  goods  station, 
while  the  Porta  Esquilina  is  represented  by  the  ai"ch  of  Gallienus, 
Via  di  S.  Vito. 

The  annexed  cut  (Fig.  28)  i-epresents  an  excavation  made  in  1877 
at  the  foot  of  the  agger  to  determine  the  breadth  and  depth  of  the 
great  ditch.  It  seems  that  when  the  agger  itself  was  transformed 
into  a  public  walk,  the  ditch  was  filled  up,  and  turned  into  build- 
ing lots.  Traces  of  a  private  house  can  be  seen  at  the  bottom  of 
the  trench. 

Beyond  the  last  fragment  visible  in  the  Via  Merulana  (XI)  we 
lose  sight  of  the  fortifications,  although  their  course  and  the  site 
of  the  gates  Querquetulana,  Caelimontana,  and  a  third  near  the 
Piazza  della  Navicella,  can  be  distinctly  traced  from  discoveries 
made  in  times  gone  by. 

The  famous  Porta  Capena,  which  marks  the  beginning  of  the 
Appian  Way,  seems  to  have  been  discovered  twice  :  by  Orazio 
Orlandi  in  the  latter  part  of  last  century ;  and  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Parker 
in  1867,  in  the  slope  of  the  C?eliau,  behind  the  apse  of  S.  Gregorio. 
Parker  gives  a  view  of  his  excavation  in  Plate  xviii.  of  the  "  Aque- 
ducts of  Ancient  Rome  "  (London,  Murray,  1876).  The  site  of  the 
gate  can  be  determined  to-day  by  means  of  a  remarkable  fragment 
of  the  walls  (XII)  visible  in  the  wine-cellar  of  the  Osteria  della 
Porta  Capena,  in  the  gardens  of  S.  Gregorio,  Via  di  Porta  S. 
Sebastiano,  No.  1. 


On  the  other  side  of  the  valley  the  walls  appear  again,  in  front 
and  under  the  old  abbey  of  S.  Balbina,  now  a  house  of  refuse  for 



,j„— 1, 






\  , 



Fig.  28.  —The  Ditch  of  the  Agger  of  Servius. 

women  (XIII)  ;  at  a  corner  of  the  Via  di  S.  Saba  and  the  Via  di 
Porta  S.  Paolo  (XIV)  ;  on  the  Via  di  Porta  S.  Paolo  itself,  where 


the  road  bifurcates,  one  arm  descending  towards  the  gate,  the 
other  towards  the  Monte  Testaccio  (XV).  This  is  the  finest  ruin 
of  all,  because  it  shows  the  restorations  of  the  time  of  Camillus 
resting  on  the  original  structure  of  Servius.  Fig.  29  represents 
the  i^resent  state  of  the  ruin,  but  more  than  half  of  it  is  concealed 
by  the  accumulation  of  modern  soil.  I  had  the  good  fortune  to 
see  it  completely  exposed  to  view  in  1868,  when  I  made  the  draw- 
ing a  facsimile  of  which  is  here  given. 

Tliere  is  another  fragment  to  be  seen  in  the  adjoining  Vigna 
Maccarani-Torlonia  (XVI),  some  stones  of  which  were  removed 
by  Padre  Secchi,  the  astronomer,  to  the  Observatory  of  tlie  Col- 
legio  Romano,  to  serve  as  a  pedestal  for  the  great  Merz  equatorial. 
The  walls  appear  again  against  the  cliff  of  the  Aventine,  at  the 
Arco  di  S.  Lazzaro,  Via  di  Marmorata  (XVII)  ;  and  lastly,  under 
the  convent  of  S.  Sabina,  where  they  were  laid  bai-e  in  1856 
(XVIII).  There  is  absolutely  no  trace  of  Servian  fortifications 
on  the  opposite  or  Transtiberine  side  of  the  river. 

Four  gates  opened  in  the  walls  between  the  Porta  Capena  and 
the  Tiber :  the  Naivia,  on  the  Via  Aventina,  from  which  issued 
the  Via  Ardeatina;  the  Rudusculana,  on  the  Via  di  Porta  S. 
Paolo,  from  which  issued  the  Via  Ostiensis ;  the  Navalis,  on  the 
Via  di  S.  Maria  Aveutinese  ;  and  the  Trigemina,  on  the  Via  di 

Many  stones  built  into  the  original  wall  of  Servius  are  marked 
with  signs  or  letters,  which  have  given  rise  to  much  speculation. 
Consult  — 

Luigi  Briizz.n,  Sopi-a  i  ser/ni  incisi  nci  7na.%ti  flvllc  iinirn,  etc.  (Annali  Inst., 
1876,  pis.  i,  k.)  —  Heinricli  .lorchui,  Topoyraphu',  vol.  i.  \i.  250,  pis.  1,  2. — 
Otto  Ricliter,   Uebvr  antlke  Steinmi'tzzeichtn,  1885. 

Literature.  —  Adolf  Becker,  Be  Romce  reteris  onuris  atque  portis,  p.  81; 
and  Topof/raphie,  p.  92.  —  Thomas  Uyer,  History  of  the  City  of  Rome,  p.  47. 
—  R.  Bergau,  Die  Befesiic/unc/  Romn  clurch  Tuvquinim  Prisms  unci  Serrius 
Tullius.  Gottingen,  isfn.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  BulJe  muru  e  porte  di  Servio 
(in  Ann.  Inst.,  1871,  )>.  40)  :  and  Bull.  urch.  com.,  1876,  pp.  24,  121.  — Heinrieh 
.Jordan,  Topot/rapliie,  vol.  i.  ji.  200.  — Otto  Ricliter,  i'(e  Befestiguny  des 

XTX.  Walls  of  Aurelian  and  Probus,  a.  d.  272.  —  We 
have  no  account  of  the  construction  of  the  walls  of  Aurelian. 
We  only  k)iow,  in  a  general  way,  that  the  Emperor  was  compelled 
to  fortify  the  capital  by  the  bai'barian  invasion  of  a.  d.  271,  in  the 
course  of  which  the  enemy  had  reached  the  banks  of  the  Metaurus ; 
that,  during  the  respite  between  the  Marcomannic  and  tlie  Pal- 




myrene  campaigns,  he  inclosed  the  city  mui-is  quam  ralUlissimis, 
and  that  the  great  undertaking,  begun  in  272,  was  finished  by 
Probus  about  seven  years  hiter. 

The  circuit  of  tlie  walls,  which  I  have  measured  inch  by  inch  for 
the  construction  of  the  "  Forma  Urbis,"  measures  18,837  metres. 
The  strip  of  land  occupied  by  these  fortifications  is  19  metres 
wide  :  five  of  which  are  taken  by  the  inner  "  clieminde  ronde"  four 
by  the  walls  themselves,  ten  by  the  outside  road  ;  358,000  square 
metres  were  consequently  expropriated  by  Aurelian ;  and,  as  the 
land  was  thickly  covered  with  villas,  houses,  gardens,  and  tombs, 
the  cost  of  purchase  must  have  been  considerable.  At  20  lire  the 
square  metre  it  would  I'each  7,000,000  lire. 

The  walls  consist  of  a  solid  foundation  of  concrete  from  3.-50 
to  4  metres  thick,  faced  with  triangular  bricks ;  of  a  covered  way 
with  loopholes  on  the  outside,  and  a  gallery  or  arcade  in  the  inner 
side ;  and  a  terrace  or  balcony  above,  lined  with  battlements  (Fig. 
30).  There  are  towers  at  an  interval  of  100  Roman  feet  (29.70 
metres),  projecting  from  four  to  five  metres.  Each  tower  contains 
a  staircase  giving  access  to  the  lower  corridor  and  to  the  terrace 
above.  According  to  the  survey  made  by  Ammon,  after  the 
restoration  of  the  walls  by  Arcadius  and  Honorius  in  403,  there 
wei'e  381  towers  in  all,  exclusive  of  those  of  the  mausoleum  of 
Hadrian  (Hadrianium),  which  had  been  converted  into  a  tete  du 
pont,  to  prevent  the  approach  of  the  enemy  from  the  Via  Tri- 
umphalis  and  the  Prata  Neronis.  Of  these  381  towers  only  one 
has  come  down  to  us  in  a  perfect  state  —  the  sixth  to  the  left 
of  the  Porta  Salaria.  We  can  judge  from  its  elegance  and  good 
construction  that  the  builders  of  the  walls  had  tried  to  disfigure 
the  monumental  city  as  little  as  i:)ossible ;  we  can  judge  also  how 
much  damage  the  walls  must  have  suffered  in  the  course  of  cen- 
turies, to  be  reduced  to  their  present  state  of  decay ! 

These  noble  walls,  which  have  so  often  saved  the  city  from 
pillage  and  destruction,  on  the  face  of  which  our  history  is  wi'itten 
almost  year  by  year,  and  so  carefully  preserved  even  in  the  darkest 
period  of  the  Middle  Ages,  are  now  doomed  to  disappear.  State 
and  city  have  with  equal  promptness  declined  to  undergo  the 
expense  of  keeping  them  in  repair.  A  section  of  them,  70  metres 
long,  between  the  Porta  S.  Giovanni  and  S.  Croce  in  Gerusalemme, 
fell  in  1893.  The  only  measure  taken  was  a  warning  given  to 
passers-by  that  another  portion  would  soon  share  the  same  fate. 

The  volume  of  masonry  employed  in  tlie  construction  of  the  walls 
is  estimated  at  1,033,000  cubic  metres.     The  cost  at  the  present 



day  would  liave  exceeded  26,000,000  lire,  but  we  cannot  make  any 
calculation  for  Aurelian's   time,  because  we  do  not  know  what 

Fig.  30.  — The  Covered  Way  of  the  Walls  of  Aurelian,  Vigna  Casali. 

were  the  price  of  labor  and  the  cost  of  building-materials  in  his 
day.     As  a  rule  the  walls  are  built  with  the  spoils  of  the  edifices 


which  stood  on  their  line  and  were  demolished  to  clear  the  space ; 
only  the  surface  and  the  arches  are  coated  with  bricks  made  for 
the  occasion.  Two  recent  discoveries  illustrate  this  point ;  they 
also  bear  evidence  to  the  hurry  with  which  the  work  was  done, 
and  therefore  to  the  greatness  of  the  peril  from  which  Rome  had 

A  piece  of  the  walls  was  cut  away  in  November,  1884,  between 
the  third  and  the  fourth  tower  on  the  right  of  the  Porta  S. 
Lorenzo,  for  the  opening  of  the  new  Viale  del  Camposanto.  An 
older  construction  had  been  embedded  there  in  the  thickness  of 
the  masonry,  viz.,  a  garden  wall  incrusted  with  shells,  enamel,  and 
pumice-stones,  with  niches  worked  in  a  rough  kind  of  mosaic, 
and  crowned  by  a  cornice  covered  with  sheets  of  lead.  When 
Aurelian's  engineers  met  with  this  obstacle,  they  did  not  lose 
time  in  demolishing  it,  but  embedded  it  in  their  own  masonry. 
So  far,  this  is  not  remarkable ;  but  what  remains  inexplicable  is 
that  the  statues  were  not  removed  from  their  niches. 

We  have  found  them  one  by  one  in  their  original  places,  and 
they  are  not  the  work  of  an  ordinary  chisel,  but  delicate  pieces  of 
Graeco-Ronuxn  sculpture,  so  much  so  that  Professor  Petersen  lias  not 
disdained  to  give  illustrations  of  them  in  the  "  Bull.  arch,  com.," 
vol.  xvii.,  a.  1889,  p.  17,  tav.  1,  2.  The  statues  and  the  whole  front 
of  the  garden  wall  were  not  damaged  by  the  new  consti'uction  be- 
cause the  engineers  had  taken  care  to  protect  them  with  a  coating 
of  clay.  Traces  of  this  nymphseum  are  still  to  be  seen  on  the  left 
of  the  new  Barriera  di  S.  Lorenzo.  The  second  discovery  was  made 
in  February,  1892,  on  the  line  of  the  Via  INIontebello,  between  the 
garden  of  the  English  Embassy  and  the  Praetorian  Camp.  Here  a 
private  house  of  the  first  century  stood  on  tlie  line  of  tlie  walls. 
One  would  have  expected  the  house  to  be  leveled  to  the  ground, 
and  the  walls  raised  on  the  space  left  free  by  the  demolition ;  but 
the  engineers,  in  their  haste,  satisfied  themselves  with  filling  up 
the  space  between  the  sides  of  each  room,  leaving  intact  mosaic 
pavements,  marble  stairs,  lintels,  thresholds,  and  frescoes.  This 
done,  as  soon  as  their  own  masonry  was  sufficiently  hardened,  they 

1  The  victorj'  of  Aiirelian  on  the  hanks  of  the  Metaurus  must  have  been 
so  decisive  that  the  whole  Empire  rejoiced  at  it.  It  is  recorded  even  in  the 
formulaj  of  contemporary  gaming-tables  (labulm  lusnrim).  One  of  these, 
discovered  in  1892  in  the  catacombs  of  Priscilla,  contains  the  words, "  hostes  • 
victos  •  Italia  •  gaudet  •  Indite  •  Romani;"  another,  discovered  almost  at  the 
same  time,  in  the  cemetery  of  S.  Eucharius  at  Treves,  says,  "virtus  •  imperi  • 
hostes  •  vincti  •  liidant  ■  Romani." 


shaved  off,  as  it  were,  whatever  projected  on  either  side,  and  went 
on  with  their  work. 

We  come  now  to  an  important,  and  altogetlier  new,  point  of 
research.  For  what  cause,  and  from  what  military,  teclmical,  or 
financial  reasons,  was  this  special  course  of  the  walls  selected  ? 
and  why  were  some  important  districts  of  the  city  left  out,  others 
included  which  contained  nothing  but  tombs  ?  The  answer  is 
easily  given.  The  com'se  selected  was  that  of  the  octroi,  which 
followed  closely  that  of  the  pomerium,  or  in  other  words,  the 
line  of  separation  between  the  city  proper  (continentia  cedijicla) 
and  the  suburbs  (^expatiantia  tecla).  Much  has  been  written  about 
the  octroi  line  by  — 

Theodor  Mommsen,  Bcrkhte  rl.  sacks.  Gesillsc/i. ,lHbO,  p.  3()U.  — Gio.  Battista 
dc  Rossi,  Archavol.  Anztlf/vr,  1850,  p.  147  ;  and  Piunte  di  Roma,  ch.  vii.  p.  46. 
—  Corpus  /user.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1016,  n,  b,  c.  —  Ephemeris  Ejjiijr.,  vol.  iv.  p.  276. — 
Rodolfo  Lauciaiii,  Bull.  arch,  com.,  vol.  xx.,  1892,  p.  93. 

It  was  marked  by  stone  cippi,  five  of  which  have  been  described 
by  epigraphists.  The  first  was  found,  at  the  time  of  Andrea 
Fulvio,  on  the  landing-place  of  the  Tiber,  under  the  Aventine.  It 
bore  this  inscription :  — 


which  proves  that  duties  were  levied  also  on  some  kind  of  mer- 
chandise and  provisions  which  came  by  water.  The  other  four 
belong  to  the  reorganization  of  the  octroi  made  by  M.  Aurelius  and 
Commodus  al)oat  the  year  a.  d.  175,  and  they  are  all  inscribed  with 
the  same  regulations  :  "  These  terminal  stones  have  been  set  up,  in 
consequence  of  the  quarrels  which  often  arise  between  the  importers 
and  the  tax-receivers,  to  show  which  is  the  exact  line  of  the  octioi 
according  to  the  ancient  custom." 

The  place  of  discovery  of  the  first  stone  is  uncertain  ;  the  second 
was  found  near  the  Porta  Salaria ;  the  third  near  the  Porta  Flami- 
nia ;  the  fourth  near  the  Porta  Asinaria.  They  stood,  therefore,  on 
the  very  line  followed  a  century  later  by  Aurelian's  waUs.  Now  it  is 
evident  that  whoever  establishes  a  financial  barrier  round  an  open 
city  must  try  to  take  advantage  of  every  existing  natural  or  artificial 
obstacle  to  prevent  smuggling  and  fraud.  Another  obvious  pre- 
caution is  to  reduce  to  a  minimum  the  number  of  openings,  so  as 
to  save  the  expense  of  a  large  staff  of  officers.  Between  two  ojien- 
ings,  viz.,  between  two  toll-houses,  they  must  have  raised  palisades, 
stone  walls,  hedges,  or  excavated  ditches,  unless  the  obstacles 
offered  by  the  undulations  of  the  ground  or  by  public   edifices 


afforded  sufficient  protection  against  snmggiing.  This  was  exactly 
the  case  with  Rome,  where  one  sixth  of  the  whole  octroi  line  had 
been  found  ready-made  by  the  substructure  of  the  Horti  Aciliani 
on  the  Pincian  (550  metres)  ;  by  the  inclosure  wall  of  the  Ilorti  Sal- 
lustiani  (1200  metres),  and  of  the  Praetorian  Camp  (1050  metres)  ; 
by  the  arcades  of  the  Marcian  (SCO  meti'es)  and  of  the  Claudian 
aqueducts  (475  metres)  ;  and  lastly,  by  the  Amphitheatrum  Cas- 
treuse  (100  metres).  The  octroi  line,  therefore,  of  the  time  of  M. 
Aurelius  and  Commodus  comprised  an  inclosure  built  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  financial  strategy,  with  first-class  gates  and  custom-houses 
on  the  main  roads  and  river  landings,  and  with  posterns  and  small 
pickets  on  the  smaller  lanes  and  landings  of  ferry-boats.  From 
such  financial  fortifications  to  the  walls  of  Aurelian  the  step  is  very 
short.  Aurelian  simply  changed  into  a  strong  bulwark  the  octroi 
inclosure,  respecting  its  gates,  posterns,  and  ferries. 

Rkferences.  —  Arlolf  Becker,  De  muris  atque  jwrtis.  Leipsic,  1842.  — 
Antonio  Nibby  and  William  Gell,  Le  mwa  di  Romn,  1820.  —  Eugene  Miintz, 
Les  arts  a  In  cour  des  Papes,  passim.  — G.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Bull,  arch  crist., 
serie  v.,  anno  ii.,  1891,  p.  35.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Le  mum  di  Aureliano  e  di 
Probo:  Bull.  arch,  com.,  xx.  p.  87. 

The  late  John  Henry  Parker  prepared  illustrations  of  the  walls  of  Aurelian 
by  numerous  drawings  and  photographs,  the  first  by  Cicconetti,  the  second  by 
Lucchetti.  The  collection  of  drawings  belongs  now  to  the  Conimissione  Arch, 
comunale  di  Roma  ;  the  negatives  of  the  photographic  collection  were  de- 
stroyed by  tire  in  July,  1893. 

XX.  Restoration  of  the  Walls  by  Hoxorius.  —  The  re- 
storation of  the  walls  by  Ai'cadius  and  Honorius  was  commenced, 
according  to  Claudianus,  "  audito  rumore  Getarum,"  from  the  fear 
of  an  advance  of  the  Goths  under  Alaric,  and  was  completed  in 
January,  402,  under  the  direction  of  Stilicho.  The  great  under- 
taking was  celebrated  by  several  inscriptions  engraved  above  tlie 
gates,  of  which  three  only  have  survived  destruction :  those  of  the 
portai  Tiburtina,  Prpenestina,  and  Portuensis.  (See  Corpus  Inscrip- 
tionum,  vol.  vi.  n.  1188-90.) 

These  inscriptions  speak  of  "  instauratos  in-bi  a^ternse  muros 
portas  ac  turres,  egestis  immensis  ruderibus,"  INIacrobius  Longini- 
anus  being  the  prefect  of  the  city.  The  catastrophe,  however,  was 
not  avoided,  but  deferred.  Alaric  crossed  the  Aljjs  from  Illyria 
towards  the  end  of  402,  and  showed  himself  before  the  walls 
of  INIilan,  while  Honorius  was  intrenching  himself  at  Ravenna. 
Stilicho,  by  a  miracle  of  energy  and  bravery,  collected  an  army, 
reached  the  Goths  at  Pollenzo,  and  defeated  them  in  the  spring  of 


403.  The  victory  was  celebrated  by  Houoriiis  in  the  following 
year,  with  the  last  triumph  witnessed  in  Rome,  the  last  spark 
of  a  noble  light  about  to  vanish  forever.  The  pageant  marched 
along  the  walls  just  restored,  and  ended  at  the  triumphal  arch 
raised  to  the  glory  of  the  Emperor  and  his  associates  — 


Six  years  later,  on  August  24,  410,  Alaric  and  the  Getarum 
Natio  entered  Rome  by  the  Porta  Salaria  ! 

AVithout  entering  into  particulars  concerning  this  restoration  of 
the  walls  and  gates,  I  shall  only  dwell  a  moment  on  the  tale  it 
tells  about  the  fate  of  Rome  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century. 
Stilicho  and  Honorius  found  the  walls  almost  buried  under  a  mass 
of  rubbish  and  refuse  (imjnensa  rudera)  ;  and  as  they  had  neither 
time  nor  means  to  clear  the  rubbish  away  they  leveled  it  on  the 
spot,  and  raised  at  once  the  level  of  that  strip  of  city  land  from 
nine  to  thirteen  feet.  The  thresholds  of  the  porta;  Flaminia, 
Tiburtina,  Pr?enestina,  Ostiensis  of  Honorius  are  as  much  as  this 
above  those  of  the  time  of  Aurelian.  And  what  destructions  were 
accomplished  for  the  sake  of  providing  materials !  It  is  enough 
to  quote  the  instance  of  the  Porta  Appia,  the  bastions  of  which 
were  rebuilt  of  solid  marltle,  from  the  celebrated  Temple  of  Mars 
which  stood  outside  the  gate. 

XXI.  Gates  of  Aurelian  and  Honorius.  —  The  gates  of 
the  city  of  Rome  have  seen  more  historical  events  during  the  16"24 
years  of  their  existence  than  any  other  monuments  of  the  ancient 
world.  Considering  that  even  the  volume  of  Gell  and  Nibby  is 
far  from  being  exhaustive  on  this  jioint  of  historical  topography,  T 
could  hardly  enter  into  the  subject  myself.  The  student  will  find 
detailed  information  in  the  works  mentioned  below. 

Starting  from  the  left  bank  of  the  Tiber,  above  the  Ponte  Mar- 
gherita,  we  must  mention,  first,  the  corner  tower  of  great  strength, 
which  was  considered  by  the  Romans  to  be  haunted  by  the  ghost 
of  Xero:  uhl  iimhra  Neronis  diu  mansitavit.  Later  it  was  called  Lo 

C.  Ludovico  Visconti,  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1877,  p.  195.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani, 
Forma  Urhi^,  pi.  1.  —  Constantino  Corvisieri,  Archivio  Societa  storia  patria, 
vol.  i.  p.  92,  n.  1. 

Between  the  river  and  the  Porta  Flaminia  (del  Popolo)  there 

1  See  Corjnis  Inscripiionum,  vol.  vi.  n.  1196.  The  inscription  of  the  arch 
refers  also  to  the  victory  gained  by  Stilicho  over  Radagaisus  in  405. 


was  a  beautiful  tomb,  upon  which  the  third  tower  left  of  the  gate 
is  planted. 
Ludwig  Urlichs,  Codex  topogr.,  p.  243.  —  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1891,  p.  140. 

The  Porta  Flaminia  of  llouorius,  flanked  by  two  round  towers, 
was  discovered  in  1877  during  the  demolition  of  the  two  square 
bastions  of  Sixtus  IV. 

C.  Ludovico  Visconti,  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1877,  p.  209. — Constantino  Corvi- 
^\e.Y\,  Archivlo  Societa  storia  patria,  vol.  i.  p.  79,  n.  1.  —  Pasqiiale  Adinolfi, 
Roma  nell'  eta,  di  mezzo,  vol.  i.  p.  81.  —  Giuseppe  Tomniasetti,  Archivlo  Societa 
storia  patria,  vol.  vi.  p.  173. 

Behind  the  apse  of  S.  Maria  del  Popolo  the  walls  reach  the 
northeast  corner  of  the  Pincian  liill,  the  substVuctures  of  which, 
built  by  the  Acilii  Glabriones,  were  so  gigantic  in  size  and  height 
that  no  extra  works  of  defense  were  added  to  them  by  Aiirelian. 
At  the  opposite  or  northeast  corner  of  the  hill  we  find  the  "  muro 
torto,"  a  piece  of  the  substructure  which  is  inclined  outwards  at 
an  angle  of  six  or  seven  degrees.  Procopius  (Goth.,  i.  23)  de- 
scribes it  exactly  as  we  see  it  now.  In  the  Middle  Ages  women 
of  ill  fame  were  buried  at  the  foot  of  the  inclined  wall,  and  in 
more  modern  times  men  and  women  who  died  impenitent. 

The  Porta  Pinciana,  originally  a  modest  postern,  was  trans- 
formed into  its  present  shape  by  Belisarius.  It  opens  on  the  Via 
Salaria  vetus,  which  took  the  name  of  Pincia  or  Pinciana  at  the 
end  of  the  fourth  century.  This  gate  will  always  get  a  share  of 
the  interest  we  feel  for  the  gallant  defender  of  Rome  in  .537.  The 
Goths  of  Vitiges  were  encamped  on  the  INIonti  Parioli,  watching 
the  Porta  Pinciana ;  and  on  the  site  of  the  Villa  Albani,  watching 
the  Porta  Salaria.  The  best  feat  of  the  siege  was  the  sally  made 
by  Belisarius,  in  the  course  of  which  the  barbarians  were  driven 
back  as  far  as  the  Anio.  The  Byzantine  leader  rode  a  white 
charger  named  ^d\iov  by  Procopius,  and  Balan  by  the  Goths ;  but 
in  spite  of  prodigies  of  valor,  his  men  began  to  waver,  and  he 
was  obliged  to  retreat.  The  garrison  of  the  Porta  Pinciana,  not 
recognizing  the  leader,  covered  as  he  was  with  dust  and  blood, 
obliged  the  retreating  party  to  face  the  enemy  again  and  drive 
them  away  from  the  walls.  Belisarius  at  last  entered  the  gate 
amidst  frantic  cheering,  and  his  name  was  given  to  the  gate  itself 
(Porta  Belisaria)  in'memory  of  the  eventful  day. 

From  the  Pinciana  to  the  Salaria  the  walls  of  Aurelian  are  in 
splendid  preservation.  A  tower,  the  sixth  before  reaching  the  Sa- 
laria, is  the  only  perfect  one  in  the  whole  circuit.     The  Porta 


Salaria  of  Honorius,  injured  by  the  bombardment  of  September 
20,  1870,  was  rebuilt  in  the  present  form  by  Vespignani.  The 
discoveries  made  on  this  occasion  are  described  by  — 

C.  Ludovico  Visconti,  llfanciullo  Q.  Siilpicio  ^fassimo.  Rome,  1871.  —  Wil- 
helm  Henzen,  Sepulcri  untichi  rinvenutl  alia  porta  Salaria  (in  Bull.  Inst., 
1871,  p.  98.)  —  Giovanni  Ciofi,  Inscnpt.  .  .  .  Q.  Sulpicii  Maximi.  Rome, 
1871.— J.  H.  Parker,  Tombs  in  and  near  Rome,  Oxford,  1877,  pi.  10.  —  Ro- 
dolfo  Lanciani,  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  280. 

The  Porta  Pia,  a  work  of  1561,  by  Matteo  da  Castello,  stands 
75  metres  to  the  left  of  the  ancient  gate  of  the  time  of  Honorius. 
It  was  first  called  Nomentana,  and  later  on,  Porta  S.  Agnetis  and 
Porta  della  Donna.  Its  two  round  towers  are  built,  as  usual,  over 
classic  tombs.  The  one  on  the  right  was  excavated  in  1827  by 
Zamboni.  It  belonged  to  Quintus  Haterius,  called  by  Tacitus 
"  senex  fcedissimoe  adulationis." 

After  passing  two  posterns  in  the  portion  of  the  walls  which 
surround  the  garden  of  the  Englisli  Embassy,  we  meet  with  the 
Pr.-etorian  camp,  described  in  Book  IV. ;  and,  on  the  other  side 
of  it,  with  the  Porta  Chiusa,  which  gave  access  to  the  Vivarium 
or  imperial  menagei'ie,  where  wild  beasts  were  kept  in  readiness 
for  tlie  games  of  the  amphitheatre.  The  walls  on  this  part  of 
the  city  have  been  largely  restored  with  blocks  of  stone,  from  the 
inclosure  wall  of  the  Vivarium. 

The  Porta  S.  Lorenzo,  spanning  the  Via  Tiburtina,  was  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  before  1869,  when  Pius  IX.  caused  it  to  be 
demolished,  to  make  use  of  the  stones  of  which  it  was  built  for 
the  foundations  of  the  Colonna  del  Concilio  on  the  Janiculum. 
The  gate  was  double :  the  outside  arch,  dating  from  the  time  of 
Augustus,  carried  the  Marcia,  Tepula,  and  Julia  over  the  road; 
the  inside  formed  part  of  the  fortifications.  Fig.  31  (preceding 
page),  from  a  photograph  taken  in  1868,  shows  tlie  rise  in  the 
level  of  tlie  city  from  the  time  of  Augustus  to  that  of  Honorius, 
as  the  threshold  of  the  gate  of  the  fourth  century  is  on  the  same 
level  with  the  spring  of  the  arch  of  Augustus. 

Between  the  Porta  Tiburtina  (S.  Lorenzo)  and  the  Prfenestina 
(Maggiore)  the  walls  follow  the  line  of  the  arcades  of  the  Marcia. 
Tepula,  and  Julia,  beautiful  remains  of  which  can  be  seen  in  the 
inner  side,  near  the  new  barriera. 

The  Porta  Prfenestina,  a  magnificent  work  of  Claudius  in  tlie 
so-called  rustic  style,  served  originally  for  the  tran.sit  of  the 
Claudia  and  Anio  Novus  over  the  roads  leading  to  Prseneste  and 
Labicum.     Honorius  walled  up  one  of  the  archw^ays,  and  fortified 



the  other  with  towers  resting  on  tombs.  Tlie  towers  and  the  gate 
were  destroyed  in  1838,  when  the  pcwariwn  of  the  baker  M.  Ver- 
gilius  Eurysaces  and  of  his  wife  Atistia  were  laid  bare. 

Tlie  Porta  S.  Lorenzo. 

Luigi  ("aiiina,  SuJ  Juogo  denomiiiato  la  Speranza  rercJiIa.  Rome,  1839.  — Bull. 
/ws^,"l8:i8,  |).  144.  —  .4'«».  hjsl.,  1838,  p.  -221. —Curjjus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  pp.  222, 
223  ;  vol.  vi.  n.  1958. 


The  next  piece  of  the  wall,  from  the  Porta  Maggiore  to  S.  Croce 
in  Gerusalemme,  must  be  visited  from  the  garden  annexed  to  this 
church.  It  appears  like  a  combination  of  aqueducts  and  fortifi- 
cations, of  classic,  mediaeval,  and  modern  structures,  i\^'-clad  and 
exceedingly  picturesque.  The  entrance  is  from  the  first  gate  on 
the  left  of  the  church. 

After  passing  the  Amphitheatrum  Castrense,  described  in  Book 
IV.  §  XV.,  the  great  breach  produced  by  the  collapse  of  the  walls 
in  1893,  and  the  Porta  S.  Giovanni,  built  by  Gregory  XIII.  in 
l.')7o,  we  reach  the  Porta  Asinaria,  which,  although  sunk  deep  in 
the  ground,  is  one  of  the  best  preserved  of  Roman  gates.  Through 
it  Belisarius  entered  on  December  9,  .580,  while  the.  Gothic  garri- 
son was  escaping  by  the  Porta  Flaminia.  We  can  follow  the 
i:>rogress  of  one  and  the  retreat  of  the  other  army,  and  the  vicissi- 
tudes of  the  war,  by  the  way  contemporary  inscriptions  are  dated. 
In  the  lands  belonging  to  or  reconquered  by  the  Byzantines  the 
epitaplis  of  5o0  are  dated  "  post  consulatum  Belisarii ;  "  in  those 
occupied  by  the  Goths,  "  iterum  post  consulatum  Paulini  iunioris." 
There  was,  however,  in  Home  an  obscure  man  whose  faith  in  the 
liberation  of  the  city  from  the  barbaric  rule,  at  the  hand  of  Beli- 
sarius, was  never  shaken.  Ilis  tombstone,  now  in  the  "  Sacre 
Grotte  Vaticane,"  says  that  John,  the  book-keeper  of  the  tavern  of 
Isidorus,  had  died  on  May  '23,  536,  consvlatv  vilisari  viri 
CLAKissiMi.  It  was  engraved  six  months  before  the  retreat  of  the 
Goths.  Ten  years  later  the  same  gate  was  tlirown  open  to  Totila 
by  the  treachery  of  a  body  of  Isaurians. 

There  is  a  postern  under  the  Lateran  palace,  and  farther  on, 
where  the  IVIarrana  of  Calixtus  II.  enters  the  city,  a  gate  now 
closed,  the  classic  name  of  which  seems  to  be  Porta  Metroni.  An 
inscription  inside  it  mentions  the  restoration  of  this  stretch  of 
the  walls  made  in  11.")"  by  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.,  R(egnante)  D(omino) 
N(ostro  Friderico)  8(emper)  A(ugusto).  The  erasure  of  the 
name  of  Barbarossa  must  have  taken  place  in  1167,  when  the  city 
was  besieged  by  the  allied  forces  of  the  Tusculans  and  of  tlie 

The  next  gate,  tlie  Latina,  is  beautifully  preserved,  but  closed 
like  the  Porta  Metroni.  There  is  the  Christian  monogram  above 
the  arch  between  the  mystic  letters  A  and  n. 

Antonio  XiMiy,  Ronm  anfirn,  vol.  i.  p.  148.  —  Giuseiipc  Tuniniasetti,  La  via 
Latina,  p.  fj.     IJome,  1880. 

The  Porta  S.  Sebastiano,  the  Appia  of  .\urelian  and  Ilonorius, 


was  rebuilt  by  the  latter  with  the  spoils  of  the  Temple  of  Mars 
"  extra  muros.''  1  am  sure  that  if  the  blocks  of  marble  could  be 
examined  from  the  inside  of  the  two  bastions,  they  would  all  be 
found  sculptured  or  engraved  like  those  of  the  Porta  del  Popolo 
of  Sixtus  IV.  On  the  right  post  of  the  gate,  and  concealed  by 
the  wooden  folding  frame,  is  engraved  the  figure  of  an  angel,  with 
the  inscription,  "  In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1327,  xi.  indiction,  Sept. 
29,  in  the  feast  of  S.  Michael,  a  foreign  army  [that  of  King  Robert 
of  Naples]  tried  to  force  its  way  into  the  city,  but  was  repulsed 
by  the  people  of  Rome  led  by  Jacopo  de'  Ponziani." 

Orazio  Marucchi,  Silhir/e  di  alcune  iscrizioni,  etc.,  p.  100,  n.  47. 

On  the  right  of  the  Porta  S.  Sebastiano  opens  one  of  the  pos- 
terns used  only  in  jubilee  years,  and  walled  up  since  the  Na- 
poleonic times.  Others  are  to  be  seen  on  the  side  of  each  gate 
leading  to  great  places  of  pilgrimage,  like  the  Salaria  (Forma 
Urbis,  pi.  iii.),  the  Tiburtina,  and  the  Ostiensis.  After  the  tenth 
tower  there  is  a  fine  specimen  of  brickwork  of  the  time  of  the 
Antonines,  a  door  flanked  by  half  columns  of  the  Corinthian  order, 
with  finely  cut  capitals  and  frieze.  It  does  not  belong  to  a  tomb, 
as  Nibby  and  others  have  suggested,  but  to  a  private  villa  dis- 
covered at  the  beginning  of  this  century  in  the  Vigna  Volpi,  within 
the  walls. 

The  Rastione  del  Sangallo,  a  few  steps  farther  on,  carefully  kept 
in  repair  up  to  1870,  is  now  abandoned  to  its  fate,  and  its  brick 
facing  is  spoilt  by  vegetation  which  almost  hides  it  from  view. 
Huelsen  has  discovered  in  the  Ufiizi  the  original  design  of  Antonio 
da  Sangallo,  which  shows  the  portion  of  the  wall  destroyed  by 
Paul  III.  to  make  room  for  this  bulwark,  which  was  400  metres 
long,  with  nine  towers  and  one  gate.  The  gate  is  undoubtedly  the 
Ardeatina,  ou  the  subject  of  which  consult  — 

Antonio  Nibby,  Dint  ami  di  Romn,  vol.  iii.  p.  560.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi, 
Roma  sotterraiiea,  vol.  ii.  p.  8.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Topor/rajjhie,  vol.  i.  pp. 
2.33,  .3G8.  —  Giuseppe  Tommasetti,  Architno  Societa  storla  j)atria,  1879,  p.  385; 
1880,  p.  135.— Christian  Huelsen,  Mittheil.,  1894,  p.  320,  pi.  9. 

The  Porta  Ostiensis,  now  di  S.  Paolo,  the  last  on  the  left  bank, 
dates  from  the  time  of  Ilonorius,  its  level  being  nearly  four  metres 
higher  than  that  of  the  pyramid  of  Cestius.  The  treacherous 
Isaurians  thi-ew  it  open  to  the  Goths  in  549.  King  Ladislas  en- 
tered it  in  1407,  and  caused  it  to  be  walled  up,  but  the  Romans 
reopened  it  in  1410. 

The  walls  did  not  end  at  their  junction  with  the  Tiber,  but 


turned  inwards,  following  the  left  bank  for  780  metres,  until  they 


Fig.  ;VJ.  -  l)(i(.r  nf  tlif  First  Oiitiirj-  Imilt  into  tlie  Walls  of  Aurclian. 

met  with  those  of   the  opposite  shore.     Tliere  were  two  great 
towers  to  protect  the  entrance  to  Rome  by  water,  a  chain  being 


drawn  at  night  between  them.  The  towers  are  represented  in  the 
above  sketch  by  Van  der  Aa  (Fig.  33). 

The  walls  on  the  Transtiberine  side,  still  perfect  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  have  now  disappeared,  except  for  a  short  space  on  either 
side  of  the  Porta  Septimiana.  There  were  three  gates  :  the  Por- 
tuensis,  on  the  road  to  the  Portus  August! ;  the  Aurelia,  on  the 
top  of  the  Janiculuin ;  and  the  Septimiana,  on  the  road  towards 
the  Vatican  district. 

The  Portuensis  stood  453  metres  in  front  of  the  present  one, 
built  in  1644  by  Innocent  X.  Its  site  is  indicated  in  Nolli's  plan. 
It  had  a  double  archway,  and  on  the  frieze  above  was  engraved 
the  inscription  of  Ilonorius  (Corpus,  vi.  1190).  The  Aurelia  had 
changed  its  classic  name  into  that  of  S.  Pancratius  since  the  time 
of  Procopius.     Urban  VIIL  rebuilt  it  in  1044,  and  I'ius  IX.  after 

Pig.  33.  —  Tlie  Two  Towers  at  the  Entrance  to  the  Harbor  of  Rome. 

the  French  bombardment  of  1S49.     The  Septimiana  was  reduced 
to  its  present  state  by  Alexander  VI.  in  1498. 

XXII.  Walls  of  Leo  IV.,  Leopolis,  Joiiannipolis,  Lau- 
RENTiOPOLis.  —  The  construction  of  the  walls  of  Leo  IV.  for  the 
defense  of  the  Vatican  suburb  and  of  the  basilica  of  S.  Peter  is 
a  consequence  of  the  first  Saracenic  invasions.  From  Palermo 
and  Ca]ip  Lilybiieum,  which  had  already  been  named  Mars-allah 
(Marsala,  the  narl)or  of  (iod),  the  fleet  of  the  Infidels  sailed  for 
the  Bay  of  Naples  in  845,  and  after  a  long  stay  at  ]\Iisenum, 

WALLS    OF   LEO   LV  81 

advanced  towards  the  moiitli  of  the  Tiber  in  846.  The  i'eeble 
garrison  of  Gregorioi)olis  (Ostia.  recalled  to  life  and  fortified  by 
Gregory  IV.)  was  easily  overcome,  and  the  l)arbarians  were  pre- 
vented from  taking  possession  of  Rome  rather  by  the  strength  of 
its  walls  than  by  the  valor  of  its  defenders. 

To  revenge  themselves  for  their  repulse,  the  Saracens  wrecked 
the  two  suburban  churches  of  S.  Peter  and  S.  Paul,  and  carried 
away  the  inestimable  treasures  which  the  faithful  had  accumulated 
in  the  course  of  centuries  over  the  tombs  of  the  Apostles.  The 
sight  of  the  burning  ruins  caused  the  death  of  Pope  Sergius  II., 
and  the  panic-stricken  citizens  elected  Leo  IV.  as  his  successor. 

A  curious  discovery  was  made  some  years  ago  by  Signor  Pietro 
Kocclii  in  connection  witii  one  of  these  Saracenic  inroads.  Wliile 
excavating  tiie  remains  of  a  temple,  in  the  farm  of  La  Valchetta, 
six  miles  below  Rome  on  the  road  to  Ostia,  he  discovered  tiaces 
of  one  of  their  camps,  consisting  mainly  of  daggers  and  poniards 
with  curved  blades  of  Oriental  make.  The  Saracens  liad  over- 
thrown the  temple,  but  columns,  frieze,  and  capitals  were  found 
lying  In  situ,  together  with  a  statue  of  liacchus  in  Pentelic  mar- 
ble. The  statue,  slightly  restored  by  Fabi-Altini,  adorned  the 
studio  of  the  late  Mr.  W.  W.  Story  in'l.S92. 

I^eo  IV.  lost  no  time  in  relieving  the  fortunes  of  Rome:  he 
nuide  an  alliance  with  (iaeta,  Amalfi,  and  Naples,  organized  a 
tieet,  and,  taking  the  command  of  the  allied  forces,  attacked  the 
Infidels  at  Ostia,  near  the  moutli  (if  the  Tiber,  and  gained  a  com- 
jilete  victory  over  them.^ 

To  i)revent,  however,  the  repetition  of  the  same  occurrence, 
the  ]X)])e  determined  to  surround  S.  Peter's  and  the  Borgo  with  a 
fortified  inclosure,  the  remains  of  which  are  still  to  be  .seen  in  the 
gardens  of  the  Vatican  and  in  the  so-called  Corridojo  di  Castello. 

The  study  of  this  work  of  niediieval  military  engineering  is 
instructive,  and  .shows  how  carefully  Leo  IV.  liad  tried  to  imitate 
the  structure  of  the  Aurelian  walls.  For  those  who  have  not  the 
fjjiportunity  of  examining  the  Leonine  walls  in  the  gardens  of 
the  Vatican — where  the  best  jireserved  portion,  including  two 
round-towers,  is  to  be  seen — the  most  favorable  2)oint  of  observa- 
tion is  the  courtyard  adjoining  the  church  of  S.  Angelo  dei  Corri- 
dori.  The  wall  is  V2  feet  thick,  and  has,  or  rather  had,  a  double 
gallery,  —  one   in  the   thickness  of    the  wall,  supported  by  open 

1  This  naval  battle  has  been  (lescril)t'(l  l)y  (Jufilit'Imotti  in  chap.  xi.  of  tlie 
Sfuria  dclhi  maririd  ponfificiii,  and  illiisfratcd  by  Haphacl  in  fresco  No.  IV.  of 
the  Stntiza  dell^  /ncmi/in  di  Bovijo. 


arcades  on  the  inward  side,  and  one  on  the  top,  level  with  the 
battlements.  The  lower  gallery  was  afterwards  transformed  into 
a  passage,  II  Corridojo  di  Castello,  connecting  the  palace  of  the 
Vatican  with  the  fortress  of  S.  Angelo.  Many  popes  and  cardinals 
have  escaped  either  from  death  or  from  servitude  by  means  of 
this  corridor,  one  of  the  leading  historical  events  in  connection 
with  it  being  the  flight  of  Pope  Clement  VII.  from  the  hordes  of 
Charles  V.  led  by  the  Constable  de  Bourbon. 

The  length  of  the  wall  is  about  3000  metres  ;  the  height  varies 
from  15  to  22  metres;  the  most  exposed  angles  are  protected  by 
round-towers,  two  of  which  are  still  in  existence,  and  form  a  con- 
spicuous landmark  of  the  Vatican  landscape.  The  woi'k  does 
credit  to  Leo  IV.,  considering  the  poverty  of  the  means  at  his 
disposal.  Two  inscriptions  in  the  arch  which  spans  the  Via  di 
Porta  Angelica  give  important  details  of  the  scheme  adopted  to 
obtain  speedy  work  and  cheap  labor. 

The  first  says  :  "  In  the  time  of  our  Lord  the  Pope  Leo  IV.,  the 
Militia  Saltisina  has  built  these  two  towers  and  the  intermediate 
wall  (pcigina)  ;'^  the  other,  likewise:  "In  the  time  of  our  Lord 
the  Pope  Leo  IV.,  the  Militia  Capracorum  has  built  this  tower  and 
the  wall  which  connects  it  with  the  next."  It  appears  from  these 
inscriptions  that  the  citizens  of  Rome  being  unequal  to  the  task 
of  completing  the  fortification  in  the  required  time,  the  colonists 
of  the  domus  cultce  (fortified  farms  of  the  Campagna)  were  called 
upon  to  take  a  share  in  the  work.  Each  section  of  the  walls  was 
assigned  to  a  company  of  soldier  workmen  ;  and  here  we  find  the 
mention  of  two :  the  company  from  Capracorum,  that  is  to  say 
from  Veil  (Isola  Fai'uese),  whose  silent  ruins  had  been  recalled  to 
life  by  Hadrian  I. ;  and  the  company  from  Saltisina,  a  colony  on 
the  road  to  Ardea,  fifteen  miles  from  Rome.  Both  of  them  declare 
tliat  they  have  finished  their  special  part  of  the  construction 
under  the  direction  of  a  certain  Agatho,  who  seems  to  have  been 
the  designer  and  chief  engineer  of  the  walls.  The  new  city  was 
solemnly  styled  Civitas  Leoniana.  and  tables  inscribed  with  its 
name  were  fixed  on  each  gate. 

Other  records  of  this  work  have  been  collected  by  De  Rossi  in 
his  memoir  entitled  "  Le  prime  raccolte  di  antiche  iscrizioni " 
(Giornale  arcadico,  1850).  See  also  "  Inscriptiones  christianse 
Urbis  Romfe,"  vol.  ii.  pp.  324-326. 

There  were  three  gates  and  two  jiosterns  in  Leopolis.  The 
first,  called  Porta  S.  Petri,  opened  on  the  ^Elian  bridge  under  the 
bastions  of  the  Castle  (S.  Angelo).     The  second,  called  Posterula 



S.  Angeli,  corresponds  approximately  witli  the  present  Porta  Cas- 
tello.  The  third,  called  Sancti  Peregrini  (near  the  Angelica  of 
Pins  IV.))  opened  nnder  the  pope's  residence  towards  the  Via  Tri- 
umphalis.  The  i'onrth,  Porta  in  Tnrrione,  corresponds  with  the 
Porta  Cavalleggeri  of  the  present  day.  The  fifth,  named  Poste- 
rula  Saxonum,  was  transformed  by  A.  da  Sangallo  into  the  monu- 
mental Porta  di  Santo  Spirito. 

Fig.  34.  —  Tower  of  Leo  IV.  in  the  Vatican  Gardens. 


Bastions  of  Pius  IV.  in  the  fore- 

JoHANXiPOLis.  —  John  VIII.  in  880  did  for  S.  Paul's  what  Leo 
IV.  had  done  for  S.  Peter's,  with  this  difference,  that  while  the 
Vatican  Basilica  and  the  Borgo  A^ecchio  were  included  in  the  city, 
the  Basilica  Ostiensis  remained  a  detached  fort,  communicating 
with  the  city  by  means  of  a  portico  over  a  mile  long.  We  must 
acknowledge  that  the  Romans  did  not  show  the  same  zeal  and 
reverence  towards  the  two  Apostles.  S.  Paul's  tomb  was  allowed 
to  be  profaned  and  to  remain  abandoned  for  over  ten  years,  until 


the  poutificate  of  Benedict  III.  (855-858),  who  "  sepulchrum,  quod 
a  Sarracenis  destructum  fuerat,  perornavit."  The  fortifications 
were  begun  only  in  or  about  880,  and  consisted  of  walls  and  tow- 
ers, like  those  of  Borghetto,  Castel  Savello,  etc.,  including  a  con- 
siderable space  of  ground  on  either  side  of  the  road  to  Ostia,  and 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Tiber.  An  inscription  in  seven  distichs, 
above  the  gate  facing  Rome,  contained  the  following  words  :  — 


The  fortress  was  of  considerable  strength,  as  we  can  argue  from 
the  vigorous  defense  which  Stefano  Corsi  made  in  it  against  Pope 
Paschal  II.  in  1099.  A  document  of  1074  sjieaks  of  the  castellum 
S.  Pauli  quod  vacatur  lohannipolis  as  still  in  good  condition  ;  but 
the  so-called  Anonymus  Magiiabecchianus,  who  wrote  between 
1410  and  1415,  says  that  it  had  disappeared  long  before  his  time. 
I  have  gone  over  the  ground  covered  by  Johannipolis  many  times, 
without  finding  a  trace  of  the  fortifications,  except  perhaps  on 
the  river-side,  where  I  saw  in  1890  ruins  of  what  appeared  to  be  a 

LiTERATUKK. — Muratori,  Antiqq.  med.  mv!,  vol.  ii.  dis!<.  xxvi.  p.  40.3. — 
Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi, /«sc?-.  christ.  Urbis  RoiruB,  vol.  ii.  p.  326.  —  Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Leopolis  and  Johannipolis,  the  Esquiliiie,  .June,  1892. — Louis  Du- 
chesne, Liber  pontificnlis,  vol.  ii.  p.  298.  —  Giuseppe  Tommasetti,  Archivio 
storia  patria,  a.  1896,  fasc.  i. 

Laurentiopolis.  —  A  second  detached  fort  was  built  about  the 
same  time  for  the  protection  of  the  basilica  of  S.  Lorenzo  fuori  le 
Mura,  but  no  historical  document  mentions  the  fact.  S.  Lawrence 
was  held  by  the  Romans  almost  in  the  same  veneration  as  the  two 
Apostles,  and  a  portico  was  built  for  the  convenience  of  pilgrims 
from  the  Porta  Tiburtina  to  liis  grave,  exactly  like  those  which 
led  from  the  J^^lian  bridge  to  S.  Peter's  and  from  the  Porta  Osti- 
ensis  to  S.  Paul's.  A  document  of  the  time  of  Urban  VIII. 
(1623-44),  discovered  by  Armellini,  says  :  "  There  are  yet  con- 
siderable remains  of  the  wall  which  once  surrounded  the  basilica 
of  S.  Lorenzo  like  a  castle  ;  they  are  better  preserved  on  the  side 
of  the  Via  Tiburtina."  Laurentiopolis  has  now  completely  dis- 
appeared, but  I  am  able  to  reproduce  here  a  sketch  of  its  fortifi- 
cations drawn  about  1534  by  Martin  Heemskerk. 

XXm.  The  Fortifications  of  Paul  III.,  Pius  IV.,  and 
Urban  VIII.  —  The  horrors  which  Rome  suffered  at  the  time  of  the 
Sacco  del  Borbone,  in  1527,  were  still  fresh  in  the  memories  of  the 


Court  and  of  the  population  when  Cardinal  Farnese  was  elected 
pope  with  the  title  of  Paul  III.  One  of  the  first  thoughts  of 
this  great  and  generous  man  was  to  secure  the  city  from  a  repe- 
tition of  the  occurrence,  and  Antonio  da  Sangallo  was  commis- 
sioned to  draw  up  a  plan  for  the  fortifications.  The  survey  he 
made  of  the  ground  and  the  sketches  of  his  plan  of  defense  are 
preserved  in  the  I'ffizi  at  Florence.  (T)i^segni  301, 1015, 1019,  1481, 
1514,  etc.)  These  drawings  show  liis  proposal  to  reduce  the  cir- 
cuit of  the  walls  (on  the  left  bank)  by  one  third   at  least,  in- 

s,t>  ,: 

'  1 1   'mt^      ^ 


43iiirr'^'  i/S^'i.  t^**^ 

Fig.  35.  —  The  Fortifications  of  Laurentiopolis.     By  M.  Heemskerk. 

closing  at  the  same  time  in  the  line  of  defenses  the  Borgo  Vati- 
cano,  which  was  very  inefiiciently  protected  by  the  crumbling 
walls  of  Leo  IV.  Bastions  with  double  wings  were  to  be  raised 
at  intervals  of  500  metres,  the  centres  of  defense  being  the  castle 
of  S.  Angelo  for  the  right  bank  and  the  Lateran  for  the  left. 

The  works  were  begun  at  once  with  great  determination,  but, 
as  time  passed  and  the  recollections  of  Bourbon's  atrocities  faded 
quietly  away,  tliey  were  given  np  altogetlier.  There  remain  as 
specimens  of  Antonio  da  Sangallo's  engineering  skill  —  (1)  the 
bastione  di  Belvedere  ;  (2)  the  bastion  of  the  Priorato  or  Aven- 
tino ;  (8)  the  bastion  of  the  Yigna  Cavalieri  or  Antoui(ni)ano ; 
(4)  the  foundations  of  a  third  l)astiou  under  S.  Saba.  Many 
plans  of  Rome  of  the  time  of  Paid  IV.  give  the  whole  system  of 
defenses  as  finished  ;  others  represent  the  earthworks  thrown  up 


in  haste  at  tlie  approach  of  the  duke  of  Alva.  The  best  of  all 
was  engraved  in  1557  by  Lafreri,  under  the  title  :  "  Recens  .  .  . 
topograpliia  cum  vallis,  fossis,  et  aggeribus  ceeterisque  qute  ad 
hostiuni  impediend(as)  irruptiones  per  universum  urb(is)  ani- 
bitum  .  .  .  lieri  curavit  raul(us)  II II.  dum  bello  parthenop(eio) 
premeretur."     Pius  IV.  fortified  the  Borgo  Nuovo  in  1562. 

Urban  VIII.,  fearing  the  hostile  action  of  the  duke  of  Parma, 
began  in  1642  a  new^  line  of  walls  on  the  ridge  of  the  Janiculum, 
which  are  still  kept  in  repair  for  military  purposes.  They  start 
from  the  Porta  Tvirrionis  of  Leo  IV.  (Cavalleggeri),  and  reach  the 
Tiber  at  liipa  Grande.  Among  the  works  of  art  discovered  in 
building  these  bastions,  Bartoli  mentions  "  many  statues,  one  of 
which,  of  bronze,  is  now  in  the  Barberini  palace,  a  bisellium  or 
magistrate's  chair  of  bronze  inlaid  with  silver,  and  several  objects 
of  curiosity."  The  Ijronze  statue  represents  Septimius  Severus, 
and  was  probably  set  up  in  the  garden  of  his  son  Septinnus  Geta. 
It  was  lately  in  the  possession  of  Prince  Sciarra,  and  must  have 
shared  the  fate  of  the  rest  of  his  valuable  collections.  Urban 
VIII.  built  but  one  gate,  the  Porta  S.  Pancrazio,  ruined  by  the 
French  guns  in  1849.  The  scarce  engraving  of  the  time,  repro- 
duced on  the  opposite  page,  shows  the  entry  of  the  invaders  on  July 
4th  of  that  year. 

Referknces.  —  Vincenzo  de  Marchi,  ArchittUura  militnre,  p.  2  A,  ed. 
1590.  —  Maggi,  FortifrnzUme,  p.  115,  Venice,  1564.  —  Scamozzi,  ArchUettura 
univermle,  p.  108,  Venice,  1615.  —  Alberto  Gnglielmotti,  Storia  delle  fortifi- 
cazioni  della  gpinr/f/ia  romnna,  viii.  2,  p.  320.  —  Mario  Borgatti,  Le.  mum  di 
Roma,  in  Rivista  di  Artiglieria  e  Genio,  1890,  p.  391.  —  Christian  Huelsen, 
Mittheilunr/en,  1894,  p.  328. 

XXIV.  Modern  Fortifications.  —  Eighteen  outlying  forts 
and  batteries  have  been  raised  by  the  Italian  government  for 
the  protection  of  the  capital  of  the  kingdom  against  a  coup  de 
main  from  the  sea.  They  follow  each  other  in  this  order,  going 
from  left  to  right :  T.  Monte  Antemne  ;  II.  Batteria  Xomentana ; 
III.   Pratalata ;    IV.  Tiburtino ;    V.  Prenestino ;   VI.    Tusculano ; 

VII.  Porta  Furba ;  VIII.  Appia  Pignattelli ;  IX.  Appia  Antica ; 
X.  Ardeatino;  XI.  Ostiense;  XIL  Portuense;  XIII.  Bravetta 
(Villa  Troiani)  ;  XIV.  Aurelia  Antica;  XV.  Boccea,  on  the  Via 
Cornelia;  XVT.  Casal  Braschi,  on  the  Via  Traiana:  XVII.  Trion- 
fale;  XVIII.  Monte  Mario.  Xo  objects  or  ruins  of  archfeological 
interest  have  been  discovered  in  building  forts  numbers  III,  V, 

VIII,  XVI,  and  XVII ;  the  construction  of  the  others  has  given 
occasion  for  valual)le  finds.  They  are  described  most  carefully  in 
the  "  Notizie  degli  Scavi "  from  1876  to  1884. 



XXV.  The  Fourteen  Regions  of  Augustus.  —  Whoever 
undertakes  to  separate  into  a  certain  number  of  wards  a  city, 
not  new  or  young,  but  many  centuries  old,  and  already  divided 
roughly  by  the  undulations  of  tJie  ground,  by  popular  habits,  by 
relationship  of  neighborhood,  must,  if  he  wants  to  succeed,  pay 
attention  to  all  these  elements.  Augustus,  in  attempting  this 
reform  between  10  and  4  b.  c,  must  have  felt  embarrassed  in 
the  selection  of  fundamental  lines,  because  the  city  had  no  cardo 

Fig.  3G.  — The  French  Array  entering  the  Porta  S.  I'aucrazio,  July  4,  1849. 

or  decumamis,  and  its  plan  was  "magis  occupataj  urbis  quam 
divisai  similis."  He  selected  as  a  cardo  or  meridian  a  line  which 
started  from  the  lianks  of  the  Almo,  beyond  the  first  milestone 
of  the  Appian  Way,  followed  northwards  this  way  to  tlie  Porta 
Capena,  and  thence  the  east  side  of  the  Circus  ]\Iaximus  (Via  de' 
Cerchi),  the  Vicus  Tuscus  (di  S.  Teodoro),  the  Clivus  Argenta- 
rius  (di  Marforio),  and  the  Via  Flaminia  (Corso)  to  the  first 
milestone.  On  this  basis  (ancient  maps  and  geodetic  operations 
in  general  started  from  the  south  instead  of  the  north)  he  divided 
the  ground  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  into  thirteen  wards  or 
refjiones,  and  made  the  fourteenth  out  of  the  Trastevere.  The 
elements  of  the  division  are  —  (1)  The  meridian  line  just  alluded 


to ;  (2)  the  Palatine  hill,  selected  as  a  centre ;  (3)  the  line  of  the 
Servian  walls ;  (4)  the  main  thoroughfares  leading  from  the  centre 
of  the  city  to  the  gates  of  Servius.  However,  as  in  the  Augustan 
age  the  city  had  extended  far  beyond  the  line  of  the  Servian  walls, 
and  populous  suburbs  had  sprung  up  along  the  main  consular 
roads,  six  regions  were  established  "  extra  muros  "  (I,  V,  VII,  IX, 
XII,  XIV),  eight  "intra  muros"  (II,  III,  IV,  VI,  VIII,  X,  XI, 
XIII). 1  This  simple  and  practical  operation  is  illustrated  by  the 
sketch-map  on  the  opposite  page. 

In  Constantine's  time  the  fourteen  regions  bore  the  names  of 
I.  Porta  Capena,  II.  Cfelimontium,  III.  Isis  et  Serapis,  IV. 
Templum  Pacis,  V.  Esquilia;,  VI.  Alta  Semita,  VII.  Via  Lata, 
VIII.  Forum  Romanum,  IX.  Circus  Flaminius,  X.  Palatinum,  XI. 
Circus  Maximus,  XII.  Piscina  Publica,  XIII.  Aventinus,  XIV. 
Transtiberim.  Some  of  these  names  cannot  be  original,  because 
at  the  time  of  Augustus  there  was  no  temple  of  Isis  and  Serapis 
on  the  Oppian,  no  temple  of  Peace  near  the  Carinae,  and  probably 
no  Via  Lata  at  the  foot  of  the  Quirinal.  The  original  wards  were 
probably  distinguished  by  a  number  from  I  to  XIV,  counted  from 
right  to  left. 

We  have  two  documents  on  the  statistics  of  each  region,  the 
Notitia  and  the  Curiosum,  about  which  the  reader  may  consult 
Preller's  "  Regionen "  mentioned  below,  and  Jordan,  "  Topogra- 
phic," vol.  ii.  (Untersuchungen  liber  die  Beschreibung  der  XIV 
Regionen),  pp.  1-312  and  pp.  539-582. 

Both  documents  are  of  the  fourtli  century,  and  therefore  their 
statistics  cannot  l)e  made  use  of  in  speaking  of  the  Augustan 
reform ;  still  they  may  help  us  in  a  great  measure,  because  many 
regions  bounded  by  fixed  barriei*s,  like  the  Tiber  and  the  Servian 
walls,  could  not  expand  with  the  increase  of  the  population  like 
those  "  extra  muros."  Regions  II,  III,  IV,  VI,  VIII,  X,  XI  of 
the  fourth  century,  fettered  since  their  first  institution  by  such 
immovable  boundaries,  are  essentially  the  same  as  in  the  first  cen- 
tury. The  fact  which  strikes  us  most  forcibly  in  examining  their 
statistics  is  the  effort  made  by  the  surveying  officers  of  Augustus 
to  equalize  the  divisions.  They  adopted  as  an  average  measure 
for  each  ward  a  circuit  of  12,000  to  12,500  feet  (12,270),  with  the 
exception  of  the  sixth,  to  which,  for  local  reasons,^  was  given  a 

1  Claudius  afterwards  (a.  d.  47)  doubled  the  extent  of  the  thirteenth,  taking 
in  the  plains  of  Testaccio,  with  their  quays,  wliarves,  arsenals,  granaries, 
warehouses,  sheds,  corn-exchanges,  etc. 

2  The  great  projecting  buttress  of  the  Servian  walls  in  the  gardens  of 



circuit  of  15,700  feet.     The  others  agree  so  well  that  there  are 
only  150  feet  of  difference  between  the  second  and  the  third,  07 









between  the  fourth  and  the  eighth,  10  between  the  tenth  and  tlie 
eleventh,  as  sjiown  in  the  following  table:  — 








1-2,  aoo 



































Not  less  remarkable  is  the  uniformity  in  the  number  of  tene- 
ment-houses (^insuke).  The  third  and  fourth  regions  have  each 
2757  insular ;  the  difference  between  the  sixth  and  the  eighth  is 
only  77 ;  between  the  third  and  the  tenth  65.  As  far  as  palaces 
(domus)  are  concerned,  it  is  obvious  that  the  surveying-officers 
could  not  even  approximately  assign  an  equal  number  to  each 
ward,  and  therefore  we  find  a  difference  of  86  between  the  maxi- 
mum and  the  minimum.  In  spite  of  that,  the  fourth,  tenth,  and 
eleventh  have  the  same  number  (88-89)  of  palaces;  the  second, 
sixth,  and  eighth  almost  the  same  (127-146).  These  statistics 
help  us  to  determine  which  parts  of  the  city  were  the  favorite  ones 
with  the  aristocracy.  The  sixth  comes  foremost,  with  1  palace 
to  -every  23  houses ;  last  comes  the  third,  with  1  to  45.  These 
results  agree  very  well  with  the  results  of  our  excavations.  How- 
ever, all  is  not  gold  that  glitters.  The  Curiosum  and  the  Notitia 
do  not  deserve  the  blind  and  implicit  faith  which  has  been  placed 
in  them  by  topographers,  and  we  have  reason  to  believe  their 
statistics  either  incori'ect  originally  or  made  so  by  copyists.  I  cite 
one  or  two  instances.  We  may  perhaps  be  mistaken  in  attributing 
to  the  word  damns  the  meaning  of  palace,  and  to  the  word  insula  the 
meaning  of  tenement-house,  and  in  this  case  their  true  significance 
remains  to  be  found  out.^  But  if  their  meaning  is  certain,^  how 
can  we  crowd  into  the  Palatine  hill  2692  tenement-houses  and  89 
private  palaces,  when  we  know  that  the  palaces  of  the  Ca3sars 
alone  occupied  nine  tenths  of  its  surface?  Again,  we  may  believe 
to  a  certain  extent  that  the  geodetic  experts  of  Augustus,  turning 
their  compass  over  and  over  again  on  the  map  of  the  city,  could 
have  found  a  circuit  line  of  nearly  equal  length  for  each  ward ; 
but  how  is  it  possible  that  they  could  have  placed  exactly  2757 
tenement-houses  within  the  third  and  the  fourth,  and  2487  within 
the  twelfth  and  the  fourteenth,  although  these  i-egions  are  so 
different  in  many  other  respects?  It  is  impossible,  therefore,  to 
accept  the  statistics,  as  has  been  done  up  to  the  present  day,  some 
of  their  inaccuracies  being  patent.     They  assign,  for  instance,  to 

1  References  (for  insulce  and  domus). — Pietro  Visconti,  Atti  Accad.  Ar- 
cheol.  vol.  xiii.  p.  254.  —  Francesco  Bianchini,  Columhar.  Livke,  p.  49.  — 
Gaetano  Marini,  ArvaU,Y).  399.  —  Otto  Richter,  Insula  (in  Hermes,  1885,  p.  91). 
—  Fricdlander,  Sittenyeschichte  Roms,  vol.  i.  ]).  12.  —  Eyssenhardt,  Romlsch 
und  Romdnlsch,  p.  92. — Pohlmann,  THe  Ueberrolkerung  der  antiken  Gross- 
stddte.  Leipsic,  1884.  —  Attilio  de  Marclii,  Ricerche  intorno  (die  insidie. 
Milan,  1891. 

2  Cf.  the  decisive  passage  of  Tacitus,  Ann.  xv.  41:  Domorum  t't  insularum 
et  templorum,  qux  amissa  sunt,  numeruni  inire  hand  proniptuni  fiiit. 



the  tenth  or  Pahitiiie  region  a  cii'cuit  of  3418  metres  (11,510  feet). 
I  have  measured  it  twice  over  in  designing  Sheets  xxix.  and  xxxv. 
of  my  "  Forma  Urbis,"  detaining  an  average  length  of  2080. 
There  is  an  exaggeration  of  1:338  metres. 

A  remarkable  study  has  just  been  published  on  this  question  by 
Huelsen  in  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1894,  p.  312.  According  to  his  cal- 
culations the  Coliseum  could  accommodate  only  from  40,000  to 
45,000  seated  spectators,  the  Theatre  of  INIarcellus  from  9000  to 
10,000,  the  Circus  Maximus  about  150,000.  These  figures  are  very 
far  from  tlie  87,000  places  (Jac(i)  which  the  catalogues  attribute 
to  the  first,  from  the  17,580  given  to  the  second,  from  the  385,000 
given  to  the  third.  I  bring  this  chapter  to  a  close  with  the  statis- 
tics of  the  regions  "  extra  muros  :  "  — 













I."),  000 





1 4, .')()() 









X  I! . 

1-2, 000 














Comparing  the  two  tables,  we  find  that  the  aristocratic  quarter 
par  excellence  was  the  thirteenth  (Aventine),  with  1  palace  in  19,  followed  closely  by  the  ninth  (Circus  Flaminius),  with  1 
in  20.  Last  comes  the  third  (Lsis  et  Serapis),  with  1  in  46.  The 
patricians  evidently  preferred  the  quarters  more  distant  from  the 

LiTEKATiiRK.  —  Heinricli  .Jordan,  Topngrnphie,  vol.  ii.  p.  72.  —  T-iuhvi^ 
Prt'ller,  Dit  Reffionen  d.  St.  Rom.  .Jciia,  1840.  —  AVilhelni  Ilenzeii,  Corpitx 
/user.  Lnt.,  vol.  vi.  p.  80,  ad  n.  454.  —  (}.  Hattista  de  Rossi,  Piante  di  R. 
anteriori  al  sec.  XVI.  p.  39.  —  .Toachini  Marquardt,  Staat.trerwaltunf/,  iii.  pp. 
204,  205.  — (Jiusejipe  Gatti,  Bull.  arch,  corn.,  vol.  xvi.  p.  224.  — Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciani,  Ricerche  stillc  XIV  ref/ioni :  ibid.  vol.  xviii.  p.  115. 

XXVI.  TiiK  PopuLATiox  OF  AxfiF.NT  RoME.  —  There  is  no 
instance  in  the  history  of  the  world  of  so  ra]iid  and  magnificent  a 
growth  as  that  of  Rome  from  its  first  foundation  on  the  Palatine 


by  a  mere  handful  of  shepherds.  Whether  by  wisdom  or  by 
power  or  by  valor,  they  were  destined  from  the  beginning  to 
become  the  rulers  of  the  world.  And  even  now  the  civilized 
nations  are  governed  by  their  laws,  travel  by  their  roads,  and 
speak  or  understand  their  language.  During  the  twenty-six  cen- 
turies of  its  existence  the  population  of  Rome  has  had  much  to 
suffer  —  changing  customs,  habits,  opinions,  forms  of  government, 
and  religion.  No  other  city  has  been  besieged,  taken,  robbed,  and 
burnt  so  often,  and  yet  the  vitality  of  the  root  could  never  be  im- 
paired. Even  in  the  worst  period  of  the  Middle  Ages,  when  tem- 
porarily dethroned  by  Avignon,  Rome  and  its  name  never  lost 
tlieir  influence  and  prestige,  but  while  in  the  first  centuries  of  the 
Republic  the  reality  was  in  advance  of  reputation,  at  the  end  of 
the  Middle  Ages  reputation  was  ahead  of  true  facts. 

Roman  history  is  represented  with  astonishing  precision  by  the 
fluctuations  in  the  number  of  its  inhabitants,  because  men  rush 
where  they  can  find  food,  work,  luxury,  health,  power,  fame,  se- 
ciu'ity,  and  fly  when  such  advantages  are  difficult  or  impossible  to 
obtain.  Political  power  alone,  without  the  comforts  of  life,  is 
not  sufficient  to  stimulate  immigration  into  a  city :  Rome  was  at 
its  lowest  under  the  most  powerful  of  medijeval  popes.  Innocent 

Three  attempts  have  been  made  lately  to  estimate  the  number 
of  the  inhabitants  of  ancient  Rome :  one  by  Pietro  Castigiione, 
"  Delia  popolazione  di  Roma  dall'  origine  sino  ai  nostri  tempi  " 
(Monografia  di  Roma,  vol.  ii.  p.  187) ;  the  second  by  myself,  in  a 
memoir  on  the  "  Vicende  edilizie  di  Roma  antica,"  published  in 
the  same  work,  vol.  i.  p.  1 ;  the  third  by  Prof.  Julius  Beloch,  "  Ex- 
trait  du  Bulletin  de  I'lnstitut  international  de  Statistique,"  Rome, 
Botta,  1S86. 

The  question  is  worth  investigation,  on  account  of  the  amazing 
estimates  made  by  older  writers.  Lipsius  mentions  4,000,000, 
Vossius  14,000,000 !  Gibbon  gives  the  city  1,200,000  souls  at  the 
time  of  Constantine,  and  although  his  calculations  rest  on  no  sci- 
entific basis,  yet  his  exquisite  historical  intuition  made  him  strike 
almost  the  right  figure.  Bunsen's  standard  measure  —  the  number 
of  those  to  whom  grain  was  gratuitously  distributed  under  Au- 
gustus—  is  the  right  one,  but  he  is  greatly  mistaken  in  reckoning 
the  number  of  slaves.  At  all  events  his  statement  — 1,;)00,000  as  a 
mini nmm, '2,000,000  as  a  maximum  —  has  been  accepted  by  Ger- 
man writers  :  by  Nietersheim  (1,500,000),  IMarquardt  (l,Go6,000), 
Friedlander  (1,000,000  for  the  first,  2,000,000  for  the  second  cen- 


tury),  and  others.  Again,  those  who  have  taken  as  a  basis  the 
area  of  the  city  inclosed  by  walls  (nine  million  square  metres), 
compared  with  the  density  of  population  in  modern  capitals, 
have  fallen  into  the  other  extreme.  Dureau  de  la  Malle  assigns 
to  fourteen  wards  of  the  imperial  city  a  population  of  562,000, 
Castiglione  assigns  584,000.  The  results  attained  by  Beloch  are 
expressed  in  the  closing  paragraph  of  his  memoir  as  follows : 
"  Taking  into  consideration  the  number  of  those  who  had  a  right 
to  the  free  distribution  of  grain  at  the  beginning  of  the  Empire, 
the  popnlation  of  Rome,  of  the  Campagna,  and  of  some  of 
the  surrounding  hills  must  have  amounted  to  from  950,000  to 
1,035,000  souls;  that  of  the  city  alone  from  760,000  to  920,000. 
Again,  calculating  the  habitable  space  within  the  walls  of  Au- 
relian,  we  have  found  out  for  the  city  alone  a  popidation  of  from 
800,000  to  850,000  souls.  The  approximation  of  these  figures 
reached  by  different  ways  shows  that  we  cannot  stray  very  far 
from  the  truth  if  we  adopt  for  Rome  and  the  Campagna  the  mim- 
ber  of  about  1,000,000,  for  Rome  inclosed  by  walls  that  of  800,000. 
However  modest  the  number  may  seem,  compared  with  former 
ideas,  we  must  remember  that  it  was  never  reached  by  a  modern 
capital  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  present  century." 

From  the  end  of  the  third  century  downwards  the  population 
diminished  with  appalling  rapidity.  Castiglione  says  that  in  ;];55 
B.  c.  it  was  reduced  to  ;500,(H)(),  but  his  estinuite  is  evidently  too 
low.  Pillage  after  pillage,  barbarian  inroads,  famine,  insecurity, 
bad  government  or  no  government  at  all,  earthquakes,  and  inun- 
dations did  the  rest ;  and  we  are  told  that  in  the  year  1377,  on  the 
return  of  the  popes  from  Avignon,  there  were  only  17,000  survi- 
vors in  tlie  ruinous  waste.'  Whether  the  figure  be  exact  or  not, 
these  few  men  who  held  firm  and  faithful  to  their  native  soil. de- 
serve the  gratitude  of  mankind.  Without  them,  the  site  of  Rome 
would  now  be  pointed  out  to  the  inquiring  stranger  like  that  of 
Veil,  of  Fidente,  of  Ostia,  and  of  Tusculum.  There  are  three 
works  on  Roman  statistics  of  the  sixteentli  and  seventeenth  cen- 
turies full  of  new  and  interesting  information. 

Mariano  Arniellini,  Un  cenmnento  (Jella  cilta  di  Rinnn  softo  il  jioiitifimU)  di 
Leone  X.  Rome,  1882.  —  Domenico  Giioli,  Dcxcri/ilio  urbis,  o  censimento  delia 
popolazione  di  Roma  arnnfi  il  nacco  borboniro.  Koim',  1804.  —  Fraiifesco  Cera- 
soli,  Censimento  della  2>oj)olazione  di  Roma  dalP  anno  1000  nl  1739.  Koine, 

Here  are  a  few  facts.     In   Pope  Leo  X.'s  time  the  number  of 
1  Compare  Domenico  Gnoli,  Descriptio  urbis. 



the  cortesane  was  equal  to  about  one  third  of  the  total  of  single 
women  or  widows  within  the  walls  of  the  city.  Their  luimber 
had  diminished  to  604  in  1600,  to  rise  up  again  steadily  until 
the  maximum  of  1295  is  reached  in  1639.  A  century  later,  iir 
1739,  they  were  reduced  to  100  (?). 

In  1527,  the  population  being  55,035,  some  of  the  cardinals  had 
the  following  retinue  of  servants  and  officers  (corte  cardinalizia)  : 
Farnese,  306  jiersons  ;  Cesarini,  275  ;  Orsini,  200  ;  del  Monte,  200 ; 
and  so  on  in  decreasing  numbers,  until  we  reach  the  figure  of  60 
for  Cardinal  Numalio,  and  45  for  de  Vio. 

In  1639,  in  a  population  of  114,256  souls,  there  were  24  bishops, 
1786  priests,  3539  monks,  2196  nuns,  '2lSi)  fainif/liari  oi  cardinals, 
—  a  clerical  nucleus  over  10,000  strong.  There  were  975  regis- 
tered beggars,  13  Moorish  slaves.  Of  88,144  persons  capable  of 
satisfying  the  Pascal  precept  77,471  took  the  lu^ly  communion. 
There  were  only  238  inmates  of  public  prisons. 

At  the  beginning  of  this  century  the  population  numbered 
153,004  souls.  The  French  invasions  and  the  Napoleonic  wars 
brought  a  decline,  which  culminated  in  1812  with  117,882  in- 
habitants. But  the  ascending  movement  began  again  witli  tlie 
Peace  of  Vienna,  and  has  continued  uninterruptedly  to  the  present 
day.  When  Rome  became  the  capital  of  Italy  in  1780,  tliere 
were  226,022  inhabitants;  the  Jiumber  has  doubled  since,  as  sliown 
by  this  table  :  — 






of  Births. 




25  lier  1000 






23        ' ' 


2  225 

XXVII.  The  Map  of  Rome  engraa^ed  ox  Marble  under 
Severus  and  Caracalla.  —  Under  the  pontificate  of  Pius  IV. 
(1559-65),  while  the  architect  Giovanni  Antonio  Dosio  da  San 
Geminiano  was  excavating  at  the  foot  of  the  back  wall  of  the 

'  Including  the  Campagna  and  the  floating  population. 


church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano,  he  found  ninety-two  pieces  of 
marble  slabs,  upon  which  was  engraved  the  map  of  the  city,  re- 
stored and  rebuilt  by  Severus  and  Caracalla  after  the  fire  of  Corn- 
modus.  A  few  of  the  fragments  were  still  fixed  against  the 
wall  (Fea,  Miscell.,  lii.  n.  a),  but  the  greater  part  had  fallen  on 
the  pavement  of  the  Forum  Pacis,  each  slab  being  broken  into 
many  pieces.  Had  the  discoverer  taken  care  to  collect  them  care- 
fully, and  to  join  the  fragments  of  each  slab  there  and  then,  the 
value  of  the  discovery  would  have  been  inestimable;  but  we  have 
reason  to  believe  that  tliey  were  tiirown  negligently  into  baskets 
and  removed  to  the  palace  of  Cardinal  Alessandro  Farnese.  Here 
the  pieces  were  sorted  even  more  negligently,  the  larger  and  more 
valuable  were  exhibited  in  the  museum,  the  smaller  bits  were 
thrown  away  in  the  cellars  of  the  palace.  Some  years  later  a 
mason  made  use  of  them  in  restoring  the  wall  of  the  garden  on 
the  river-side.  Many  of  them  were  rediscovered  in  1888  when 
that  garden  wall  was  demolished  to  make  room  for  the  Tiber 
embankment.  (See  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1888,  pp.  .301,  437,  569.) 
Pope  Benedict  XIV.,  to  whose  liberality  the  Capitoline  museum 
owes  so  many  treasures,  asked  King  Charles  III.  of  Naples,  the 
heir  to  the  Farnese  estate,  to  ])resent  the  "  Forma  Urbis  "  to  the 
city.  The  reipu'st  was  complied  with,  and  the  fragments  were 
arranged  in  a  somewhat  disorderly  manner  on  each  side  of  the 
staircase  of  the  museum.  The  star  which  marks  some  of  the 
pieces  tells  another  tale  in  the  odyssey  of  the  precious  relics : 
those  pieces,  having  been  lost  in  the  journey  from  the  Farnese 
palace  to  the  Capitol,  were  reproduced  from  original  drawings  in 
Cod.  vatic.  3839. 

In  the  year  1867  Augusto  Castellani  and  Effisio  Tocco  tried 
fresh  excavations  in  the  garden  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano,  and 
they  were  rewarded  by  the  find  of  the  celebrated  jiiece  containing 
the  plan  of  the  Porticus  Livia;  (Fig-  '58).  In  18S'2  another  piece, 
containing  the  plan  of  the  Vicus  Vesta*,  was  discovered  under  my 
sujiervision  ;  a  third  of  no  im})ortance  in  1884. 

Lastly,  in  1890  the  state  undertook  to  make  a  final  and  exhaus- 
tive search  at  the  foot  of  the  wall  of  the  Templum  Sacraj  Ur- 
bis, which  led  to  no  result,  for  reasons  -which  it  would  be  out  of 
place  to  discuss.  The  origin  of  the  plan  may  be  briefly  described 
as  follows :  — 

The  last  census  of  Rome,  taken  in  strict  accordance  witli  the 
old  rules,  was  beguii  by  Vespasian  in  a.  d.  73,  and  finished  two 
years  later.     The   Flavian  dynastj%  to  use  the  expression  of  Sue- 


tonius,  had  found  the  capital  of  the  Empire  "  deformis  veteribus 
incentliis  [the  five  of  Nero]  atque  ruiniti  [the  disasters  caused  by 
the  factiou  of  Vitellius]."'  A'espasian  reorganized  the  city  from 
the  material  as  well  as  from  an  administrative  point  of  view  :  the 
lands  usurped  by  Nero  for  his  Golden  House  were  given  back 
to  the  people  ;  the  burnt  quarters  rebuilt,  on  a  new  piano  rcgolatore  ; 
the  limits  of  the  metropolitan  district  enlarged ;  public  projjerty  on 
the  line  of  the  Tiber,  of  the  aqueducts,  of  the  pomerium  was  re- 
deemed from  the  encroachments  of  private  individuals ;  a  new  map 
of  the  city  was  drawn,  and  the  cadastre  of  public  and  private 
property  revised.  These  documents  were  deposited  in  a  fireproof 
building,  an  oblong  hall  42  metres  long,  25  metres  wide,  constructed 
expressly  on  the  west  side  of  the  Forum  Pacis,  between  it  and  the 
Sacra  Via.  On  the  epistyle,  above  the  main  entrance,  the  follow- 
ing words  were  engraved  :  "  [This  building  has  been  raised  by] 
Vespasian  in  his  eighth  consulshiji  [a.  d.  78]."  The  map  of  the 
city,  drawn  in  accordance  with  the  last  official  survey  and  the  re- 
sults of  the  census,  was  exhibited  on  the  side  of  the  hall  facing  the 
Forum  of  Peace.  We  do  not  know  whether  it  was  simply  drawn 
in  colors  on  plaster,  like  the  celebrated  maps  of  Agrippa  in  the 
Portico  of  Vipsania  PoUa,  or  engraved  on  marble. 

The  city  was  again  half  destroyed  by  fire  in  the  year  191,  under 
Commodus,  the  centre  of  the  conflagration  being  precisely  the 
neighborhood  of  these  archives.  The  house  of  the  Vestals,  the 
jewelers'  shops  on  the  Sacra  Via,  the  imperial  warehouses  for 
Eastern  spices  (horrea  piperataria),  and  the  Forum  and  Temple 
of  Peace  were  leveled  to  the  ground.  The  archives,  surrounded 
by  this  mighty  blaze  on  every  side,  must  have  been  turned  into  an 
oven  in  spite  of  their  fireproof  inclosure,  their  bronze  roof  melted, 
their  contents  injured  by  heat  or  by  water. 

Septimius  Severus  and  his  son  Caracalla  undertook,  with  the 
reconstruction  of  the  city,  the  reestablishment  of  the  archives  of 
the  cadastre,  and,  in  memory  of  their  work  (which  was  begun  in 
A.  D.  193  and  completed  in  211),  they  caused  a  new  and  revised 
edition  of  the  plan  of  the  city  to  be  engraved  in  marble  and 
exhibited  in  the  same  place,  that  is  to  say,  on  the  front  of  the 
building  facing  the  Forum  of  Peace.  The  building  itself,  mag- 
nificently restored  and  decorated  in  opus  sectile  (a  kind  of  Floren- 
tine mosaic),  was  dedicated  under  the  name  of  Templum  Sacrte 
Urbis.  It  exists  still  in  a  good  state  of  preservation,  thanks  to 
Pope  Felix  IV.,  who,  in  526,  turned  it  into  a  church,  under  the 
invocation  of  SS.  Cosma  e   Damiano.      The  wall,  on  the  marble 



facing  of  which  the  plan  of  Rome  was  engraved,  measures  twenty- 
two  metres  in  length,  fifteen  metres  in  height,  and  is  remarkably 

Fig.  38.  —  The  Fragment  of  the  Marble  Plan  discovered  by  Castellani  and  Tocco  in  18C7. 

well  preserved.     There  is  a  good  drawing  of  it  in  Jordan's  "  For- 
ma Urbis  Romae,"  plate  xxxi.  fig.  1. 


The  orientation  or  meridian  line  of  the  phiii  seems  to  have  been 
directed  from  the  southwest  to  the  northeast.  Tlie  scale,  save  a 
few  excejptions,  seems  to  be  1 :  250. 

References.  —  Bernardo  Gamucci,  Antickila  di  Roma,  ed.  1580,  p.  36. — 
Pietro  Bellori,  Fi-cirjm.  vestif/ii  U.  R.  Home,  1073  (2d  edition,  1773).  —  Effisio 
Tocco,  Annul.  Inst.,  1807,  p.  409.  —  Trendelenburg,  Annul.  Inst.,  1872,]).  75. — 
Ik'inrich  .Jordan,  Forma  Urhis  Romce  Regionum  XIV.  Berlin,  Weidniann, 
1874.  —  Anton  Elter,  Be  Forma  U.  R.  dvque  orbis  antiqui  facie.  Bonn,  J8!)l. 
—  Christian  Hiielsen,  Mittheil.  des  Archaeol.  Instituts,  1889,  p.  79;  and  Bull. 
arch,  com.,  1893,  p.  130.  —  Otto  Richter,  Gottingcn  gelehrten  Anzcirien,  1892,  p. 
130;  and  Toj>or/raphie  der  Stadt  Rom,  1889,  j).  3.— Gio.  Battista  I'ininesi, 
Anfichitd  romane,  vol.  i.  tav.  2-6. 

XXVIII.  The  Burial  of  Rome.  —  The  question  most  often 
asked  by  persons  not  well  acquainted  with  the  details  of  the  down- 
fall of  Imperial  Rome  is,  "  How  came  the  city  to  be  buried  under 
a  bed  of  earth  to  a  dejith  which  ranges  from  five  to  sixty-five 
feet?"  Tlie  question  is  more  easily  put  than  answered.  The 
accumulation  of  modern  soil  depends  upon  so  many  causes,  great 
and  small,  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  bring  them  all  together  and 
set  them  before  the  student  in  the  proper  light. 

To  begin  with,  I  will  relate  a  personal  experience  which  took 
place  in  1883-84.  during  the  excavations  made  by  my  late  friend 
Luigi  Boccanera,  in  the  villa  of  Q.  Voconius  Pollio  at  Marino,  the 
ancient  Castrimcenium.  AVe  had  been  wishing  for  years  to  try  an 
excavation  in  virgin  soil,  where  no  one  should  have  disturbed  the 
strata  of  the  ruins  corresponding  to  the  pages  of  history.  Here 
all  chances  were  in  our  favor,  because  the  Villa  Voconiana,  so  rich 
in  works  of  art,  had  not  been  destroyed  by  fire,  or  by  earthquake, 
or  by  the  violence  of  man,  but  had  been  left  to  decay  by  itself, 
piece  by  piece  and  atom  by  atom.  The  palace,  moreover,  contained 
but  one  floor,  the  ground  floor,  no  suspicion  of  staircases  leading 
to  upper  stories  having  been  found  anywhere.  Now,  as  the  posi- 
tion of  the  building  was  such  that  the  strata  of  its  ruins  could 
not  have  been  altered  by  the  action  ot  water  or  atmospheric  forces, 
and  the  volume  of  the  same  ruins  could  not  have  been  either  aug- 
mented or  diminished,  it  was  easy  to  calculate,  with  almost  mathe- 
matical precision,  Avhat  is  the  material  prodiict  of  the  crumbling 
of  a  Roman  house. 

The  results  of  the  careful  calculation  are  these.  A  noble  Roman 
house,  one  story  high,  produces  a  stratum  of  loose  material  and 
rubbish  one  metre,  eighty-five  centimetres  high  ;  or,  in  other  words, 
a  building  about  ten  metres  high,  crumbling  down  under  the  cir- 

THE    BURIAL    OF   ROME  99 

cunistances  wliicli  caused  the  ruin  of  the  villa  of  Voconius  PoUio, 
produces  1.85  cuV)ic  metres  for  each  sqiuire  metre  of  surface. 

Now  if  a  building  of  very  modest  proportions  lias  created  such 
a  volume  of  ruins,  it  is  easy  to  inuigine  what  must  have  been  the 
results  of  the  destruction  of  the  private  and  public  monuments  of 
ancient  Rome. 

At  the  beginning-  of  the  fourth  century  after  Clirist,  Rome,  as 
we  have  just  seen,  contained  ■10,002  tenement-houses,  1790  palaces, 
not  to  speak  of  a  thousand  public  buildings  like  thermaj,  temples, 
basilicas,  theatres,  amphitheatres,  circuses,  porticoes,  etc.  The 
height  of  these  editices  was  always  considerable,  sometimes  exces- 
sive. Strabo  mentions  a  law  made  by  Augustus  against  the  raising 
of  private  houses  above  seventy  feet.  Trajan  tried  to  reduce  the 
maximum  to  sixty  feet.  Tertullian  describes  the  liouse  of  a  Feli- 
cles  as  reaching  the  sky.  Houses  built  in  the  phiin  of  the  Cii'cus 
Flaminius  against  the  Capitoline  hill  reached  the  platform  of  the 
Temple  of  Jupiter,  and  enabled  tlie  followers  of  Vespasian  to 
take  the  place  by  storm  from  tlie  Vitellians.  The  palace  of  Sep- 
timius  Severus  at  the  Septizonium  towered  fully  seventy  meti'es 
above  the  arena  of  the  Circus  Maximus ;  the  pediment  of  the 
Temple  of  the  Sun  rose  eighty  metres  above  the  Campus  Martius. 
Considering  that  hardly  the  ten  thousandtli  ])ortion  of  this  mass 
of  buildings  has  escaped  destruction,  all  the  rest  liaving  crumbled 
into  dust  and  rubbish,  we  cannot  wonder  that  ancient  Rome  should 
now  lie  buried  so  deep.  If  the  Foruju  of  Trajan,  excavated  by  Pius 
VII.  in  the  heart  of  the  nuxlern  city,  was  not  cleaned  or  swept 
once  a  week,  as  is  the  case  now,  at  the  end  of  each  year  it  would 
be  covered  by  an  inch  of  dust,  by  one  hundred  inches  at  the  end  of 
a  century ;  and  I  speak  of  matter  accumulated  there  simply  by  the 
action  of  rain  and  wind.  But  if  the  Forum  of  Trajan  should  be 
selected  by  the  living  generation  as  a  receptacle  for  the  daily  refuse 
of  the  city,  its  disappearance  would  take  place  in  a  few  years :  and 
this  has  been  the  case  with  the  Forum  Romanum,  the  Coliseum, 
the  Forum  Augustum,  the  Palatine,  the  Vicus  Patricius,  and  so  on. 
At  all  events,  the  increase  of  the  Roman  soil  begins  witli  the  age 
of  the  Tarquins,  and  with  the  drainage  and  filling  up  of  the  Vela- 
bra.  An  inscription  discovered  at  the  first  milestone  of  the  Appian 
AVay  (Corpus,  vol.  vi.  n.  1270)  describes  how  the  steep  incline 
leading  from  the  river  Almo  to  the  Temple  of  INIars  had  been  made 
easy  by  the  removal  of  large  masses  of  earth.  The  ruins  of  the 
buildings  destroyed  by  the  great  fire  described  by  Livy  (xxiv.  47) 
were  leveled  on  the  spot,  and  the  pavement  of  the  Forum  Boarium 


and  of  the  surrounding  streets  was  at  once  raised  several  feet. 
Horace  (Sat.  i.  8;  v.  15)  describes  how  Augustus  and  Maecenas 
caused  the  burial-grounds  of  the  Esquiiine  to  be  covered  with 
oreat  masses  of  earth,  and  a  public  park  laid  out  on  their  site. 
While  building  in  1877  the  sewer  of  the  Coliseum  along  the  Via 
di  S.  Gregorio,  we  discovered  the  city  of  the  time  of  Nero  buried 
under  the  ruins  of  the  fire  of  a.  d,  65.  Here  also  the  level  of  the 
streets  was  raised  at  once  several  feet.  Frontinus  (i.  18)  says  that 
the  seven  hills  had  gained  in  altitude :  "  colles  excreverunt  rudere." 

The  700,000  or  800,000  cubic  metres  of  earth  and  rock  removed 
by  Trajan  to  make  room  for  his  forum  were  laid  over  the  public 
cemetery  between  the  Via  Pinciana  and  the  Via  Salaria  (Salaria 
Vetus  and  Nova).  The  batlis  of  Trajan  and  Titus  are  founded  on 
the  remains  of  the  Golden  House  of  Nero ;  the  baths  of  Caracalla 
on  the  remains  of  many  edifices,  of  w^iich  the  engraving  on  the 
next  page  (Fig.  39)  represents  a  small  section. 

Diocletian  began  the  construction  of  his  own  thermfe  by  demol- 
ishing two  temples  and  many  other  public  or  private  buildings  to 
the  extent  of  136,000  square  metres.  The  products  of  the  demoli- 
tion were  heaped  up  in  a  hillock  20  metres  high  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  present  railway  station.  The  threshold  of  the  arch 
built  by  Augustus  over  the  Via  Tiburtina  for  the  transit  of  the 
Marcia,  Tepula,  and  Julia  lies  three  metres  below  the  threshold  of 
the  gate  (Porta  S.  Lorenzo)  built  by  Arcadius  and  Honorius  in 
402  (Fig.  31).  These  figures  give  us  a  yearly  average  of  1\  milli- 
metres of  rise  for  the  surrounding  district,  during  the  406  years 
which  elapsed  between  Augustus  and  Honorius.  The  inscriptions 
engraved  on  the  same  gate  of  S.  Lorenzo  describe,  among  the 
works  undertaken  by  Honorius  toward  the  strengthening  of  the 
fortifications  of  Rome,  the  removal  of  the  ruljbish  accumulated 
along  the  line  of  the  walls  ("  egestis  immensis  ruderibus;"  see 
p.  73). 

I  have  sometimes  discovered  four  different  buildings  lying  one 
under  the  other.  The  mediaeval  church  of  S.  Clement  was  built 
in  1099  by  Paschal  IL  above  the  remains  of  another  basilica  built 
seven  and  a  half  centuries  earlier.  This  latter  rests  upon  the 
walls  of  a  noble  patrician  house  of  the  second  century  after  Christ, 
under  w'hich  the  remains  of  an  uirknown  Republican  building  are 
to  be  seen. 

When  the  new  Via  Nazionale  was  cut  in  1877  across  the  Aldo- 
brandini  and  Rospigliosi  gardens,  on  the  Quirinal  hill,  we  met, 
first,  with  the  remains  of  the  Baths  of  Constantine ;  then  with  the 



remains  of  the  house  of  CLaudius  Claudianus ;  thirdly,  with  the 
house  of  Avidius  (Quietus ;  and  histly,  with  some  coustructions  of 
early  reticulated  work. 

Fig.  39.  —  The  Remains  of  a  Private  House  discovered  under  the  Baths  of  Caracalla  by 
G.  B.  Guidi,  ISOT. 

These  proofs,  which  T  have  quoted  at  random  from  monuments 
and  writers,  show  that  before  the  fall  of  the  Empire  the  ground 


rose  in  the  same  way  on  the  hills  and  on  the  plains.  However, 
after  the  barbarian  invasions,  twelve  out  of  the  fourteen  quarters 
(7-eyiones)  of  the  city  having  been  abandoned  and  turned  into 
farms  and  orchards,  the  rise  of  the  hills  diminished,  and  that  of 
the  valleys  and  plains  increased,  at  a  prodigious  rate  ;  a  fact  which 
can  be  explained,  to  some  extent,  by  the  natural  fall  of  materials 
from  the  heiglits,  and  by  the  action  of  atmospheric  forces.  The 
greatest  difference  between  ancient  and  modern  levels  which  I 
have  yet  ascertained  in  Rome  is  72  feet.  It  was  found  in  ex- 
cavating the  inner  courtyard  of  the  house  of  the  Vestals  at  the 
foot  of  the  Palatine  hill.  The  foundations  of  the  northeast 
corner  of  the  new  Treasury  buildings  were  sunk  in  1874  to  a  dei:)th 
of  41  feet,  before  the  stratum  of  debris  was  passed  through.  The 
foundations  of  the  house  which  forms  the  corner  of  the  Via 
Cavour  and  the  Piazza  dell'  Esquilino  were  sunk  likewise  to  a 
depth  of  53  feet.  At  that  level  the  remains  of  some  baths,  built 
by  Njeratius  Cerialis,  were  discovered,  with  statues,  busts,  bronzes, 
inscriptions,  etc. 

The  rise  of  the  hills  after  the  fall  of  the  Empire  was  absolutely 
artificial.  I  mean  to  say  that  if  there  was  a  rise  in  the  level  of 
the  soil,  it  was  the  work  of  man,  and  as  a  consequence  of  the 
building  of  palaces,  churches,  and  villas.  I  shall  here  quote  a 
curious  illustration  of  the  theory  I  am  trying  to  explain.  The 
soil  which  covers  (or  rather  covered)  the  northern  half  of  the  pal- 
ace of  the  CcBsars,  and  more  especially  the  palaces  of  Germanicus, 
Tiberius,  Caligula,  and  Domitian,  has  not  been  created  wholly  by 
the  crumbling  or  destruction  of  those  palaces,  but  is  mostly  soil 
removed  from  the  low  lands  of  the  Campus  Martius  to  the  top  of 
the  I'alatine  hill  by  Cardinal  Alessandro  Farnese,  when  digging 
the  foundations  for  his  palace  and  for  the  church  of  the  Gesix. 
After  remaining  there  for  nearly  three  centuries,  the  great  mass 
of  material  has  again  been  removed,  and  carted  away  into  the 
valley  between  the  Aventine  hill  and  the  cliurch  of  S.  Balbina,  in 
order  that  the  remains  of  the  Impe-ial  buildings  should  be  laid 
bare.  The  district  stretching  between  the  Porta  Pia  and  the 
Porta  Salaria  has  been  lately  raised  to  a  considerable  height  with 
the  soil  extracted  from  the  foundations  of  the  Treasury  buildings 
and  of  the  royal  mews.  Without  quoting  any  more  instances,  I 
wish  only  to  observe  that,  if  these  cases  were  not  known,  how 
could  we  explain  the  unexpected  rise  of  the  places  above  named, 
on  the  Quirinal  and  on  the  Aventine? 

AVhen  we  consider  that  the  archa-ological  stratum,  the  forma- 

THE   BURIAL    OF   ROME  103 

tion  of  wliicli  I  have  tried  to  describe,  is  at  least  nine  square  miles 
in  extent,  we  wonder  liow  it  has  been  possible  to  excavate,  and 
search,  and  actually  sift  it,  since  the  Renaissance  of  classical 
studies.     Yet  this  has  actually  been  done. 

During  my  long  experience  of  Roman  excavations,  and  especially 
since  the  building  of  the  new  city  began  in  1871,  about  four  square 
miles  have  been  turned  up.  Leaving  out  of  consideration  works 
of  art  and  objects  of  archaeological  interest,  found  scattered  here 
and  there  in  small  secluded  spots  —  mere  crumbs  fallen  from  the 
banqueting  -  tables  of  former  excavators  —  I  have  found  thi-ee 
places  only  of  any  considerable  extent,  which  had  absolutely  es- 
caped investigation. 

The  fii"st  is  the  district  now  occupied  by  the  Central  Railway 
Station,  on  the  border  line  between  the  Quirinal  and  Viminal 
hills,  excavated  during  1871  and  1872.  It  was  occupied  in  classic 
times  by  a  cluster  of  private  houses  built  in  the  so-called  Poinpeian 
style.  It  seems  that,  being  threatened  by  a  conflagration,  their 
inhabitants  had  collected  hurriedly  all  their  valuables  and  most 
precious  works  of  art,  and  heaped  them  up  in  confusion  in  a  hall 
opening  on  a  side  street,  which  they  considered  as  a  comparatively 
safe  place.  The  roof  of  the  hall,  however,  caught  fire,  and  in  its 
fall  carried  down  the  walls  in  such  a  way  as  to  shelter  the  heap 
of  bronzes  and  marbles  placed  in  the  middle  of  the  pavement. 
We  discovered  the  place  in  February,  1871,  and  were  able  to  re- 
move to  the  Capitoline  Museum  the  artistic  bronze  furniture  of 
two  or  three  Roman  houses,  the  marketable  value  of  which  was 
calculated  at  about  £6000. 

The  secotul  virgin  spot  was  discovered  on  Christmas  Eve,  1874, 
near  the  southwest  corner  of  tlie  Piazza  Vittorio  Emmanuele,  on 
the  site  of  the  llorti  Lamiani  (gardens  of  ^Elius  Lamia),  which 
had  been  incorporated  by  Caligula  into  the  Imperial  domain. 
During  the  previous  days  we  had  been  excavating  a  portico,  200 
feet  long,  with  a  single  line  of  fluted  columns  of  giallo  antico 
(yellow  Numidian  marble)  resting  on  pedestals  of  gilded  marble. 
The  pavement  of  the  portico  was  inlaid  with  Oriental  alabaster, 
and  the  walls  were  covered  with  slabs  of  a  certain  kind  of  slate, 
inlaid  with  festoons  and  groups  of  birds  and  other  delicate  de- 
signs in  gold  leaf.  At  the  foot  of  the  wall,  but  concealed  from 
view,  ran  a  water-pipe,  with  tiny  jets,  two  feet  distant  one  from  the 
other,  which  were  evidently  used  to  keep  the  place  cool  in  summer. 
At  the  northern  extremity  of  the  portico  the  floor  sank  into  a 
kind  of  chasm,  at  the  bottom  of  which  we  discovered,  during  that 


memorable  eve,  a  bust  of  Commocliis,  under  the  attributes  of 
Hercules,  the  most  elaborate  piece  of  work  which  has  been  found 
in  Rome  in  our  time ;  another  bust  of  the  same  Emperor,  of 
smaller  size ;  a  statue  of  the  muse  Polyhymnia ;  a  statue  of  the 
muse  Erato ;  a  statue  of  the  Venus  (Lamiana) ;  two  statues  of 
Tritons ;  a  bust  of  Diana ;  and  several  other  works  of  art,  such 
as  legs,  arras,  and  heads  formerly  set  into  bronze  draperies.  (See 
Book  IV.  §  xxiv.) 

The  third  and  last  spot  which  we  have  been  the  first  to  investi- 
gate since  the  early  Renaissance  is  the  southern  half  of  the  house 
of  the  Vestals.  However,  as  I  have  given  a  minute  account  of 
this  charming  discovery  in  chapter  vi.  of  my  "  Ancient  Rome,"  it 
is  needless  to  enlarge  upon  it  here. 

I  must  mention  two  particulars  which  explain  to  some  extent 
our  success  in  bringing  to  light,  almost  daily,  new  monuments 
and  works  of  art  and  curiosity.  The  first  is,  that  the  pioneers 
of  archaeological  research,  that  is  to  say,  the  excavators  who  pre- 
ceded us,  have  stopped  in  many  cases  at  the  wrong  level.  Find- 
ing mosaic  and  marble  pavements,  or  pavements  of  streets  and 
squares,  they  thought  they  had  reached  the  end  of  their  under- 
taking, and  turned  their  energy  in  other  directions.  From  what  I 
have  said  about  the  superposition  of  Roman  buildings,  it  is  easy 
to  see  how  wrong  they  were.  Here  also  I  must  be  allowed  to  quote 
a  personal  experience.  Tn  1879,  when  the  new  boulevard  connect- 
ing the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emmanuele  with  the  Porta  Maggiore  was 
cut  (Viale  Principe  Eugenio),  we  discovered  a  portion  of  the 
palace  of  Licinius  Gallienus,  already  excavated  by  Francesco 
Belardi  and  Giovanni  Battista  Piranesi  more  than  a  century  be- 
fore. These  two  men,  having  gone  as  far  down  as  the  level  of 
the  drains  running  under  the  pavements,  considered  their  task 
finished,  and  all  hope  of  further  discoveries  vanished ;  and  yet 
under  those  pavements  and  those  drains  lay  buried  at  a  great 
depth  nine  columbaria,  particularly  rich  in  cinerary  urns,  inscrip- 
tions, and  objects  of  value.  The  columbaria  are  designed  and 
their  contents  illustrated  in  the  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1880,  p.  51,  pis. 

"I  '-'• 

The  second  remark  refers  to  the  foundation  walls  built  with 
fragments  of  statuary,  to  which  very  little  attention  was  paid  by 
early  excavators.  The  value  of  this  mine  may  be  estimated  from 
the  following  facts.  In  1874  a  bath  was  discovered  near  the 
church  of  SS.  Pietro  e  Marcellino,  from  the  foundations  of  which 
we  extracted  95  statues,  busts,  torsos,  basins  of  fountains,  pieces 

THE    BURIAL    OF   ROME  105 

of  columns,  and  l)as-reliefs.  In  December,  1873,  the  group  of  Her- 
cules capturing  the  mares  of  Diomedes,  now  in  the  Palazzo  dei 
Conservatori,  was  found  broken  in  72  pieces  in  a  wall  near  S. 
JMatteo  in  Merulana.  Three  thousand  fragments  of  sculptured 
mai'bles,  and  130  inscriptions  or  pieces  of  inscriptions  were  discov- 
ered likewise  in  1873  in  the  substructures  of  the  gardens  of  Prse- 
textatus  on  the  Esquiline.  Consult  "  Monografia  archeologica," 
Rome,  1878,  vol.  i.  p.  40. 



I.  Hints  to  Visitors.  —  The  Palatine  hill  is  the  j^roperty  of 
the  Italian  nation,  with  the  exception  of  the  southeast  corner, 
which  belongs  to  the  Barberini.  The  first  portion  rescued  from 
private  hands  was  the  Vigna  Nusiner,  which  the  crown  of  Russia 
gave  up  to  Pius  IX.  in  1851  in  exchange  for  some  works  of  art. 
The  same  pope  purchased  the  Vigna  Butirroni  in  1852,  the  Vigna 
del  Collegio  Inglese,  formerly  Ronconi,  in  1862,  and  the  Vigna  de' 
Benfratelli  in  1866.  In  1860  Napoleon  III.  bought  the  Farnese 
gardens  from  the  house  of  Naples,  and  began  regular  excavations 
under  the  management  of  the  late  Comm.  Pietro  Rosa.  After 
the  fall  of  Napoleon  in  1870,  the  national  government  redeemed 
this  portion  of  the  hill,  and  took  possession  of  the  convents  of 
S.  Bonaventura  and  the  Visitation  (Villa  IMills)  and  of  their  gar- 
dens. The  latter  convent  is  still  inhabited  by  the  nuns,  while 
that  of  S.  Bonaventura  is  partially  occupied  by  the  Guardie  degli 

The  Palatine  is  under  the  management  of  the  ]\Iinister  of 
Public  Instruction,  represented  by  a  local  board,  or  Ufficio  degii 
Scavi.  The  excavations  may  be  visited  every  day :  entrance  fee, 
one  lira,  which  is  not  charged  on  Sundays.  Artists,  professors,  and 
students  of  archaeology  are  exempted  from  the  fee,  on  application 
to  the  Ufficio  degli  Scavi.  The  restrictions  on  photographing 
are  most  complicated,  the  heads  of  tlie  various  boards  having  dif- 
ferent views  on  the  subject. 

The  Palatine  cannot  possibly  be  studied  in  one  day :  two  days 
at  least  are  required  to  become  acquainted,  in  a  certain  degree, 
with  the  labyrinth  of  ruins.  A  modest  literary  preparation  is 
needed,  to  lessen  the  difficulties  of  the  task,  and  also  a  know- 
ledge of  the  main  lines  of  the  map  of  the  hill.  Many  students 
on  their  first  attempt  come  away  more  discouraged  by  the  intri- 
cacies of  the  topography  of  the  Palatine  than  pleased  with  the 


beauty  of  its  ruins.  They  have  been  hurried  through  so  nuiiiy 
palaces,  —  those  of  Augustus,  Tiberius,  Caliguhi,  Doiuitian,  Seve- 
rus,  —  they  have  crossed  so  )nany  luills,  cryptoporticoes,  stadiums, 
galleries,  basilicas,  passages,  cellars,  etc.,  that  they  feel  sometimes 
inclined  to  give  the  thing  up  as  liopeless.  Yet  the  fundamental 
lines  of  the  residence  of  the  Cajsars  are  simple,  and  can  be  under- 
stood and  remembered  even  by  non-professional  men.  The  main 
points  are  these  :  — 

I.  The  Palatine  hill  originally  was  almost  square  in  shape,  each 
side  measuring  about  4.30  metres  in  length.  The  addition  of  the 
palace  of  Septiraius  Severus  at  the  southern  corner,  raised  on  an 
artiticial  platform,  the  foundations  of  which  are  level  with  the 
bottom  of  the  valley,  altered  the  shape  from  square  to  trapezoid. 
The  fall  of  the  Imperial  buildings  and  the  work  of  human  hands 
have  changed  the  abrupt  cliffs  into  slopes,  and  given  the  whole 
place  a  new  aspect.  Vegetation  and  cultivation  have  done  the 
rest,  by  uprooting  and  crushing  and  splitting  enormous  masses  of 
masonry,  which,  mixed  with  earth  brought  from  afar,  and  leveled 
into  flower  or  vegetable  beds,  have  covered  the  rocky  foundation 
of  the  hill  with  a  layer  of  rubl)ish  from  0  to  67  feet  thick.  They 
have  hidden  from  view  some  of  its  historical  features  ;  for  instance, 
the  valley  between  the  Velia  (by  the  Arch  of  Titus)  and  the  Circus 
IMaximus,  by  which  the  Palatine  was  divided  into  two  summits  — 
the  Cermalus  on  the  noith,  the  Palatium  on  the  south.  In  its 
present  form  the  hill  measures  2080  metres  in  circumference,  and 
is  51.20  metres  above  the  sea '  and  32  above  the  level  of  modern 

II.  The  platform  of  the  hill  was  entirely  occupied  by  the  palaces 
of  the  Cfesars,  with  the  exception  of  a  space  175  metres  long  and 
106  wide,  at  the  west  corner  (above  S.  Anastasia),  whei-e  some  relics 
of  Kingly  Rome  were  preserved  down  to  the  fall  of  the  Empire. 

III.  The  Palatine  was  selected  for  the  Imperial  residence  by 
Augustus,  who  built  over  the  space  now  called  the  Villa  Mills 
(convent  and  garden  della  Visitazione  —  Domus  Augustana). 

IV.  Tilierius,  born  probably  in  the  house  afterwards  owned  by 
Germanicus,  and  still  existing  in  good  condition,  built  a  new  wing, 
the  Domus  Tiberiana.  in  the  centre  of  the  Cermalus,  connecting 
it  with  that  of  Augustus  by  means  of  underground  passages  which 
are  still  visible  (Orti  Farnesiani). 

V.  Caligula  extended  the  house  of  Tiberius  over  the  remaining 
portion  of  the  Cermalus  in  the  direction  of  the  Forum  (Orti  Far- 
nesiani—  Domus  Caiana). 

1  Bv  S.  Bonavenfura. 


VI.  Nero  occupied  the  southeast  corner  (Villa  Barberini)  over- 
looking his  artificial  lake.  After  his  death  and  after  the  suppres- 
sion of  his  Golden  House,  the  plot  of  ground  was  converted  by 
Domitian  into  the  gardens  of  Adonis  (Horti  Adonea). 

The  Flavians  began  to  give  a  unity  of  plan  and  architecture  to 
the  existing  sections  of  the  palace,  raising  new  structures  in  the 
free  spaces  by  which  they  were  separated.  The  valley  across  the 
hill  was  filled  up  to  the  level  of  the  platform  of  the  Cermalus, 
and  upon  it  were  built  the  state  apartments  (^des  Publica^). 
The  house  of  Augustus,  destroyed  by  the  fire  of  Titus,  was  rebuilt 
in  harmony  with  its  surroundings ;  a  Stadium '  (Vigna  Ronconi, 
del  Collegio  Inglese)  and  a  garden,  Horti  Adonea  (Vigna  Bar- 
berini), were  added. 

Hadrian  and  Antoninus  satisfied  themselves  with  keei^ing  the 
property  in  repair,  as  proved  by  the  bricks  inscribed  with  the 
names  of  their  kilns,  which  are  found  everywhere.  Hadrian's 
principal  work  —  as  far  as  we  know  —  is  the  Exhedra  of  the 
Stadium  (Vigna  Ronconi,  del  Collegio  Inglese). 

Septimius  Severus,  after  repairing  the  damages  of  the  fire  of 
Commodus  (191)  added  an  immense  range  of  buildings  on  the 
edge  of  the  hill  facing  the  Ctelian  and  the  Appian  Way.  A 
section  was  occupied  by  the  Imperial  Thermae,  called  in  later 
documents  Balneum  Imperatoris,  while  the  front  of  the  palace, 
decorated  with  many  rows  of  columns,  received  the  name  of  Sep- 
tizonium  (Vigna  del  Collegio  Inglese).  The  same  Emperors 
brought  a  large  volume  of  water  from  the  Cfelian,  crossing  the  in- 
tervening valley  with  a  viaduct  36  metres  high  and  :J00  metres  long, 
remains  of  which  are  seen  in  the  Vigna  de'  Benfratelli.  The 
channel  ended  with  a'  reservoir  or  piscina  on  the  site  of  S.  Bona- 
ventura.  Other  additions  are  attributed  to  Severus  Alexander  and 
Heliogabalus  (Diajtje  Mammseiana,  Templum  Heliogabali,  etc.), 
which  have  not  yet  been  identified  with  any  of  the  existing 

Such  is  the  classic  topography  ot  the  hill  in  its  main  lines. 
With  the  help  of  the  plans  annexed  (Figs.  40,  41)  the  visitor 
hardly  needs  that  of  a  cicerone  or  of  a  f/uardin  degli  scavi  to 
make  himself  at  home  on  the  Palatine,  or  to  find  his  way  through 
th6  ruins  and  investigate  each  section,  either  by  itself  or  in  its  rela- 
tion to  the  other  wings  of  the  ^Edes  Imperatoripe. 

I  must  confess,  however,  that  it  is  impossible  to  suggest  to  the 
student  any  itinerary  which  shall  combine  the  topographical  and 
1  Oil  the  correctness  of  this  denomination  see  §  xxi. 







•^     *=i     a      w     -1      3 



chronological  interest  of  the  buildings.  These  are  scattered  over 
the  hill  in  a  desultory  way.  Once  across  the  entrance  gate,  for 
instance,  the  visitor  is  confronted  by  three  monuments,  the  Mu- 
rus  Romuli,  the  Templum  Divi  Augusti,  and  the  chui'ch  of  S. 
Teodoro,  separated  by  a  gap  of  seven  and  fourteen  centuries  re- 
spectively. The  area  containing  the  hut  of  Romulus  is  siuTounded 
by  buildings  of  the  first  century  of  our  era.  It  is  impossible  to 
cross  over  from  the  Domus  Augustana  to  the  Tiberiana,  as  re- 
quired by  chronology,  without  crossing  the  oiKiav  Aofxinavov,  which 
is  three  quarters  of  a  century  later.  These  things  being  so,  I  have 
given  preference  to  the  chronological  order ;  in  other  words,  my 
description  is  written  for  the  use  of  visitors  not  pressed  for  time, 
who  can  devote  three  or  four  days  at  least  to  the  systematic  and 
rational  study  of  the  Palatine.  Those  who  have  no  leisure  can 
adopt  the  following  itinerary,  the  best  I  can  suggest,  taking  the 
various  sides  of  the  problem  into  consideration  :  — 

Ut  (/((^  — Walls  (if  Roimilus,  de- 
scribed §  viii. 

Altar  of  Aiiis  Locutius,  §  ix. 

Steps  of  Caciis,  §  x. 

Hut  of  Romulus,  §  xi. 

Temple  of  the  great  Mother  of 
the  Gods,  §  xiii. 

Paternal  house  of  Tiberius  (and 
Germanieus)  §  xvii. 

House  of  Tiberius,  §  xvi. 

House  of  Caligula,  S  xviii. 

'2cl  day  —  Temple  of  Augustus, 

§  iv. 
Clivus  Victoria',  §  vi. 
Palace  of  Domitian,  §  xix. 
Palace  of  Augustus,  §  xv. 
So-called  Stadium,  §  xxii. 
Palace  of  Septimius  Severus, 

§  xxiii. 
House  of  Gelotius,  §  xxvi. 
S.  Teodoro,  §  vji. 

The  visitor  must  bear  in  mind  one  fundamental  rule  :  that 
many  of  the  existing  ruins  belong  to  the  substructures,  and  cel- 
lars, and  underground  rooms  built  for  but  one  purpose,  —  to  level 
the  undulating  surface  of  the  hill,  and  to  extend  and  protract  the 
level  platform  over  the  slopes,  and  even  over  the  plain  below,  as  is 
the  case  with  the  Palace  of  Severus  and  the  Septizonium.  Tlieir 
plan  is  most  irregular  ;  they  have  no  light  and  very  little  ventila- 
tion ;  architecturally  speaking  they  count  for  nothing.  This  is 
the  reason  why  existing  maps  of  the  Palatine  are  so  difficult  to 
understand  :  we  find  marked  in  them  with  the  same  degree  of  im- 
portance apartments  of  state  and  crypts  which  were  destined 
never  to  be  seen.  I  have  tried  to  remedy  this  defect  in  Sheets 
xxix.  and  xxxv.  of  the  "  Forma  I'rbis,"'  where  the  apartments 
alone  are  depicted  in  full,  while  the  substructiu-es  are  simply 
traced  in  outline. 


SiJecial  permission  is  required  to  visit  the  Palace  of  Augustus 
(see  §  xv).  The  Convent  of  the  Visitation  and  its  grounds  are 
practically  inaccessible.  The  Vigna  Barberini  and  the  chapel  of 
S.  Sebastian  are  opened  on  payment  of  a  fee  (see  §  xxxiii). 

The  Palatine  during  the  winter  months  ought  to  be  visited  in 
the  morning ;  during  the  spring  and  autumn  in  the  afternoon. 
There  is  always  a  great,  and  sometimes  a  dangerous,  difference  of 
temperature  between  the  sunny  and  the  shady  side  of  the  ruins. 
The  Palatine,  with  its  groves  of  ilexes  and  green  lawns  and  glori- 
ous views,  affords  a  delightful  promenade  even  to  those  who  are 
not  attracted  by  archasological  interests. 

General  References. —  Carlo  Fea,  Miscellanea  antiquaria,  vol.  i.  p.  86, 
n.  7G  ;  p.  87,  ii.  77  ;  p.  223,  n.  5,  6,  7.  —  Francesco  Biauchini,  Jl  palazzo  dei 
Cenari,  opera  postunia.  Verona,  1738.  —  Luigi  Kossiui,  I sette  colli.  Rome, 
1827.  —  Constantino  Thon  and  Vincenzo  Ballanti,  II  palazzo  dei  Cesari. 
Rome,  1828.  —  De  Agostini  and  Broiiferio,  //  7>a/a2zo  dei  Cesari.  Vercelli, 
1871.  —  Ipi>olito  Ruspoli,  Avanzi  e  ricordi  del  monte  Palatino.  Rome,  1846. — 
Fabio  (iori,  Gli  edijizi palatini  dopo  (/li  nltimi  scavi.  Rome,  1807. —  Heinrich 
Jordan,  I)ie  Kaiseipalciste  in  Rom.  Berlin,  1868.  —  Wilhelm  Henzen,  Annali 
dell'  Jnstit'uto,  1865,  p.  346  ;  1866,  p.  161.  —  Pietro  Rosa,  Relazione  sulle  sco- 
perte  archeoloyiche  neyli  unni  1871-72,  p.  75  ;  and  also  Plan  et peintures  de  la 
maison  de  Tihere,  mai,  1869.  —  Viseonti  and  Lanciani,  Guida  del  Palatino,  con 
plant  a  delineata  da  A.  ZangoUni.  Rome,  Boeea,  1873-93.  —  A.  Preuner,  I)as 
Pdlatiinn  in  alten  Rom.  Greifswald,  1875.  —  Gaston  B(jissier,  Promenades  ar- 
cheolof/iqves.  Paris,  1882.  —  Constantino  Maes,  Tojiograjia  storica  del  Palatino. 
Rome,  1883  (unfinished). — ^Deglane,  Le  palais  des  Cesars  (in  Gazette  archeo- 
logique,  1888,  pp.124,  145,  211).  — Otto  Richter,  Die  dlteste  Wolinsiitte  des  Ro- 
misclien  Volkes.  Rome,  Berlin,  1891. — John  Henr^' Middleton,  The  Remains 
of  Ancient  Rome,  vol.  i.  chap.  iv.  \).  158. —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  II  palazzo  mag- 
giore  (in  Mittheihmgen,  1894,  p.  1).  Forma  Urhis  Romxe,  plates  xxix.,  xxxv.  ; 
and  Ancient  Rome,  chap.  v.  p.  106. — Christian  Huelsen,  Untersuchungen  zur 
topographie  des  Palatins  (in  Mittheihmgen,  1895,  p.  3). 

TT.  The  Origin  of  the  Palatine  City.  —  Two  discoveries 
have  illustrated  from  a  new  point  of  view  the  origin  of  Palatine 
Rome,  that  of  the  city  of  Antemn?e,  and  that  of  the  Terramara  di 

According  to  tradition  ^  Antemnte  was  a  flourishing  settlement 
when  a  colony  of  Alban  shepherds  occupied  the  Palatine.  The 
distance  between  the  two  places  being  less  than  four  miles,  and 
their  bartering  trade  very  active,  as  they  were  located  on  the  same 
(left)  bank  of  the  Tiber  and  on  the  same  road  (Salaria  Vetus),  we 

1  Antonio  Nibby,  Analisi  dei  dintorni  di  Roma,  vol.  i.  p.  161.  —  Dennis, 
Cities  and  Cemeteries  of  Etrnria,  vol.  i.  p.  44.  —  William  Gell,  Topography  of 
Rome,  p.  64.  —  Smith's  Diction,  geograph.,  vol.  i.  p.  139. 


may  assume  that  manners,  habits,  stage  of  civilization,  etc.,  were 
about  the  same  in  Rome  and  Antemu;\?.  Antemna;  died  a  sudden 
death  a  few  years  after  the  foundation  of  Rome.  It  is  evident, 
therefore,  that  a  search  made  on  the  site  of  tlie  former  corresponds 
practically  to  a  search  made  in  the  lower  strata  of  Kingly  Palatine. 
The  search  w^as  made  in  LSS2-8;J,  while  the  hill  %vas  crowned  by  a 
fort.^     The  facts  ascertained  were  these  (see  Fig.  42). 

The  city  occupied  the  platform  of  the  hill,  protected  by  cliffs 
or  rivers  (ante  amnes)  on  every  side,  except  where  a  neck  or  isth- 
mus connected  it  with  the  tableland  (Monti  Parioli,  Villa  Ada). 
The  natural  strength  of  the  site  had  been  increased  by  a  wall 
built  of  blocks  of  local  stone,  each  two  feet  (0.59  metre)  high  and 
three  (0.89)  long.  There  were  three  gates,  one  leading  to  the  river 
to  the  springs,  one  to  the  highroad  (Salaria),  the  third  to  the 
cemetery  and  pasture-lands.  The  Antemnates  lived  in  round  or 
square  huts,  witli  a  framework  of  timber  and  a  thatched  roof,  the 
site  of  which  is  nmrked  by  a  hard-trodden,  coal-colored  floor  within 
a  ring  of  I'ough  stones.  Their  public  buildings,  like  the  temple 
and  the  curia,  were  of  better  style,  and  probably  all  of  stone. 
The  cattle  were  driven  at  night  into  the  inclosures  or  sheepfolds 
adjoining  each  hut.  The  area  inclosed  by  walls  was  therefore 
much  larger  than  was  required  by  the  number  of  inhabitants. 

In  times  of  peace  the  Antemnates  di'ank  from  the  springs  at 
the  foot  of  the  hill ;  for  times  of  war  they  had  provided  them- 
selves with  cisterns  and  wells  under  shelter  of  the  fortifications. 
One  of  tlie  wells  still  in  use  is  54  feet  deep ;  and  one  of  the  cis- 
terns, covered  by  a  triangular  roof  (destroyed  1883),  could  hold 
5000  gallons  of  water  (see  Fig.  4o). 

The  civilization  of  the  Antemnates  when  their  city  ceased  to 
exist  was  in  the  '•  bronze  "  stage.  One  third  of  their  pottery  and 
domestic  ware  was  of  local  make,  and  baked  in  an  open  fire ;  the 
rest  was  of  Etruscan  importation.  There  were  traces  of  the 
stone  period,  such  as  arrow-heads  and  lance-spears  of  polished 
flint,  clay  beads,  and  fragments  of  the  roughest  kind  of  pottery. 

This  description  answers  word  for  word  to  that  of  the  city  on 
the  Palatine.  Here  again  we  have  the  isolated  hill  pi'otected  by 
cliffs,  by  water,  and  by  a  circuit  of  walls ;  the  neck  of  the  Velia 
connecting  it  with  the  tableland  of  the  Esquiline ;  the  gate  lead- 
ing to  the  river  and  springs  (j-omanuki),  tliat  leading  to  the  pas- 
ture fields  and  cemeteries  (»n<r/o;//rt),and  a  third  descending  to  the 
Vallis  Murtia  ;  the  wells  and  cisterns  within   the   fortifications  ; 

1  Notkk  degli  Scai-i,  1882,  p.  415  ;  188.'5,  p.  10  ;  1886,  p.  24  ;  1887,  p.  fi4. 


and  other  sxich  cliaracteristics  of  the  age.  The  description  we 
have  of  the  Casa  Romuli,  kept  in  its  prehistoric  simplicity  as  late 
as  the  fourth  century  after  Christ,  shows  that  the  Romans,  like  the 
Antemnates,  lived  in  straw  huts ;  and  furthermore,  the  discoveries 
made  in  the  cemeteries  of  the  Viminal  and  of  the  Esquiline  prove 

Xcvft-C      o^    or-ovAA-fc^ 

Fig.  43.  —  Reservoir  at  AntenniB. 

that  their  civilization  was  in  the  "  bronze  "  stage.  (See  Ancient 
Rome,  chap.  ii.  p.  26).  Roman  archaic  pottery  was  half  of  local 
(or  All)an)  make,  half  of  Etruscan  importation. ^  Cattle  were 
driven  in  at  night,  each  family  being  provided  with  an  ugellua  and 
a  sheepfold. 

What  has  been  said  about  Rome  and  Antemna?  must  be  ai^jjlied 
to  other  contemporary  settlements  like  Collatia,  Fidense,  Labicum, 
Ardea,  Gabii,  Veil,  etc.,  the  sites  of  which,  excepting  that  of  Veii, 
have  not  yet  been  scientifically  investigated.  They  were  all 
organized  on  the  same  system :  their  walls  inclosed  an  area  ten 
times  as  large  as  that  required  by  the  number  of  inhabitants, 
becanse  they  shared  it  with  their  flocks,  and  each  hut  had  its  own 
sheepfold  and  orchard.  The  highest  and  strongest  point  within 
the  walls  was  occupied  by  the  citadel,  containing  the  temple,  the 
curia,  the  ajrarium,  and  the  reservoir  for  rain-water.  After  the  Ro- 
man conquest  the  scanty  surviving  population  was  concentrated  on 
the  site  of  the  citadel,  and  the  rest  of  the  city  cut  up  into  farms 
and  allotted  to  Roman  colonists.     The  Roman  municipia  of  Veii 

1  Tlie  ajTliaic  KeinirjAia  {liscovt'red  in  tlie  cemeteries  of  Kintjly  Rome  were  re- 
moved in  Septemher,  1895,  from  liall  No.  H.  of  the  Museo  Mnnieipale  al  Celio 
to  two  rooms  of  the  I'alazzo  dei  Conservator!,  wliere  the  want  of  light  and 
space  makes  their  examination  almost  impossible. 


(Piazza  d'  Aniii),  of  Fidenaj  (]\lonte  di  Villa  Spada),  of  Gabii 
(farmhouse  of  Castiglione)  are  all  that  mark  the  place  of  the 
respective  citadels  of  the  time  of  the  independence,  while  the  area 
once  inclosed  by  the  city  walls  was  put  into  cultivation.  For  this 
reason  it  is  almost  impossible  to  recognize  the  site  of  the  huts  and 
the  extent  of  the  piece  of  ground  pertaining  to  each  of  them ; 
in  other  words,  to  decide  whether  the  old  Sabine,  Etruscan,  and 
Latin  cities  in  the  lower  valley  of  the  Tiber  had  a  cardo  and  a 
decumamis,  and  were  planned,  according  to  the  principles  of  the 
agrimetutlo,  in  square  plots  or  heredia. 

My  opinion  is  that  they  were  not.  In  the  excavations  made  in 
1889  within  tlie  walls  of  Veii,^  I  have  seen  traces  of  primitive 
habitations  which  were  not  "oriented,"  and  the  same  thing  was 
observed  at  Antemnaj.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  no  proper  search 
has  yet  been  made  in  the  lower  strata  of  the  Palatine,  where  the 
excavations  stop  generally  at  the  wrong  level,  leaving  most,  of 
the  problems  unsolved;'^  but  I  believe  that  the  shepherds  who 
occupied  the  hill  in  7o'-i  n.  c.  had  no  idea  whatever  of  gromatic  or 
astronomical  rules  of  their  own,  so  that  the  sulcua  primi(/<iilus  had 
to  be  traced  according  to  a  foreign  rite.  Rome  and  its  neighbor- 
ing settlements  on  eitlier  side  of  tlie  "  Rumou  "  must  luive  looked 
like  tlie  temporaiy  villages  which  the  peasants  of  the  present  day 
build  in  tlie  Pomptiue  marshes  or  in  the  Agro  Romano,  when  they 
come  down  from  their  mountains  for  the  cultivation  of  the  maize- 
fields.  The  prototy))e  of  these  prehistoric  contemporary  settle- 
ments is  the  village  constructed  every  autumn  on  the  borders  of 
the  (now  drained)  lake  of  Gabii,  at  the  twelfth  milestone  on  the 
Via  Pra>nestina,  and  inhabited  by  a  half-savage  tribe  of  two 
hundred  mountaineers.  I  never  fail  to  take  our  students  to  this 
remarkable  village  during  the  university  term,  to  give  them  an 
object-lesson  more  impressive  than  any  which  can  be  found  in  the 
whole  of  the  Canipagua. 

The  populations  of  the   Terramare,^  on  the  contrary,  seem  to 

1  Described  in  Not'tzie.  Jer/li  Scavi,  1889,  pp.  10,  29,  GO,  15-t,  238. 

2  GoettVmg  (Geschich  1 1'  der  Riiiaiitch.  Shidtsveru-.,  ])p.  49,  202,  235)  believes 
the  Sacra  Via  to  have  bet-n  the  (lecumaiiit.'i  marking  tiic  boundary  between  the 
Sabine  and  tlie  Roman  city;  but  the  Sacra  Via  of  those  days  was  but  a  iriud- 
in;!  path  oiitsidv  the  PahUine,  to  whioli  alone  my  considerations  refer. 

3  The  name  Terramnrn  is  a  corruption  of  that  of  Terra  mama,  given  till 
1862  to  the  special  kind  of  earth,  rich  in  organic  qualities,  which  the  peasants 
of  upper  Italy  dug  from  prehistoric  stations,  and  used  as  a  fertilizer.  When 
Pigorini  and  Strobel  began  their  study  of  these  stations  they  adopted  the 
corrupted  name  "  Terraniara  "  in  preference  to  "Terra  niarna,"  to  avoid  the 
confusion  which  the  epithet  "marl"  might  produce  in  scientific  treatises. 



have  been  faiuiliHr  with  the  principles  of  the  ai/rimctatin.  The 
startling  discoveries  made  by  Pigorini  in  the  terramara  at  Cas- 
tellazzo  di  Fontanellato,  in  the  province  of  Parma,  are  described 
in  the  following  papers  :  — 

Nolizie  dcfjll  Scam,  1889,  p.  355;  1891,  p.  304;  1892,  p.  450;  1895,  p.  9.— 
Monumenti  inedili  Accademia  Lincei,  vol.  i.  (1889),  ]).  123.  —  Bullettino  di 
paleoelnolo(/in  iUdinna,  vol.  xix.  (1893),  tav.  viii.  —  Friedricli  von  Duliii,  Ntue 
Heidelberi/er  Jahrbiichtr,  vol.  iv.  (1894),  p.  143. 

Fig.  46.  —  Plan  of  the  Terramara  di  Foutanellato. 

This  primitive  settlement  of  immigrants  in  the  "  Poebene "  ^ 
forms  an  oblong  280  metres  wide  between  the  parallel  sides,  480 
metres  long,  and  covers  an  area  of  lOi  hectares  (195,525  square 
metres).  Its  fortified  inclosiu-e  comprises  a  ditch  (A)  100  Roman 
feet  wide,  12  deep  (oOX'^-50  metres),  and  an  affger  or  embankment 
(B)  formed  with  the  earth  excavated  from  the  ditch,  sloping 
towards  the  water  and  supported  by  a  perpendicular  palisade  (C) 
on  the  inner  side.  The  adoption  of  a  trapezoid  form  in  the  Ter- 
ramare,  instead  of  the  square  or  parallelogram,  is  explained  by 
1  The  valley  of  the  Po  and  of  its  affluents. 


the  fact  that  the  sharp  coi-ner  (D)  always  faces  the  river  (E),  from 
which  the  supply  of  water  for  the  ditcli  is  derived,  so  as  to  divide 
it  into  two  equal  streams,  which  meet  again  at  the  outlet  (F). 
There  was  but  one  gate,  approached  by  a  bridge  30  metres  wide 
(G),  the  axis  of  which  is  in  a  line  with  the  cai-do  or  high  street 
(H,  I),  cutting  the  village  in  two  halves.  The  quarter  (K)  west 
of  the  high  street  was  entirely  occupied  by  huts  built  on  palisades ; 
on  the  opposite  side  we  find  the  central  portion  occupied  by  a 
square  of  solid  gi-ound  (L)  100  metres  long  and  50  wide,  protected 
by  a  ditch  30  metres  wide  and  6  deep,  and  approached  by  a  bridge 
(M)  on  the  line  of  the  decumanus.  This  foi'tified  terrace  represents 
the  lemplum  in  the  primitive  sense  of  the  word,  or,  to  use  the 
expression  of  Helbig,  the  fundamental  idea  of  the  arx  of  Italian 
towns  and  of  the  prcetorhmi  of  Roman  camps.  There  were  two 
cemeteries  outside  the  fortifications  (N,  O),  also  inclosed  by  a  ditch 
and  made  accessible  by  a  bridge.  The  cremated  remains  of  the 
Terramaricoli  were  kept  in  clay  urns,  placed  in  rows  on  a  wooden 
platform  supported  by  palisades.  • 

If  the  reader  refer  to  the  map  of  the  Palatine,  Fig.  44,  he  will 
find  that  nature  had  done  for  early  Rome  nearly  all  the  work 
that  human  labor  and  ingenuity  had  done  at  Fontanellato.  Tlie 
marshes  of  the  two  Velabra  and  the  pond,  which  Nero  transformed 
afterwards  into  the  lake  of  the  Golden  House,  represent  the  water 
defenses  ;  the  neck  of  the  Velia  i-epresents  the  bridge  ;  the  cliffs 
answer  for  the  embankment.  Other  points  of  resemblance  are  the 
square  form,  the  angle  facing  the  stream  (Nodinus?)  which  fed 
the  greater  Velabrum,  and  the  area  of  about  seventeen  hectares. 
The  Romans,  however,  did  not  wait  long  to  make  themselves  fa- 
miliar witii  the  at/rimctatio  and  to  adopt  the  pes  (.297  metres), 
wiili  its  multiples  and  fractions,  as  the  standard  national  measure. 
When  Servius  Tullius  built  the  great  agger  for  the  protection  of 
the  city  on  the  east  side,  he  simply  copied  in  the  minutest  details 
the  fortifications  of  the  Terramare.  The  agger  of  Servius  com- 
prises a  ditch  exactly  one  hundred  pedes  wide  and  thirty  deep ;  an 
embankment  made  with  the  earth  of  the  ditch,  sloping  towards  the 
city  and  supported  by  a  wall  on  the  outside.  The  three  gates,  Col- 
lina,  Viminalis,  and  Esquilina,  were  approached  by  bridges.  The 
ground  on  the  other  side  of  the  ditch  was  occupied  by  cemeteries. 

The  history  of  the  Palatine,  from  the   foundation  of  the  city 

1  In  the  campaign  of  last  summer  (189.5)  Pigorini  discovered  side  streets 
parallel  with  the  crn-du  and  the  decwmanus.  The  Terramara,  therefore,  was 
divided  into  regular  squares  or  parallelograms. 

THE    ORIGIN    OF    THE    PALATINE    CITY  117 

to  that  of  the  Empire,  is  not  known.  At  the  time  of  Tarquinius 
Priscus  (616-578)  it  was  still  honored  by  the  kingly  i-esidence,  a 
casa  of  more  elaborate  construction  than  the  ordinary  citizens' 
huts,  placed  near  the  Porta  Mugonia  and  the  Temple  of  Jupiter 
Stator  (Solinus,  i.  24).  The  hill  was  not  above  the  reach  of  fever, 
even  after  the  drainage  of  the  lesser  Velabrum,  accomplished  by 
Tarquinius  by  means  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  as  the  worship  of  the 
Dea  Febria  was  never  intermitted,  and  her  temple  and  altar  were 
not  abandoned  for  centuries  after.  Beside  the  Fever's  shrine,  there 
were  others  to  the  Dea  Virii^laca,  a  protectress  of  domestic  peace ; 
to  Orbona,  the  evil  genius  of  blindness  ;  an  altar  to  Aius  Locutius 
(described  §  ix.)  ;  temples  to  Victory  (§  vi.)  ;  to  the  great  Mother 
of  the  Gods  (§  xiii.)  ;  and  to  Jupiter  I'ropugnator  (§  xiv.). 

Towards  the  end  of  the  Republic  the  Palatine  became  one  of 
the  most  aristocratic  quarters  of  the  city,  resorted  to  by  the  great 
orators,  lawyers,  and  political  men  of  the  age  on  account  of  its 
proximity  to  the  Curia,  the  Rostra,  and  the  Forum.  The  follow- 
ing palatial  residences  are  recorded  in  classic  texts  :  — 

1.  House  of  M.  Fulvius  Flaccus,  destroyed  by  order  of  the  senate, 
after  his  execution  for  his  share  in  the  conspiracy  of  the  (iracchi. 
The  sjiace  left  vacant,  area  Flacciana,  was  occupied  soon  after  by  a 
wing  of  the  Porticus  Catuli. 

2.  House  of  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus,  consul  b.  c.  102,  with  Marius, 
with  whom  he  gained  the  victory  over  the  Cimbri,  near  Vercelbv. 
With  his  share  in  the  spoils  of  war  he  enlarged  his  house  and  con- 
nected it  with  a  portico,  the  Porticus  Catuli,  where  thirty-one  flags 
taken  from  the  enemy  were  exhibited. 

3.  House  of  ]\I.  Livius  Drusus,  tribute  of  the  plebs  in  is.  c.  91, 
the  great  i-eformer  of  social  laws,  whose  murder  by  Q.  Varius  was 
immediately  followed  by  the  social  w'ar,  which  his  policy  would 
have  averted.  The  house  was  inherited  by  Crassus  the  orator,  who, 
having  ornamented  its  impluvium  with  four  columns  of  Ilymettian 
marble,  the  first  ever  seen  in  Rome,  was  nicknamed  the  "Palatine 
Venus."  Cicero  bought  it  in  December,  62,  for  a  sum  correspond- 
ing to  $155,000.  The  peristyle  was  shaded  by  six  marvelous  lotus- 
trees,  which  perished  one  hundred  and  seventy  years  later  in  the 
fire  of  Nero.  It  passed  afterwards  into  the  hands  of  C.  JNIarcius 
Censorinus,  another  great  orator  and  Greek  scholar ;  of  L.  Corne- 
lius Sisenna,  annalist  historian,  translator  of  the  IMilesian  tales  of 
Aristides ;  of  A.  Ca^cina  Largus,  probably  the  author  of  the  book 
on  the  "  Etrusca  Disciplina;"  and  finally  it  was  absorbed  into 
Caligula's  palace. 


4.  House  of  Quintus  Cicero,  near  the  one  of  his  brother  Marcus, 
but  lower  down  the  slope  of  the  hill.  It  was  wrecked  and  burnt 
to  the  ground  by  Clodius. 

5.  House  of  Clodius,  the  notorious  enemy  of  Cicero,  —  composed 
of  two  portions :  one  belonging  to  Cicero  himself,  which  he  had 
bought  at  the  time  of  the  banishment  of  the  orator ;  one  to  C. 
Seius,  which  he  had  obtained  by  poisoning  the  owner  on  his  refusal 
to  sell.  The  domus  Clodiana  was  nuignificent,  and  commanded  a 
glorious  view. 

6.  House  of  M.  ^milius  Scaurus,  stepson  of  Sulla,  the  dictator, 
perhaps  the  richest  of  all  Palatine  residences.  When  Cicero  was 
restored  to  the  possession  of  his  own,  he  tried  to  take  a  revenge  on 
the  usurper  Clodius  by  raising  one  or  two  floors  so  as  to  cut  off  the 
view  of  which  his  enemy  was  so  proud.  To  avoid  this  danger 
Clodius  purchased  the  palace  of  Scaurus  for  a  sum  of  $4,425,000  (?), 
having  already  spent  $655,000  on  his  owai. 

All  these  residences  were  in  the  district  of  the  Clivus  Victoria?, 
at  the  corner  of  the  hill  commanding  the  Forum,  and  must  have 
disappeared  when  Caligula  extended  the  Imjierial  Palace  as  far  as 
the  Nova  Via  and  the  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux. 

7.  The  paternal  house  of  Augustus,  in  the  lane  called  the  "  Oxen- 
heads,"  at  the  east  corner  of  the  hill.     (See  §  xv.) 

8.  The  liouse  of  Quintus  Hortensius,  first  the  rival,  then  the 
associate  of  Cicero  ;  a  man  of  immense  wealth,  and  endowed  with 
a  memory  so  retentive  that  he  could  repeat  the  auction-list  back- 
wards on  coming  out  of  sale-rooms.  He  was  also  the  first  to  in- 
clude peacocks  in  Roman  dinner  menus.  Hortensius's  residence 
was  purchased  by  Augustus,  and  inclosed  in  the  Imperial  Palace 
together  with 

9.  The  liouse  of  L.  Sergius  Catilina.  Both  were  on  the  edge  of 
the  hill  facing  the  Circus  Maximus. 

It  is  now  time  for  us  to  enter  the  precincts  of  the  famous  hill, 
and  examine  one  by  one  the  remains  which  bear  evidence  on  so 
many  points  of  the  political  and  monumental  history  of  the 
"  queen  of  the  world." 

III.  ViGXA  NusiNEK.  —  The  strip  of  land  between  the  north- 
western cliffs  of  the  Cermalus  and  the  Vic  us  Tuscus,  by  which  we 
enter  the  excavations,  is  known  to  topographers  by  the  name  of 
Vigna  Nusiner,  and  is  represented  in  the  following  fragment  of  the 
marble  plan  of  Rome,  published  by  Trendelenburg  in  the  "  Archae- 


ologische  Zeitung,"'  LSTo,  vol.  xxxiii.  p.  o'J ;  and  by  myself  in  the 
"  Bull.  com.  arch.,"  vol.  xiii.  (1886),  p.  159.     (See  Fig.  47.) 

The  Clivus  Victorise,  cut  in  the  live  rock  along  the  foot  of  the 
cliffs,  bounds  the  triangular  space  on  one  side,  the  Templum  Divi 
Augusti  on  the  second,  the  Vicus  Tiiscus  on  the  third.  The  ground 
contains,  besides,  the  Springs  of  Juturna,  the  Murus  Romuli,  the 
Altar  of  Aius  Locutius  (the  Lupercal),  and  the  church  of,  S. 
Teodoro.  All  these  monuments  and  landnu\rks,  excepting  the 
temple  and  the  church,  belong  to  the  earliest  period  of  Roman 
history,  so  tliat  we  could  not  begin  our  visit  to  the  Palatine  in 
more  regular  order. 

The  Vigna  Nusiner  has  l)een  excavated  oftener  than  any  other 
part  of  the  Palatine,  and  yet  we  know  very  little  about  it  for  want 
of  proper  accounts.  The  Frangipani  owned  it  at  the  end  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  together  with  a  fortified  house  called  "  Lo  Palazzo 
de  Frigiapani."  I  have  found  two  deeds  in  the  records  of  that 
family  :  one  dated  January  21,  1510,  by  which  the  brothers  Giam- 
battista  and  Marcello  Frangipani  give  permission  to  the  rector  of 
the  church  of  S.  Lorenzo  ai  JVIonti  to  open  cavain  seu  fossuram 
lapidum  in  their  vineyard  iiix/a  stDictuin  Theodoruin  ;  the  second, 
dated  October  23,  1535,  relates  to  a  controversy  between  Antonino 
Frangipani  and  Camilla  Alberini  over  the  produce  of  the  excava- 
tions which  a  stone-cutter  named  (iiuliano  was  making  at  that  time. 

In  154ft-15.5()  tJie  contractors  for  the  sup]>ly  of  Iniilding  materials 
to  S.  Peter's  found  the  pavement  of  the  Vicus  Tuscus,  the  pedestal 
of  the  statue  of  Vortumnus,  and  the  remains  of  a  temple  with 
columns,  capitals,  entablature,  and  a  frieze  ornamented  with  griffins 
and  candelabra.  The  plunder  was  so  considerable  that  no  fresh 
excavations  were  attempted  for  a  lapse  of  a  century  and  a  half. 
The  land  was  turned  into  a  kitchen-garden,  famous  for  its  arti- 
chokes. In  a  contract  of  ^larch  11,  16-10,  the  spring  hai'vest  of 
them  is  valued  at  110  scudi. 

A  new  search  was  made  in  1720,  between  the  churches  of  S. 
Teodoro  and  S.  Anastasia.  It  led  to  the  discovery  of  a  portico 
with  pilasters  of  travertine  (one  of  the  three  marked  in  the  frag- 
ment of  the  marble  plan),  of  pieces  of  columns,  and  of  a  row  of 
rooms  filled  with  objects  of  metal  and  scoria},  to  which  Venuti 
gives  the  name  oi  foiulerln  /xilatina,  or  imperial  brass-foundry. 

Giovanni  Battista  Visconti  opened  the  ground  for  the  fifth  time 
at  least ;  but  his  progress  was  stopped  by  the  house  of  Naples 
under  the  plea  that  he  was  undermining  the  walls  that  held  up 
the  Farnese  gardens. 


111  June,  1845,  the  antiquarian  Vescovali,  acting  on  behalf  of 
the  Emperor  of  Russia,  who  had  purchased  the  Vigna  for  the  sake 
of  excavating,  discovered  the  remains  of  the  Domiis  Gelotiana 
(see  §  xxvi.)  ;  in  December,  1846,  he  came  upon  those  of  the 
Murus  Romuli ;  and  in  April,  1847,  upon  the  remains  of  a  private 
house  on  the  Vicus  Tuscus,  decorated  with  columns  of  porphyry 
and  giallo  antico. 

In  18G9  Pius  IX.  laid  bare  the  pavement  of  the  Clivus  Victoriae 
and  tlie  alleged  site  of  the  Porta  Romanula.  The  Italian  govern- 
ment began  the  last  and  general  excavation  of  the  place  in  1876 
(and  again  in  1884),  but  the  work  was  soon  given  up  without 

On  entering  the  Palatine  by  the  S.  Teodoro  gate  we  are 
confronted  with  the  Augustseum  on  the  left,  with  the  Clivus 
Victoriae  and  the  Fons  Juturnae  opposite  the  gate,  with  the  chui-ch 
of  S.  Teodoro  and  the  Murus  Romuli  on  the  right. 

IV.  Templum  divi  Augusti  (Temple  of  Augustus).  —  Tlie 
temple  in  honor  of  the  deified  founder  of  the  Empire  was  begun 
by  his  widow  Livia  and  by  Tiberius,  his  adopted  son,  and  com- 
pleted by  Caligula.  Domitian  restored  it  after  the  fire  of  Titus. 
Pliny  (xii.  19,  42)  describes,  among  the  curiosities  of  the  place, 
a  root  of  a  cinnamon  tree  of  great  size  placed  by  Livia  on  a 
golden  plate,  the  sap  of  which  was  hardened  into  globules  every 
year ;  and  also  a  famous  picture  of  Hyacinthus  by  Nikias  the 
Athenian,  which  Augustus  had  brought  from  Alexandria.  The 
plan  and  design  of  the  building  are  different  fi-om  the  recognized 
type  of  a  Roman  temple,  the  front  being  on  the  long  side  of  the 
parallelogram  instead  of  the  short.  The  shape  seems  special  to 
the  Augusta?a,  perhaps  on  account  of  the  large  number  of  statues 
which  had  to  be  placed  on  the  suggestum  opposite  the  door,  the 
deified  Emperor  being  generally  surrounded  by  other  members 
of  the  family.  The  temple  is  mentioned  in  connection  with 
Caligula's  bridge,  which  is  supposed  to  have  crossed  the  valley  of 
the  Forum  at  a  great  height,  so  as  to  enable  the  young  monarch 
to  walk  on  a  level  from  his  palace  to  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  on  the 
Capitol.  The  bridge  never  existed  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word. 
Caligula  passed  from  roof  to  roof  of  the  intermediate  buildings, 
spanning  the  gaps  of  the  streets  with  temporary  wooden  passages. 
Suetonius  and  Flavins  Josephus  mention  among  these  buildings, 
first,  the  Templum  divi  Augusti,  then  the  Basilica  Julia.  There 
is  no  doubt,  therefore,  that  these  noble  ruins,  placed  between  the 
Basilica  and  the  Emperor's  palace,  belong  to  the  Augusta3um. 


The  back  wall  of  the  temple,  the  murus  post  cedem  diri  A  ugusti  ad 
Minervam,  was  used  for  the  posting  of  state  notices  and  imperial 
decrees.  Two  attendants  of  the  Augustaeum  are  mentioned  in 
epigi'aphic  documents:  a  Bathyllus,  fpr/Z/Hw.s'  tcmpll  diri,  Angusti  el 
divce  Augustce  quod  est  in  Palatium   (Corpus,  vi.  n.  4222),  and  a 


Fig.  48.  —  Plan  of  the  Aiigustaeum. 

T.  Flavins  Onesimus,  cedituus  templi  novi  divi  A  ugusti  (n.  8704). 
The  temple  has  been  excavated  at  least  five  times.  I  have  found 
in  the  state  archives  an  Act  of  October  2,  1526,  by  which  Jacopo 
de'  ]\Iuti  gives  back  to  a  poor  widow,  Lucrezia  Collino,  the  caution 
deposited  by  her  before  she  began  the  excavations  in  the  garden 
of  S.  Maria  Liberatrice. 

Pirro  Ligorio  was  able  to  draw  the  plan  of  the  structure  about 
1549,  in  consequence  of   the  excavations  described  in  Book  III. 

THE   SPRINGS    OF  JUT  URN  A  123 

§  xxi.  (See  Middleton,  The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome,  vol.  i. 
p.  275,  fig.  35.) 

In  1702  a  contractor  named  Andrea  Bianchi  gained  permission 
from  Sister  Costanza  di  Santacroce,  abbess  of  the  monastery  of 
Torre  de'  Specchi,  to  search  for  building  materials  within  and 
near  the  temple.  He  found  the  church  of  S.  Maria  Antiqua, 
that  is  to  say,  tliat  inner  hall  of  the  Augustajum  which  had  been 
adapted  to  Cliristian  worship  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  century, 
and  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  Marj%  in  opjiositiou  to  the  worship 
of  Vesta,  the  headquarters  of  which  were  on  the  other  side  of  the 
street.  There  are  two  desci-ijitions  of  the  find :  one  by  Galletti  in 
the  Vatican  Library  (Chron.  miscell.  xxxiii.)  ;  another  by  Valesio 
in  Cancellieri's  ''  Solenni  possessi,"  p.  370.  The  church  was  level 
with  the  floor  of  the  Augustpeum,  and  ended  with  an  apse,  with 
frescoes  representing  the  Saviour  and  some  saints,  among  which 
was  prominent  the  figure  of  Paul  T.  (757-767),  with  the  square 
nimbus  and  the  legend  Sanctisa.  Paulus  Romanus  Papa.  The  fres- 
coes on  the  walls  of  the  aisles  represented  scenes  in  the  life  of  the 
Saviour,  with  texts  from  the  Ciospel  in  Greek  and  Gothico-Latin 
letters.  The  figure  of  the  crucifix  sliowed  the  feet  nailed  apart. 
Benedict  XIV.  ordered  the  church  to  be  roofed  over  and  kept  open 
for  inspection,  but  the  order  was  never  executed. 

In  1735  Antonio  Vanui  excavated  the  plot  of  ground  near  the 
temple  known  as  the  Caprareccia. 

The  last  excavation  took  place  in  1885.  It  was  discovered  then 
that  the  church  of  S.  Maria  Antiqua  l)ehind  the  Augustseum  had 
been  put  in  communication  with  the  Augusta^um  itself,  by  cutting 
an  irregular  passage  through  the  partition  wall  seven  feet  thick. 
The  sides  of  the  passage  were  covered  with  figures  of  saints  painted 
in  the  eleventh  century,  with  the  name  appended  to  each  of  them : 
those  of  the  Eastern  Church,  led  by  Scs.  Basilivs,  on  one  side ; 
those  of  the  Western,  led  by  Scs.  Benedictvs,  on  the  other. 
The  two  images  are  connected  with  the  Basilian  and  Benedictine 
brotherhoods  and  convents  which  at  that  time  flourished  on  the 
Palatine  (S.  Cesario  in  Palatio  and  S.  Sebastiano  in  Pallara). 

LiTERATURK.  —  PiiTO  Ligorio,  Bodleian  MSS.,  fol.  33.  —  Henry  Parker,  The 
Foi'uin  Romanum,  London,  187li,  plates  21  and  24.  —  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1882, 
April,  pi.  16.  —  Henry  Middleton,  The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome,  2d  ed.,  vol. 
i.  p.  275,  fig.  35.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  BuUetiino  cristiano,  1885,  p.  143.— 
Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  101. 

V.  FoNS  JuTURN.E  (the  Springs  of  Juturna).  —  The  Temple  of 
Augustus  is  built  against  the  live  rock  of  the  Palatine,  masses 


of  which  appear  all  along  the  Clivus  Victorian,  above  and  under 
the  pavement  of  the  street.  Opposite  the  gate  by  which  we  have 
entered  the  excavations,  and  i-ight  under  the  west  wall  of  the 
temple,  the  rock  is  perforated  witli  wells  and  channels,  cut  for 
the  purpose  of  reaching  and  regulating  the  springs  with  which 
the  lower  or  quaternary  clay  strata  are  here  saturated.  This  is 
the  celebrated  Fons  Juturnte,  placed  by  Dionysius,  Ovid,  Florus, 
etc.,  at  the  north  corner  of  the  Palatine,  the  waters  of  which,  on 
reaching  the  plain,  expanded  into  a  deep  pond  (jn-ofunda  palus) 
called  the  Lacus  Curtius.  Here  the  apparition  of  the  Dioscuri 
took  place,  to  announce  to  the  Romans  the  victory  of  Lake  Regil- 
lus :  they  were  seen  washing  and  watering  their  hoi'ses  '•  at  the 
spring  which  made  a  pool  near  the  Temple  of  Vesta,"  ^  between  it 
and  the  temple  raised  to  the  celestial  messengers  themselves  in 
memory  of  the  event.  The  jiond  was  drained  after  the  opening 
of  the  Cloaca  IVIaxima,  and  the  only  trace  left  of  it  was  a  well 
and  a  puteal  inscribed  with  the  name  of  divtvr  ;  perhaps  the 
very  one  now  preserved  in  the  Vatican  Museum,  Galleria  Lapi- 
daria,  No.  164. 

Although  the  accumulation  of  modern  soil  and  ruins  conceals 
these  springs  from  view,  they  have  never  ceased  to  flow,  and  to 
find  and  force  their  w^ay  towards  the  Cloaca  Maxima.  In  Cres- 
cimbeni's  "  History  of  S.  M.  in  Cosmedin,"  p.  14,  we  find  this 
report  by  Angelo  Maffei,  dated  September  25,  1715:  "I  remember 
to  have  seen,  in  my  early  youth,  the  ground  open  and  sink  into 
a  chasm  fifty  cubits  deej:*  near  the  three  columns  [of  Castor's 
temple],  and  a  mass  of  water  rush  at  the  bottom  of  it."  The 
accident,  caused  by  the  erosion  of  subterranean  springs  upon  the 
earth,  must  have  happened  at  other  times,  because  this  corner  of 
the  Palatine  was  known  in  Middle  Ages  under  the  name  of  "  the 
Hell "  (T  Inferno) ;  hence  the  name  of  the  church  above,  S.  Maria 
lUiera  nos  a  poenis  Inferni.  The  traditional  adventure  of  Q. 
Curtius  may  have  originated  from  a  like  phenomenon  in  the 
fourth  century  u.  c. 

Another .  powerful  jet  of  water  appeared  in  May,  1702,  in  the 
excavations  of  the  church  of  S.  Maria  Antiqua  mentioned  above ; 
another  in  March,  1810,  at  the  foot  of  the  three  columns  of  the 
Castores.  In  181 S  Carlo  Fea  found  water  all  around  the  temple, 
to  the  depth  of  8.84  metres  under  the  pavement  of  the  Vicus 
Tuscus.  I  remember  myself  having  seen  the  same  place  suddenly 
inundated  in  January,  1871,  when  the  excavations  had  come 
1  Plutarch,  Curiol.,  3;  Dionysius,  vi.  l-'i,  etc. 

THE    CLIVUS    VICTORI.i:  125 

accidentally  in  contact  with  one  of  the  underground  channels. 
The  works  were  suspended  for  a  week  or  tW'O,  until  the  waters 
were  given  an  outlet  towards  the  Cloaca  Maxima. 

References.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Bull.  Ins!.,  1871,  p.  279;  and  /  comen- 
tarii  di  Frontino  intorno  le  acque  e  yli  acquedottl.  Rome,  1880,  p.  13.  — 
Giuseppe  Tommasetti,  Bull.  Inst.,  1871,  p.  137.  — Francis  Nichols,  The  Roman 
Forum,  p.  74,  Loudon,  1877. 

VI.  The  Clivus  Victoria.  —  The  Porta  Romanula,  or  "  river 
gate  "  of  the  Palatine,  could  be  approached  from  two  sides  :  f i-om 
the  Forum  by  a  short  cut,  or  steps,  used  by  women  in  bringing 
lip  their  load  of  water  from  the  pool  of  Juturna ;  and  from  the 
Velabrum,  by  a  carriage-road  cut  along  the  base  of  the  cliff  at  a 
steep  incline.  The  road  is  marked  (IV)  in  the  fragment  of  the 
marble  plan.  Fig.  47.  It  was  named  from  an  altar  of  Victory 
dating  from  the  earliest  days  of  the  city,  and  transformed  into  a 
temple  293  b.  c,  by  the  consul  Lucius  Postumius.  On  April  4, 203, 
the  meteoric  stone  from  Pessinus,  which  the  Romans  called  the 
Great  Mother  of  the  Gods,  was  deposited  in  this  sanctuary,  pend- 
ing the  erection  of  the  temple  described  in  §  xiii.  Eleven  years 
later  Cato  the  Censor  dedicated  a  shrine  Victorke  Virgini,  by  the 
side  of  the  temple,  and  this  is  the  last  mention  we  find  of  it  in 
the  classics.  The  temple  was  discovered  by  Bianchini  in  1728,  on 
the  edge  of  the  hill  above  the  road,  inside  a  court  or  refievos,  be- 
tween the  palaces  of  Tiberius  and  Caligula.  There  were  splendid 
fragments  of  its  marlile  decorations :  a  frieze  ornamented  with 
the  emblems  of  a  naval  victory  ;  columns  of  giallo  belonging  to 
the  peristyle,  capitals,  bases,  the  pedestal  of  a  statue  (the  same 
one,  probably,  dedicated  by  Cato  the  Censor  in  192)  ;  and  two 
pieces  of  the  inscription  of  the  temple  itself,  which  commemorate 
a  restoration  by  Augustus  :  — 

imp  .  CAESAR  .  dIvI  .  F  .  aedein  .  r/cTORiAe  .  refec. 

These  fragments  were  kept  for  a  long  time  on  the  spot,  near  the 
Uccelliera ;  in  183(3,  however,  they  were  dispersed:  a  few  went 
to  the  Museo  Xazionale,  Xaples  ;  others  to  the  Palazzo  Farnese, 

On  ascending  the  Clivus  Victoriag  from  S.  Teodoro  towards  the 
Porta  Romanula,  we  pass  on  the  right  the  remains  of  thirteen 
rooms,  the  w-alls  of  which  were  of  opus  qundratum,  strengthened 
at  a  later  period  with  opus  laterltitim.  These  remains,  dating 
from  the  last  century  of  the  Republic,  are  attributed  to  the  Porti- 


cus  Catuli.     No  trace  is  left  of  the  private  palaces  of  Catulus, 
Scaurus,  Clodius,  Cicero,  etc.,  described  in  §  ii. 

References.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  II  temino  della  Vittoria  (in  Bull.  arch, 
com.,  1883,  p.  206).  — Christian  Huelsen,  MittheiL,  1895,  pp.  23,  269. 

VII.  The  Church  of  S.  Teodoro.  —  This  round  structure 
belongs  to  the  cycle  of  Byzantine  cliurches  and  chapels  by  which 
the  Palatine  was  surrounded  after  the  fall  of  the  Empire,  and  is 
dedicated  to  an  officer  who  suffered  martyrdom  at  Amasea  in  the 
Fontus  during  the  persecution  of  Maximian.  The  present  rotunda 
dates  from  the  time  of  Nicholas  V.  (1447-55),  except  the  apse 
and  its  mosaics,  which  seem  to  belong  to  the  time  of  Hadrian  I. 
(772-795).  The  level  of  the  church,  halfway  between  that  of  the 
Vicus  Tuscus  and  that  of  the  modern  road,  shows  how  rapid  has 
been  the  rise  of  the  soil  in  the  last  four  centuries.  The  pieces  of 
serpentine  with  which  part  of  the  court  is  paved  M^ere  discovered 
at  the  time  of  Clement  XI.  in  the  marble  wharf  of  the  Emporium 
at  La  Marmorata. 

VTTI.  MuRUS  RoMULi.  —  These  venerable  remains  of  the 
primitive  fortifications,  which  we  meet  with  on  turning  the  west 
corner  of  the  hill  towards  S.  Anastasia,  are  built  of  blocks  of 
local  tufa,  the  work  of  Etruscan  masons,  as  is  shown  by  the  way 
the  stones  are  placed,  lengthwise  in  one  tier  and  crosswise  in  the 
next  above.  The  tufa  of  the  walls  is  characteristic  of  all  works 
done  in  Rome  before  Servius  Tullius,  such  as  the  fortifications  of 
the  Arx  in  the  garden  of  the  Aracoeli,  and  can  easily  be  identified 
by  means  of  the  black  scoriaj  which  it  contains,  the  texture  and 
softness  of  which  resembles  that  of  charred  wood.  This  special 
tufa,  hardly  fit  for  building  purposes,  was  quarried  on  the  spot 
from  the  lautumke  near  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Propugnator. 
Other  quarries  have  been  discovered  in  the  very  heart  of  the  Capi- 
toline  hill  and  at  Fidenaj  (Villa  Spada,  Via  Salaria). 

The  walls  of  the  Palatine  were  discovered  on  January  26,  1847, 
but  the  government  commissioners,  Visconti,  Canina,  and  Grifi, 
did  not  at  once  realize  the  importance  of  the  find.  They  call 
them  in  their  official  report  "  a  monument  built  of  large  blocks  of 
tufa,  forming  two  wings  20  palms  long,  with  an  arch  cut  in  the 
live  rock  between  them."  The  walls  are  visible  at  two  other 
points,  near  the  gardener's  house  and  near  the  so-called  Domus 
Gelotiana.  Students  wishing  to  get  more  information  about 
these  early  fortifications  of  the  Palatine  may  consult  — 


Thomas  Dyer,  HUtvi  >j  of  the  City  of  Rome,  Loudon,  1865,  p.  14.  —  Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Sulle  mura  t  parte  di  Sevvio  (in  Ann.  Inst.,  1871,  p.  41).  —  Visconti 
and  Lanciani,  Guida  del  Palatino,  Rome,  1873-93,  p.  73.  —  Heinrich  Jordan, 
Topographle,  vol.  i.  p.  17-2.  — Otto  Richter,  Ann.  Inst.,  1884,  p.  189. 

Behind  the  wall  and  under  the  northwest  corner  of  the  hill 
there  is  a  reservoir  of  water,  a  rough  design  of  which  is  given  by 
:Middleton.  Formerly  it  was  deep  under  ground,  the  water  being 
drawn  from  above  by  means  of  a  well  of  conical  shape  ;  but  a  land- 
slip having  carried  away  a  portion  of  the  cliff  behind  the  wall, 
the  reservoir  can  now  be  entered  on  a  level.  There  is  a  basin  or 
cavity  right  under  the  well  towards  which  slope  all  the  galleries 
of  the  cistern,  so  as  to  allow  the  besieged  to  draw  the  last  di'op  iu 
case  of  water-famine. 

IX.  The  Altar  of  Aius  Locutius.  —  This  remarkable  altar 
was  noticed  by  Nibby  in  1838,  on  the  spot  where  we  see  it 
standing  now,  on  absolutely  modern  ground,  thirty  feet  at  least 
above  the  ancient  level ;  but,  although  not  in  .^itu,  it  must  have 
been  found  not  very  far  off.  Xibby  and  Mommsen  consider  it  as  a 
restoration  made  in  125  b.  c.  of  the  one  raised  in  the  Infima  Xova 
Via  —  in  the  "lower  new  street  "  — behind  the  Temple  of  Vesta, 
in  memory  of  the  mysterious  voice  which,  in  the  stillness  of  night, 
warned  the  citizens  of  the  approach  of  the  Gauls.  The  voice  was 
attributed  to  a  local  genius,  whom  the  people  named  Aius  Loquens 
or  Locutius ;  but,  as  Roman  religion  refrained  from  mentioning 
in  public  prayers  the  name  and  sex  of  unknown  local  genii,  lest 
the  ceremonies  should  be  vitiated  by  a  false  invocation,  or  else 
the  true  ifame  of  these  tutelary  gods  should  be  made  known  to  the 
enemies  of  the  commonwealth,  so  the  altar  raised  in  memory  of 
the  event  bears  the  vague  dedication  — 

SEI  •  DEO  •  SEI  •  DEIVAE  ■  SAC(rum)  — 

"sacred  to  a  Divinity,  whether  male  or  female."  Servius  de- 
scribes likewise  a  shield  dedicated  on  the  Capitol  to  the  Genius 
of  Rome  with  the  legend  — 


The  altar  of  Locutius  was  i-estored  by  Caius  Sextius  Calvinvis, 
mentioned  twice  by  Cicero  as  a  candidate  for  the  praetorship 
against  Glaucias  in  125  b.  c.  The  monument  cannot  fail  to  im- 
press the  student  on  account  of  its  connection  with  one  of  the 
leading  events  in  history,  the  capture  and  burning  of  Rome  by 
the  Gauls  in  ;390  b.  c. 


Keferences.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Analisi  .  .  .  del  dlntorni  di  Roma,  vol.  i. 
p.  321. —  Corpus  Inscr.  Lat.,  vol.  i.  n.  632,  p.  185. — Pagan  and  Christian 
Rome,  p.  72. —  Carlo  Pascal,  Bull,  com.,  1894,  p.  188. 

The  corner  of  the  hill  above  the  Munis  Romuli,  towards  which 
we  are  now  ascending  by  a  winding  path  shaded  by  ilexes,  contains 

THE   STEPS    OF   CACUS  129 

monuments  dating  from  the  early  days  of  the  city.  I  have  said 
already  that  the  Palatine  was  divided  into  two  summits,  the  "  hill 
of  the  Twins,"  or  Cermalus,  on  the  north  ;  the  "  hill  of  Pales,"  or 
Palatium,  on  the  south.  This  last  is  entirely  covered  by  Imperial 
buildings,  which  have  swept  away  or  concealed  whatever  monu- 
ments there  were  left  of  the  Kingly  and  Republican  ages,  while 
on  the  Cermalus  the  later  constructions  have  avoided  the  ground 
made  sacred  by  tradition  or  by  existing  remains  of  bygone  days. 
This  historic  space  overlooking  the  Velabrum,  left  free  by  the 
Cffisars,  measures  175  metres  in  length,  and  106  metres  in  depth, 
and  contains  the  steps  of  Cacus,  the  hut  of  Romulus,  the  old  stone 
quarries,  the  Temple  of  the  Great  Mother  of  the  Gods,  and  the 
Temple  of  Jupiter  Propugnator.  A  section  of  the  space  is  re- 
presented in  Fig.  49  (on  the  opposite  page).  The  background  is 
formed  by  the  arched  substructures  of  the  palace  of  Tiberius,  the 
foreground  by  the  steps  of  the  Temple  of  Cybele,  and  by  the 
foundations  of  the  fifth  chapel  of  the  Argsei,  which  Yarro  places 
apiul  (edem  Romuli.  The  space  is  strewn  with  architectural  frag- 
ments from  the  temple  of  Cybele. 

X.  ScAL^.  Caci  (Steps  of  Cacus).  —  We  have  seen  before  that 
the  Palatine  city  could  be  entered  from  three  sides  :  through  the 
Porta  Romanula  from  the  northwest,  by  the  Mugonia  from  the 
nortlieast,  and  hy  the  Steps  of  Cacus  from  the  side  of  the  Circus. 
At  a  very  early  date  these  steps  took  the  place  of  a  dangerous 
path  connecting  the  primitive  village  with  the  spring  and  cave  of 
Faun  Lujaercus.^  They  are  called  fiaOfiovs  Ka\rjs  aKTrjs  ("  the  steps 
of  the  beautiful  shoi'e  ")  by  Plutarch,  and  Scahv  Caci  by  Solinus. 
The  first  name  owes  its  origin  to  the  picturesque  inlet  formed  by 
the  waters  of  the  greater  Velabrum  near  the  Lupei'cal ;  the  other 

1  The  I^iipercal  opened  at  the  fodt  of  the  cliffs  hetween  the  Velabniiii  and 
the  Circus  iMaximiis  in  the  direction  of  S.  Anastasia.  Its  entrance  was  once 
shaded  by  the  Ficiis  Riiniinalis,  markinir  the  spot  where  tlie  cradle  containing? 
the  infant  twins  had  been  washed  asiiore  by  the  flood.  The  meniorj'  of  the 
miracnlons  event  was  perpetuated  by  a  bronze  group  of  Tuscan  workmanship, 
representing  the  twins  nursed  by  the  wolf.  This  is  probably  the  same  as  the 
one  preserved  in  the  Conservator!  Palace  and  restored  b}'  Guglielmo  della 
Porta  (?),  The  Lupercal  was  discovered  in  the  first  half  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
turj'.  Ulisse  Aldovrandi,  quoted  by  Fea  (AfisrelL,  i.  206,  n.  4),  says;  "There 
was  a  tenii)le  of  Neptune  (of  Faun  Lupercus)  built  by  the  Arcadians  near  the 
('ircus  Maxinuis,  an<l  I  itelieve  it  to  be  the  same  chapel  discovered  lateh' 
under  the  cliffs  of  the  Palatine,  near  S.  Anastasia,  all  encrusted  with  marine 


to  the  hilt  of  a  certain  Cacus,  a  friend  of  Hercules,  who  lived  near 
the  Ara  Maxima,  on  the  shore  of  the  same  pool.  The  Scalse  were 
shaded  by  the  sacred  cornelian  tree,  believed  to  be  the  spear  of 
Romulus,  which,  being  thrown  by  the  hero  from  the  opposite 
heights  of  the  Aventine,  had  struck  the  ground  with  such  force 
as  to  take  root  and  grow  up  again  into  a  beautiful  tree. 

Two  historical  events  are  connected  with  the  steps.  First, 
their  restoration  by  Caligula,  in  consequence  of  which  the  roots  of 
the  cornelian  tree  were  cut  off  and  the  tree  was  killed ;  secondly, 
the  escape  of  Vitellius  in  December,  69,  when,  after  the  capture  of 
the  city  by  the  generals  of  Vespasian,  he  fled  "  per  aversam  partem 
Palatii "  to  the  Aventine.  The  steps  have  nearly  all  disappeared, 
but  the  walls  of  opus  quadratum,  hy  which  they  were  inclosed,  and 
the  pavement  of  the  upper  landing  are  tolerably  well  preserved. 
There  was  a  gate  at  the  top  of  the  ascent,  the  site  of  which  is 
marked  l)y  travertine  jambs. 

Refekences.  —  Liidwig  Preller,  Die  Regionen,  p.  152.  —  Karl  Bethmann, 
Btdl.  Inst.,  ]852,  p.  40.  —  Ampere,  Histoire  romainc  a  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  292. — 
Wecklein,  Hermes,  vol.  vi.  p.  193.— Otto  Richter,  Annali  Inst.,  1884,  p.  189. 
—  Wolfgang  Helbig,  Guide,  vol.  i.  ii.  018,  p.  459. 

XI.  Casa  Romuli  (the  hut  of  Romulus).  —  Tradition  tells  us 
that  at  the  top  of  the  steps  just  described  there  was  the  hut  of 
Faustulus  the  shepherd,  in  which  Romulus  and  Remus  had  found 
shelter  and  food  and  received  their  early  education.  History 
shows  that  down  to  the  middle  of  the  fourth  century  after  Christ 
the  hut  had  been  preserved  in  its  primitive  shape  by  the  periodi- 
cal renewal  of  its  thatched  roof  and  wooden  framework.  The 
foundations  of  this  "  memorial  "  are  still  in  existence.  They  are 
made  of  blocks  of  yellowish  granular  tufa,  and  form  a  parallelo- 
gram ;30  feet  long  and  17  feet  wide.  When  discovered  in  1872, 
the  parallelogram  was  perfect,  but  the  quality  of  the  tufa  is  so 
soft,  and  the  blocks  are  so  easily  disintegrated  by  atmospheric 
agencies,  that  it  will  soon  disappear,  unless  protected  by  a  roof. 
The  cut  (Fig.  50)  represents  a  prehistoric  hut,  modeled  from  nature 
by  an  Alban  shepherd,  about  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  Rome. 
It  was  discovered  in  the  necropolis  of  Alba  Longa  by  Carnevali  in 
1817,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  Michele  de  Rossi. 

We  might  consider  this  clay  hut-urn  ^  as  a  perfect  model  uot 

1  References.  —  Michele-Stefano  de  Rossi,  Annali  Inst.,  1871,  p.  242, 
tav.  v.  —  Pigorini  and  Lubbock,  Notes  on  Hut-urns,  p.  11.  —  Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciani,  Ancient  Rome,  chap.  i. 



only  of  the  Casa  Romiili  (also  called  Tiigurium  Faustuli),  but 
also  of  the  other  Casa  Romuli  on  the  Capitol,  sacred  to  his  memory 
as  a  hero  and  demi-god,  of  the  focus  of  Vesta,  of  the  chapels  of 
the  ArgiBi,  and  other  such  prehistoric  dwellings,  which  are  all 
described  as  vimine  texti,  stlpula  tecti,  and  made  de  carina  stramini- 
husque.  Their  type  was  never  forgotten  :  in  the  inscriptions  of 
Leila  Marnia  in  Africa  a  tomb  in  the  sliape  of  a  casa  or  lugurium 
is  called  "  Domus  liomula."     (See  Corpus,  viii.  p.  112o.) 

Fig.  50.  —  Hut-urn  from  Alba  Longa. 

The  foundations  of  the  Casa  Romuli  are  surrounded  by  other 
remains  of  the  Kingly  period  which  cannot  be  identified.  There 
is  a  square  mass  of  stones,  with  a  gutter  around  the  base,  which 
may  possibly  mark  the  site  of  the  fifth  sacrarium  of  the  Arg?ei. 
(See  Fig.  49.) 

References.  —  Scheidewin,  P/((7o/o(7?<.«,  vol.  i.  p.  82. — Liidwig  Preller,  Die 
Rerjlonen,  p.  180.  —  Francesco  Cipolla,  Rlristct  di  Filolor/ia,  1878,  p.  47.  —  Hein- 
rich  .Jordan,  Hermes,  vii.  p.  190;  and  Topographie,  i.  p.  292.  —  Theodor 
Mommsen,  Hermes,  xiii.  p.  ."i27.  —  (iio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Pirinte,  di  Rnmn, 
p.  4.  —Otto  Richter,  Topofiraphie,  p.  100.  —  Notizie  deyli  Scavi,  1896,  p.  291. 

XII.     The  Old  Stoxe  Quakkies. —  An  underground  passage 


between  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Propugnator  and  the  Palace  of 
Domitian,  which  can  be  entered  by  a  slope  under  the  coffee-house 
of  the  Farnese  Gardens,  gives  access  to  a  network  of  tufa  quarries 
extending  over  an  acre.  They  cannot  be  explored  now  on  account 
of  their  dangerous  state,  but  I  remember  going  over  them  in  every 
direction  when  they  were  first  discovered  in  1867.  The  section 
which  runs  under  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  is  comparatively  recent, 
and  must  have  been  excavated  by  a  vignaiuolo  before  the  laying 
out  of  the  Farnese  Gardens,  or  when  these  were  again  put  under 
cultivation  in  the  first  half  of  the  last  century.  The  section  ap- 
proaching the  house  of  Germanicus  and  Tiberius  is  very  ancient, 
perhaps  contemporary  with  the  first  colonization  of  the  hill.  There 
is  something  impressive  and  solemn  in  the  aspect  of  these  old 
lautumice,  which  at  a  later  period  were  turned  into  a  water-tank. 
There  were  several  wells  communicating  with  the  ground  above, 
but  only  one  is  kept  open,  at  the  turn  of  the  street  called  (prob- 
ably) "  Victoria  Germaniciana."  The  puteal  or  mouth  of  the  well 
is  of  modern  restoration ;  the  shaft  is  ancient  and  lined  with  slabs 
of  Alban  stone,  with  holes  to  make  the  descent  into  the  reservoir 
easy.  A  conical  heap  of  terra-cotta  ex-votos  was  found  at  the 
bottom  of  this  well.  This  find  reminded  us  at  the  time  of  the 
passage  of  Frontinus  :  "  In  the  present  abundance  of  water  (brought 
to  Rome  by  eleven  aqueducts)  we  have  not  forgotten  the  historical 
springs  from  which  drank  our  foi'efathers  "  (fontium  memoria  cum 
sanctitate  adhuc  extat  et  colitur).  Suetonius  says  that  under  Au- 
gustus all  classes  of  citizens  (omnes  ordines)  threw  ex-votos  into  the 
well  of  Juturna.  The  Fontinalia,  or  Feast  of  Springs,  was  cele- 
brated in  Rome  on  October  13th.  (Another  well  was  found  July 
10,  1896.) 

There  are  in  this  public  space  of  ground  two  more  monuments, 
independent  of  the  Palace  of  the  Cpesars,  which,  although  raised 
long  after  the  Kingly  period,  must  be  described  before  we  enter  the 
Imperial  grounds,  —  the  Temple  of  the  Great  Mother  of  the  Gods, 
and  that  of  Jupiter  Propugnator. 

XIII.  ^Edes  Magx.e  Deum  Matris  (Temple  of  Cybele).  — 
Livy  (xxxvi.  35)  relates  that  during  the  second  Punic  war  in  206 
B.  c.  an  embassy  was  sent  by  the  senate  to  Pessinus,  after  consult- 
ing the  Sibylline  books,  which  brought  back  to  Rome  a  famous 
relic,  called  (by  Servius,  Mn.  vii.  188)  the  acux  Matris  Deum. 
This  was  a  small  meteoric  stone  of  siliceous  texture,  brown  in 
color,  pyramidal  in  shape,  set,  instead  of   the  face,  in   a   silver 

THE    TEMPLE    OF    CYBELE  loo 

statue  of  Cybele.  Great  was  the  veneration  of  tlie  Romans  for 
this  image,  and  a  temple  was  raised  in  its  honor  in  192  b.  c, 
rebuilt  by  Augustus  in  A.  d.  3,  after  a  fire.  The  phrase  "  ajdem 
Matris  Magna;  in  Palatio  feci,''  which  Augustus  uses  in  his  auto- 
biograj^hy,  has  been  interpreted  as  if  tlie  temjale  was  in  the  oppo- 
site part  of  the  hill  called  strictly  "  Palatium,"  but  we  must  remem- 
ber that  the  autobiography  was  written  long  after  the  name  had 
been  assigned  to  tlie  w'hole  tenth  region.  i 

The  most  noticeable  event  in  the  laistory  of  the  sanctuary  is  the 
sacrilege  committed  by  Heliogabalus,  who  removed  to  his  own 
private  chapel  the  great  object  of  popular  worship.  (See  Ancient 
Rome,  p.  127.)  The  description  which  Ilerodianus  gives  of  it  is 
identical  with  that  of  Servius.  "  The  stone,"  he  says,  "  is  large, 
shaped  as  a  cone,  and  black  in  color.  People  think  it  a  stone 
fallen  from  heaven,"  etc.  When  Bianchini  excavated  in  1725-30  the 
imperi^;!  chapel  or  lararium,  he  found  "  a  stone  nearly  thi'ee  feet 
high,  conical  in  shape,  of  a  deep  brown  color,  like  a  piece  pf  lava, 
and  ending  in  a  sharp  point."  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  >vas  the 
celebrated  "  needle  of  Cybele."     No  attention  was  paid  to  the  find. 

The  last  mention  we  have  of  the  Great  Mother  of  the  Gods 
belongs  to  the  end  of  the  fourth  century,  wlien  Nicomachus  Fla- 
vianus  and  a  few  surviving  champions  of  polytheism  tried  to  stir 
up  the  old  popular  superstitions.  During  the  revolution  against' 
Theodosius  II.,  which  ended  witli  the  defeat  of  Eugeuius,  Septem- 
ber 7  to  9,  392,  Nicomachus  and  his  followers  indulged  in  the 
most  faruitic  display  of  long-forgotten  pagan  superstitions,  like  the 
Isia,  the  Floralia,  the  Lustrum,  and  the  Megalesia,  the  mysterious 
worship  of  Cybele.  After  being  baptized  in  blood,  they  carried 
through  the  main  streets  of  the  city  the  chariot  of  the  goddess 
with  lions  of  solid  silver. 

It  is  not  certain  whether  the  temple,  the  scattered  remains  of 
which  appear  in  Fig.  49,  belongs  to  the  Great  INlother  of  the  Gods, 
because  its  columns  and  entablature  are  of  Alban  stone  (peperino) 
coated  with  stucco,  and  therefore  cannot  presumably  be  the  work 
of  Augustus,  who  used  only  marble.  I  do  not  dare  to  express  any 
definite  opinion  on  the  subject,  because  thei'e  are  other  circum- 
stances in  favor  of  the  supposition  which  must  be  taken  into 
consideration.  The  first  is  the  discovery  made  in  January,  1872, 
near  the  pronaos  of  the  temple,  of  a  semi-colossal  statue  of  the 
goddess  (Fig.  .il,  p.  134).  The  statue  is  headless,  but  has  been 
identified  by  means  of  the  suppedaneum  or  footstool  which  the  an- 
cients gave  to  Cybele  as  a  symbol  of  the  stability  of  the  earth. 


The  second  is  the  discovery  of  several  altars  inscribed  with  her 
name,  made  at  various  times  in  this  part  of  the  Farnese  Gardens. 
The  one  marked  No.  496  in  vol.  vi.  of  the  "  Corpus  Inscriptionum  " 
was  raised  at  the  expense  of  three  attendants  of  the  temple,  named 

Fig.  51.  -Headless  Statue  of  Cybele,  found  near  her  temple  on  the  Palatine. 

Onesimus,  Olympias,  and  Briseis.  A  second,  No.  3702,  came  to 
light  in  1873  near  the  south  wall  of  the  temple.  See  also  the  in- 
scription. No.  .513,  belonging  to  a  statue  offered  to  the  g-oddess 
by  Virius  Marcarianus,  and  the  fragment  in  "  Notizie  degli  Scavi, 

1896,  p.  186.  .^  ^         ^  , - 

There  are  about  sixty  fragments  of  columns,  capitals,  entabia- 

THE    TEMPLE    OF   CYBELE  135 

tuiv,  and  pediment  lying  scattered  in  confusion,  which,  if  properly 
put  together  in  their  former  jiosition,  as  Huelsen  has  done  in 
design  (INlittheilungen,  1895,  pp.  10-22),  would  make  this  temple 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  ruins  of  the  Palatine.  The  foundation- 
walls  of  the  cella  and  pronaos  are  still  intact.  The  statue  itself  is 
lying  aside,  in  a  slanting  position. 

There  is  a  valuable  marble  in  the  Capitoline  museum  connected 
with  the  history  of  the  temple,  viz.,  an  altar  with  bas-reliefs  repre- 
senting the  ship  on  which  the  goddess  came  from  Pessinus  to 
Rome,  and  the  Vestal  Claudia  Quinta  hauling  it  up  the  Tiber, 
with  her  infula  tied  to  the  prow.  There  is  written  underneath  : 
"  Matri  Deum  et  Xavi-Salvife  voto  suscepto,  Claudia  Synthyche 
d(ono)  d(edit)."  Maffei  and  Preller  think  that  the  surname  of 
Navisalvia  was  given  to  the  "\'estal  Claudia  because  she  had 
brought  the  ship  safely  to  her  moorings ;  Orelli  and  ^Nlommsen 
attribute  it  to  the  ship  herself  (Navis  Salvia),  or  rather  to  her  pro- 
tecting genius  (see  Corpus,  n.  495).  The  altar  can  be  seen  in  the 
gallery  of  the  Capitoline  museum,  where  it  is  used  as  a  pedestal  to 
the  statue  No.  25  (Jupiter  found  at  Antium). 

Greek  and  Greco-Roman  artists  have  always  given  Cybele  a 
type  of  majestic  beauty.  One  of  the  finest  representations  of  the 
merciful  goddess,  "  who  gave  f ruitf ulness  alike  to  men  and  beasts 
and  vegetation,"  was  discovered  not  long  ago  at  FormitB  (Mola  di 
Gaeta),  together  with  the  reiiuiins  of  her  temple  of  the  Ionic 
order.  The  statue,  which  would  have  formed  the  pride  of  the 
Naples  museum,  has  been  allowed  to  migrate  to  foreign  lands. 
When  I  stood  before  her  the  first  time,  and  felt  the  influence  of 
her  wonderfid  beauty,  I  easily  understood  why  she  remained  a 
favorite  deity  to  the  very  end  of  pagan  worship  in  Rome.  I  am 
sure  it  will  please  my  readers  to  become  acquainted  with  this  won- 
derful work  of  art  known  only  to  a  privileged  few  (Fig.  52,  p.  18f)). 

Rkkerences.  —  Francesco  Caiicellieri,  Le  setfe  cose  J'atali,  Rome,  1812, 
p.  22.  —  Visconti  and  Lanciani,  Guida  del  Palatino,  Rome,  1873,  pp.  29,  134.  — 
Theodor  Mommsen,  lies  gestae  divi  Aufjusti,  2d  ed.  1883,  p.  82.  —  Christian 
Huelsen,  llntersuckunf/en  zur  Topographie  des  Palatins  (in  IMittlieilimgen, 
1895,  p.  3).  —  Ancient  Rome,  p.  126. 

XIV.  ^Ede8  Iovis  Propugnatokis  IX  Palatio  (Temple  of 
Jupiter  Propugnator).  —  Between  the  house  of  Germanicus  and 
the  Nympha^um  of  the  house  of  Domitian  stands  the  platform  of 
a  temple,  the  mass  of  which  is  built  of  concrete  with  chips  of  tufa 
and  silex,  inclosed  in  a  frame  of  opus  quadratum.     The  temple, 


which  is  44  metres  long,  and  25  wide,  faces  the  southwest,  but  not 
a  fragment  of  its  decorations  has  escaped  the  cinquecento  lime- 

Fig.  52.  —  The  Cybele  from  Formise. 

burners.  Probably  it  was  octostyle  peripteral,  viz.  surrounded  by 
a  colonnade  which  had  8  shafts  in  the  front,  16  on  the  sides. 
Rosa,  who  discovered  the  platform  in  1867,  identifies  it  with  the 


Temple  of  Jupiter  Victor,  a  lueniorial  buildiug  of  the  victory 
gained  by  the  Romans  over  the  Samnites  in  29-1  b.  c.  We  prefer 
to  see  in  it  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Propngnator,  connected  with 
the  residence  (schola  colleyli)  of  a  priesthood  ranking  in  nobility 
with  that  of  the  Qiiindecemviri,  of  the  Arvales,  and  other  kin- 
dred religious  corporations,  of  which  the  Emperor  was  a  ile  iure 
member.  The  remains  of  a  building  in  opus  quadratum  of  the 
late  Republic,  remarkably  suited  for  the  use  of  a  scJiola,  have 
actually  been  discovered  side  by  side  with  the  teniijle  itself. 

Many  fragments  of  the  fasti  cooptationum,  or  registers  of  the 
elections  to  this  priesthood,  have  been  found,  not  in  .situ,  however, 
but  employed,  after  the  prohibition  of  pagan  worship,  in  the 
restoration  of  the  pavements  of  the  Basilica  Julia  and  of  the 
Senate-house.  (See  Corpus,  n.  2004,  2009,  etc.)  They  are  all 
worded  this  way  :  "  In  the  year  nine  hundred  and  forty-two  of 
Rome,"  (a.  d.  190)  for  instance,  "under  the  consulships  of  the 
Emperor  Commodus,  for  the  sixth  time,  and  of  Petronius  Septimi- 
anus,  on  the  1.5tli  day  of  October,  in  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Pro- 
pngnator on  the  Palatine,  Lucius  Attidius  Cornelianus  has  been 
elected."  Sometimes  they  add  the  name  of  the  deceased  member 
whose  place  was  vacant :  •'  Claudius  Paternus  cooptatus  in  locum 
Attidi  Corneliani  vita  functi  "  (a.  d.  198). 

On  the  top  of  the  steps  of  the  temple  there  is  a  fragment  of 
an  altar  inscribed  with  the  words,  "  Domitius  Calvinus,  son  of 
Marcus,  high  priest,  consul  for  the  second  time  and  [victorious] 
general  [has  built  or  repaired  or  ornamented  this  building,  or 
raised  this  monument]  with  the  spoils  of  war."  (See  Ephemeris 
epigraphica,  1^72,  p.  21").) 

Cneus  Domitius  Calvinus,  consul  in  .53  and  40  B.  c,  is  the 
gallant  general  of  Julius  Ca'sar  who  led  the  centre  at  the  battle 
of  Pharsalos.  Later  he  cari-ied  on  a  successful  campaign  in  Spain, 
for  which  he  was  rewarded  with  the  triumph  in  86  b.  c.  With 
the  spoils  of  war  —  aurum  cornnarium  —  he  restored  the  Regia  by 
the  house  of  the  Vestals,  as  related  by  Dion  Cassius  (xlviii.  42). 
The  altar,  tlierefore,  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Temple  of  Jupiter 
Propugnator,  having  been  found  in  January,  1868,  at  some  distance 
from  it,  in  the  excavations  of  the  Forum  Palatinum.  It  ought  to 
be  put  back  in  its  place  by  the  Regia.  The  four  pieces  of  fluted 
stone  columns  placed  by  Rosa  at  the  top  of  the  stairs  belong  like- 
wise to  another  edifice,  perhaps  to  the  Temple  of  Cybele.  Pirro 
Ligorio  pretends  to  have  seen  a  fragment  of  the  colossal  statue  of 
the  god,  measuring  eight  feet  from  shoulder  to  shoulder.     It  was 


sold  by  Cristoforo  Stati  to  a  stone-cutter  named  Leonardo  Cieco 
"  per  fame  opere  moderne."  His  statement  (Bodleian  MSS.  p.  138) 
deserves  no  credit. 

Ekferences. —  Corpus  Inscr.  Lat.,  vol.  vi.  p.  450,  n.  2004-2009.  —  Adolf 
Becker,  Topograpkie,  p.  422.  —  Ludwig  Preller,  Rum.  Mythologie,  p.  177. 

XV.  DoMus  Augustan  A  (house  of  Augustus).  —  An  irregular 
opening  made  in  March,  1893,  through  the  left  wall  of  the  Stadium 
(Fig.  53,  BB.)  leads  —  for  the  time  being  —  into  the  house  of 
Augustus.  This  newly  cut  passage  seems  to  be  calculated  to 
mislead  the  visitor  at  once :  it  occupies  the  site  of  a  staircase 
connecting  the  two  floors  of  the  house,  the  remains  of  which  were 
likewise  obliterated  in  1893,  leaving  only  the  marks  of  the  steps 
against  the  side  walls.  The  following  plan  (Fig.  .53),  although 
defective  in  two  or  three  points,  which  cannot  be  made  good  unless 
the  excavations  are  completed,  will  enable  the  visitor  to  find  his 
way  without  difficulty. 

The  Palatine  hill,  so  near  the  Forum  and  the  Capitol,  the  cen- 
tres of  Roman  political  and  business  life,  had  always  been  the 
favorite  place  of  residence  with  statesmen,  eminent  lawyers,  and 
orators,  and  wealthy  citizens  in  general.  Augustus  made  it  the 
seat  of  the  Empire.  Born  near  the  east  corner  of  the  hill,  in 
the  lane  named  "  ad  capita  bubula,"  ^  he  selected  it  again  as  the 
Imperial  residence,  after  the  victory  of  Actium,  which  had  made 
him  master  of  the  world.  The  ambitious  plan  was  not  carried 
into  execution  at  once.  He  began,  44  b.  c,  by  j^urchasing  the 
modest  house  of  Hortensius  the  orator,  the  columns  and  pavements 
of  which  were  of  common  stone.  After  the  conquest  of  Egypt  in 
28,  he  bought  other  property,  including  the  house  of  Catilina. 
The  Imperial  residence  was  then  rebuilt  on  a  larger  scale  and  in 
more  becoming  style,  the  whole  estate  being  divided  into  three 
sections.  The  first,  from  the  side  of  the  Velia,  was  occupied  by 
the  Propylaia,  the  Temple  of  Apollo,  the  Portico  of  the  Danaids, 
and  the  Greek  and  Latin  libraries ,  the  middle  section  by  the 
Shrine  of  Vesta ;  the  last,  on  the  side  of  the  Circus,  by  the  Im- 
perial house.2     This  magnificent  set  of   buildings  was  crowded 

1  "Ox-heads."  The  tomb  of  Metella  is  actually  called  "  Capo-di-Bove  " 
from  the  ox-skiills  of  its  frieze.  The  lane  where  Augustus  was  born  was  close 
to  the  "street  of  the  old  Curife,"  ad  Curias  veteres. 

•2  "  Phoebus  habet  partem:  Vests  pars  altera  cessit  —  quod  superest  illis,  ter- 
tius  ipse  tenet  "  (Ovid,  Frmf.,  iv.  951).  References  for  the  Temple  of  Apollo, 
and  the  Portico  of  the  Danaids:  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  II  tempio  di  ApnlUni-  palatino 
(in  Bull.  arch,  com.,  vol.  xi.  ]SS;i,  p.  185,  pi.  17);  and  Ancient  Rome,  p.  109. — 
Christian  Huelsen,  Miltheiluiifjcn,  1888,  p.  296;  and  1895,  p.  28. 



with  the  masterpieces  of  Greek,  Tuscan,  and  Roman  art,  as  mi- 
nutely described  in  '•  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  109.  The  building  of 
a  shrine  of  Vesta  near  the  house  was  a  necessity  of  state,  since 
Aus'ustus  had  been  elected  iiontifex  maximus  after  the  death  of 


I    IkH    Mril    il 

o  o  oooeoo  e  qqooooo 


ooooooooo   ooooooo 

■—1    r"-TT?^r~T 

,    °    °  PULVINAR 

Fig.  53.  —  I'lau  of  the  Doimis  Aiigii.stana,  Ground  Floor. 


^milius  Lepidus  in  12  u.  c.  On  this  occasion  the  old  pontifical 
palace  was  presented  to  the  Vestals,  to  increase  the  accommodation 
provided  by  theii-  own. 

The  Domus  Augustana  was  destroyed  by  the  fire  of  Nero,  with 
the  exception  of  the  room  in  which  the  founder  of  the  Empire  had 
slept  for  forty  years.  It  was  rebuilt  by  Domitian  towards  a.  d. 
85,  never  to  suffer  any  more  by  the  violence  of  man  or  at  the  hand 
of  Time,  until  the  vandal  hand  of  the  Abbe  Rancoureuil  ruined  it 
in  1775.  The  Temple  of  Apollo  and  its  libraries  were  destroyed 
in  the  night,  between  the  18th  and  19th  of  March,  a.  d.  363,  the 
fury  of  the  flames  being  such  that  only  the  Sibylline  books  were 
saved  from  the  wreck.  We  hear  no  more  of  the  monumental 
group  until  the  time  of  Fra  Giocondo  da  Verona  (f  1520),  when 
the  beautiful  ruins,  set  in  their  frame  of  evergreens,  began  to  at- 
tract the  attention  of  architects  and  archaeologists.  Dosio,  Palla- 
dio,  Heemskerk,  Ligorio,  Panvinio  have  left  important  memoranda 
of  the  state  of  the  "  palazzo  maggiore  "  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
Palladio  mistook  the  palace  for  a  public  bath  —  terme  di  palazzo 
maggiore  —  but  his  plan  is  none  the  less  important.  I  found  it 
in  the  Burlington-Devonshire  collection  and  published  it  in  the 
"  Mittheilungen "  of  1894,  plates  i.-iii.  Comparing  the  various 
accounts,  maps,  drawings,  sketches,  acts  of  notaries,  etc.,  of  the 
cinquecento,  we  gather  the  following  information  :  — 

The  ground  occupied  by  the  Augustan  buildings  belonged, 
towards  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century,  half  to  Alessandro 
Colonna,  half  to  Cristoforo  Stati.  Duke  Paolo  IMattei  purchased 
both  properties  about  1560.  We  do  not  know  whether  Alessandro 
Colonna  had  searched  the  grouiul :  the  two  other  gentlemen  did. 
They  came  across  (and  destroyed)  the  Propylaia,  described  by 
Pliny  (xxxvi.  4,  10);  the  Portico  of  the  Danaids.  described  by 
Propertius  (ii.  31) ;  and  the  Temple  of  Vesta.  No  mention  is 
made  of  the  Temple  of  Apollo,  unless  we  can  consider  as  such 
the  notice  given  by  Pietro  Saute  Bartoli  (Memorie,  n.  7)  of  the 
discovery  of  a  hiding-place  inlaid  with  precious  stones,  where  the 
Sibylline  books  wereprobably  kept.  The  Portico  of  the  Danaids 
numbered  fifty-two  columns  of  glatto  antico,  many  of  which  have 
been  recovered  from  time  to  time,  probably  because  they  were 
considered  unfit  for  the  lime-kiln.  "  On  October  29,  1664,"  says 
an  eye-witness,  "in  the  gardens  of  Duke  :Mattei,  a  portico  was 
discovered  of  extraordinary  i-ichness,  with  columns  of  giallo  an- 
fico.  and  two  bas-reliefs  representing  Romulus,  the  Wolf,  the 
Lupercal,  Faustulus,  the  Tiber,  and  other  sulijects  connected  with 


the  foundation  of  Rome."  Winckelmann  speaks  of  two  other 
panels  representing  Dajdalos  and  Ikaros,  and  a  young  Satyr  drink- 
ing from  a  cup.  A  fifth,  described  by  Matz,  represents  Theseus 
and  the  Minotaur,  a  sixth  Ulysses  and  Diomedes. 

In  1728  Count  Spada,  who  had  bought  the  villa  from  the  Mattel, 
discovered  seven  rooms  "  ornamented  with  precious  marbles,  gilt 
metal,  stucco  bas-reliefs  on  a  golden  ground,  and  arabesques."  In 
one  of  the  rooms,  which  was  used  for  bathing  purposes,  there  was 
a  marble  cathedra,  and  a  basin  of  lead  before  it.  The  two  columns 
of  oriental  alabaster,  which  stood  on  each  side  of  the  cathedra, 
were  removed  to  the  chapel  of  Prince  Odescalchi  in  the  church  of 
SS.  Apostoli.  Count  Si>ada  found  also  "  several  broken  statues 
of  marble  and  bronze." 

In  1825  Charles  Mills  found  another  column  of  yiallo  2.25 
metres  long,  lying  on  a  marble  pavement,  at  a  depth  of  1.5G 
metre.  Other  pieces  of  fluted  shafts  of  giallo  came  to  light  in 
1869  and  1877,  in  the  excavations  of  the  so-called  Stadium,  where 
they  had  rolled  down  from  the  portico,  together  with  the  eighteen 
or  twenty  torsos  of  the  Danaids  described  by  Flaminio  Vacca 
(Mem.  77). 

In  March,  1849,  Colonel  Robert  Smith,  who  had  succeeded 
Charles  Mills  in  the  ownership  of  the  grounds,  destroyed  a  portion 
of  the  Pulvinar  (see  Fig.  53),  to  make  room  for  a  carriage  road 
between  the  gate  on  the  Via  de'  Cerchi  and  the  Casino.  In  the 
same  year  he  discovered  the  drain  connecting  the  Area  ApoUinis 
with  the  main  sewer  of  the  Vallis  Murcia. 

The  blame  for  having  destroyed  to  a  great  extent  the  house 
of  Augustus  rests  with  the  Frenchman  Rancoureuil,  who  exca- 
vated the  Villa  Spada  in  1775,  and  sold  even  the  bricks  and  stones 
of  the  historical  sanctuary  to  a  stonecutter  in  the  Campo  Vaccino 
named  Vinelli.  I  have  heard  it  related  that  the  abbe  was  so 
anxious  to  keep  his  proceedings  secret,  that  besides  preventing 
any  one  front  seeing  the  excavations  by  daylight  (except  his 
friend  Barberi),  he  kept  a  fierce  mastiff  to  watch  the  place  at 
night.  Roman  archaeologists,  however,  did  not  give  up  the  con- 
test, and  a  young  man  named  Benedetto  Mori,  an  assistant  of 
Piranesi,  volunteered  to  sketch  the  plan  of  the  ruins  coute  qui 
coute.  He  began  by  making  advances  to  the  dog,  tempting  him 
with  food,  until  after  many  nocturnal  meetings  the  two  became 
so  friendly  that  the  beast  helped  the  architect  to  accomplish  his 
mission.  U  appears  from  his  designs  —  although  rather  imperfect 
—  that  the  front  of  the  palace  followed  the  curve  of  the  Pulvinar 


ox  state  balcony  from  which  the  games  of  the  Circus  were  seen,  and 
tliat  there  were  five  windows  on  either  side  of  the  entrance  door. 
This  door  was  still  visible  in  1829,  but  it  is  concealed  now  by  the 
gardener's  house.  Inside  the  building  first  came  the  atrium  (A) 
with  a  colonnade  on  each  side,  giving  access  to  apartments  of 
elaborate  shape  and  design ;  farther  on  was  the  court  of  honor, 
with  a  peristyle  of  56  fluted  marble  columns  of  the  Ionic  order, 
on  which  opened  other  private  apartments.  One  of  the  most 
elegant  chambers  was  the  sterquilinvum  (CC),  with  three  recesses 
supported  by  finely  carved  brackets.  Its  pavement  and  walls  were 
incrusted  with  polychrome  marbles ;  of  marble  also  were  the 
water-pipes  connected  with  the  basins.  The  lead  pipes  found  in 
other  parts  of  the  building  bore  the  name  of  Domitian.  No  trace 
seems  to  have  been  found  of  the  tower  or  "  belvedere  "  named 
Syracuse  or  rexvSfpvov,  to  which  Augustus  retired  when  worn  with 
the  care  of  governing  the  world.  From  this  locus  in  edito,  as 
Suetonius  calls  it,  he  must  have  watched  day  by  day  the  trans- 
formation of  the  capital,  which  he  had  found  built  of  bricks  and 
wanted  to  leave  a  city  of  marble.  Just  opposite  the  west  windows 
of  the  palace,  his  friend  L.  Cornificius  was  rebuilding  with  great 
magnificence  the  old  federal  Temple  of  Diana  on  the  Aventine, 
and  Augustus  himself  the  three  temi^les  of  Minerva,  Juno  Regina, 
and  Jupiter  Libertas  on  the  same  hill.  Turning  to  tlie  other 
points  of  the  horizon,  he  could  see  the  transformation  of  the 
Campus  ^lartius  made  by  Agrippa  and  by  himself,  the  Portico 
and  Temple  Ilerculis  Musarum  built  by  jMarcius  Philippus,  the 
Atrium  Libertatis  by  Asinius  Pollio,  the  Temple  of  Saturn  by 
Munatius  Plancus,  a  theatre  and  a  portico  by  Cornelius  Balbus, 
an  amphitheatre  by  Statilius  Taurus,  and  scores  of  other  edifices, 
masterpieces  of  architecture  and  museums  of  fine  arts. 

Of  the  Domus  Augustana  nothing  except  a  few  bare  walls  is 
left  standing,  and  three  underground  rooms  of  graceful  design, 
marked  DDI)  in  the  plan  (p.  139).  The  shimmering  light  which 
falls  througli  masses  of  ivy  from  an  opening  in  the  middle  of  the 
ceilings  makes  these  ruins  very  picturesque.  As  a  contrast  to  the 
loneliness  of  the  spot,  there  is  above  our  heads  an  artistic  gem 
of  the  cinquecento,  a  small  portico  designed  and  painted  by 
llaffaellino  del  Colle.  The  subjects  of  the  graceful  frescoes  are: 
Cupid  showing  the  arrow  to  Venus ;  Venus  lacing  her  sandals ; 
Jupiter  in  the  form  of  a  Satyr  pursuing  Antiope ;  and  other  such 
mythological  scenes.  The  frescoes,  injured  by  neglect,  were  re- 
stored by  Camuccini  in  1824  at  the  expense  of  Charles  Mills. 


It  is  probable  that  the  works  of  art,  discovered  at  various  times 
in  the  adjoining  Stadium,  have  fallen  there  from  the  Domus 
Augustana  and  from  the  Portico  of  the  Danaids  (see  §  xxii.). 

The  two  columns  of  alabaster  found  in  1728  have  been  used 
in  the  decoration  of  the  Odescalchi  chapel.  The  two  bas-reliefs 
symbolic  of  the  foundation  of  Rome  (]\loniimenta  Mattheiana, 
vol.  iii.  pis.  37  and  45)  are  now  set  into  the  wall  of  the  courtyard 
of  the  Palazzo  Mattel.  The  third,  with  Daedalos  and  Ikaros 
(Winckelmann,  Monum.  inediti,  n.  95),  belongs  to  the  Villa 
Albani ;  the  fourth,  with  the  young  Satyr  (Visconti,  Museo  Pio 
Clement,  vol.  iv.  pi.  31),  to  the  Galleria  dei  candelabri.  The  fifth, 
of  Theseos  and  the  Minotaur,  is  broken  in  two,  one  part  belong- 
ing to  the  British  Museum  (Ancient  Marbles,  xi.  48),  one  to  the 
Museo  delle  Terme  in  Rome.  The  latter  also  owns  the  sixth 
panel,  with  the  figures  of  Ulysses  and  Diomedes.  How  interesting 
it  would  be  to  the  stiulent  if  plaster-casts  of  this  unique  set  of 
panels  were  exhibited  in  the  place  to  which  the  originals  belong ! 
The  capital  of  the  Corinthian  order  with  the  acanthus  leaves 
bending  from  right  to  left  (Guattani,  Monum.  ined.,  vol.  ii.  1785, 
p.  94,  tav.  ii.  fig.  G)  is  now  in  England.  The  exfjuisite  frieze 
of  the  sterquilinium  was  divided  between  the  architect  Barberi 
and  the  Venetian  amlxissador  Andrea  Memmo.  One  of  the  two 
Leda?  discovered  by  Rancoureuil  went  to  England,  and  the  Apollo 
Sauroktonos,  also  discovered  by  him,  was  purchased  by  Pius  VI. 
for  the  Museo  Vaticano  (Galleria  delle  statue,  No.  264).  The 
Apollo  Citharoedos  by  Scopas,  which  stood  in  the  temple,  between 
the  images  of  Latona  and  Diana,  is  represented  in  some  brass 
medals  of  tlie  time  of  Augustus;  there  are  also  several  reproduc- 
tions in  marble.  The  one  (No.  516)  in  the  Hall  of  the  Muses  was 
found  in  1774  in  the  Pianella  di  Cassio  near  Tivoli.  A  second 
replica  (No.  495  in  the  same  hall),  known  as  "Bacchus  in  Female 
Attire,"  and  very  mucli  restored,  w'as  removed  from  the  Villa 
Negroni.  There  is  a  third  subject  in  the  hall  of  the  Greek  Cross, 
No.  582,  known  as  the  "  IMuse  Erato,"  which  does  not  deserve  the 
name  of  Apollo  Palatinus  attributed  to  it  in  official  catalogues. 
The  last  replica,  discovered  in  the  Villa  of  Quintus  Voconius 
Pollio  near  Marino,  March,  1885,  was  purchased  by  Leo  XIII.,  and 
largely  restored  by  Galli.  It  now  occupies  the  place  of  the  Faun 
of  Circieii,  No.  41  Braccio  nuovo. 

In  all  these  works  of  art  "  Apollo  appears  in  a  costume  which  at 
first  sight  surprises  us.  We  seem  to  have  before  us  one  of  those 
exalted  females  who  were   mistresses  of   the  Ivre   and  of    song. 


aud  we  require  circumstantial  evidence  to  convince  us  that  these 
splendid  robes  envelop  the  form  of  a  slender  youtli."  ' 

References.  —  Giuseppe  Guattani,  Roma  descritta  ed  illustrata,  vol.  i.  p. 
48,  tav.  viii.-xiv.  ;  and  Monumenti  inediti,  vol.  ii.  1785,  pp.  1  and  29.  —  Luigi 
Canina,  Edljizii  di  Roma  antica,  vol.  iv.  pi.  108.  —  Henry  Deglane,  Gazette 
Archeol.,  1888,  p.  14r5.  —  Bullettlno  arch,  com.,  vol.  xi.  188.3,  p.  185.  —  Visconti 
aud  Lanciani,  Guida  del  Palatino,  Rome,  1873,  pp.  33  and  98.  —  Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciani,  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  chap.  v.  ;  and  II  palazzo  maygiore,  in  Mit- 
theilungen,  1894,  pp.  3-36. 

XVI.  DoMus  TiBERiANA  (house  of  Tiberius),  Fig.  54.  —  We 
now  cross  the  valley  which  separated,  before  Domitian's  time,  the 
house  of  Augustus  from  the  Cermalus,  and  visit  the  wing  of  the 
Imperial  residence  which  owes  its  existence  to  Tiberius  and  Cali- 
gula. This  part  is  not  yet  laid  bare,  the  underground  floor  alone 
having  been  made  accessible  here  and  there.  As  we  have  observed 
in  the  introductory  remarks,  the  substructures  are  most  irregular 
in  their  plan,  because  they  were  intended  to  serve  but  one  pur- 
pose :  to  support  an  artificial  j^latform,  upon  w^hich  the  palace  was 
built  on  its  own  independent  design.  At  the  same  time  we  must 
acknowledge  that  the  irregularity  of  the  substructures  is  less 
apparent  here  than  in  any  other  section  of  the  hill,  so  that  we 
can  almost  foresee  what  would  be  the  general  outline  of  the  Domus 
Tiberiana  and  of  the  Domus  Gaiana  if  the  living  apartments 
were  laid  bare.  The  two  buildings  now  form  a  rectangle  150 
metres  long  and  115  metres  wide,  limited  by  the  Forum  Palatinum 
on  the  south,  by  the  area  containing  the  prehistoric  monuments  on 
the  west,  by  the  Clivus  Yictorise  on  the  north  and  east.  It  contains 
the  following  j^laces  of  interest :  (XIV)  the  Domus  Tiberiana ; 
(XV)  the  House  of  Germanicus ;  (XVI)  the  wing  added  by  Cali- 
gula, which  we  shall  call  Domus  Gaiana;  (XVII)  the  Forum  Pala- 
tinum, a  public  square  between  the  palaces  of  Caligula  and  Domi- 
tian.  Apropos  of  the  last-named  place,  the  reader  must  remember 
that  the  Imperial  buildings  of  the  Palatine  did  not  form  a  mass 
inaccessible  to  the  public,  like  the  Vatican  palace  and  gardens  of 
the  present  day;  the  hill  w^as  crossed  by  streets  and  passages, 
through  which  the  citizens  could  probably  pass  without  restric- 
tion at  all  hours  of  the  day.  The  gates  witli  which  these  streets 
and  passages  are  provided  were  probably  closed  at  night,  and 
had  a  guard   posted   by  them.^     This  is  certain   for   the  Porta 

1  Emil  Braun,  Ruins  and  MvKevms,  p.  230. 

2  At  the  time  of  Caligula's  murder  the  watch  at  the  main  gate  was  probably 
kept  by  the  Gennani  corporis  ciistodes  (Suetonius,  58).  There  were  also  por- 
ters {janitores)  assisted  by  a  watch-dog  (Suetonius,  Vitellius,  16). 



41  I  H 



(XV)  IniU-SE   OF  (iKKMANlCrS 






Fig.  54.  —  Plan  of  the  Doraus  Tiberiana  and  of  the  Domus  Gaiaua. 


Romanula  and  the  Clivus  Victoriae,  and  for  the  grand  state  en- 
trance in  front  of  Doniitian's  palace ;  it  is  probable  for  the  steps 
of  Cacus,  at  the  top  of  which  the  jambs  of  a  travertine  gate  are 
still  to  be  seen.  For  other  streets  of  access  to  the  Palatine  we 
must  await  the  results  of  further  excavations. 

Tiberius  Claudius  Nero,  father  of  the  Eiuperor,  owned  a  modest 
house  (XV)  on  the  Palatine,  which  afterwards  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  Germanicus.  Tiberius  the  Emperor  raised  a  noble 
palace  next  to  it,  known  in  classic  documents  as  the  Domus  Tibe- 
riana.  It  formed  a  square,  the  south  side  of  which  opened  on  the 
street  called  "  Victoria  Germaniciana,"  whilst  the  west  towered 
above  the  valley  of  the  Velabrum  at  the  height  of  50  metres,  the 
north  touched  the  Temple  of  Victory  and  Caligula's  palace,  and 
the  east  opened  on  the  Forum  Palatinum. 

Tacitus  (Hist.,  i.  27)  says  that  Otho,  wishing  to  join  the  con- 
spirators against  the  life  of  Galba,  who  were  about  to  meet  in  the 
Forum,  descended  to  the  Velabrum  through  the  Domus  Tiberiana 
(probably  by  the  steps  of  Cacus,  or  by  one  of  the  private  stairs 
which  are  still  to  be  seen  behind  the  gardener's  house  and  the 
walls  of  Romulus).  The  same  historian  describes  Vitellius  glutting 
himself  in  the  banqueting-room  of  the  palace,  while  his  jiartisans, 
who  were  fighting  against  Flavins  Sabinus,  had  set  the  Capitol 
ablaze.  The  fire  could  be  seen  from  the  Imperial  table.  On  re- 
ceiving the  news  of  his  defeat,  which  left  no  hope  for  his  crown  or 
foi"  his  life,  he  rushed  to  the  Aventine  jjer  aversam  partem  palatii, 
viz.,  by  the  same  steps  which  Otho  had  descended  a  few  months 

The  great  attraction  of  the  palace  was  the  library,  Bibliotheca 
Tiberiana,  which  seems  to  have  contained  state  papers  and  docu- 
ments more  than  books.  The  passage  of  Dion  Cassiiis  about  the 
fire  of  Commodus  very  probably  refers  to  it :  "  The  flames  per- 
vaded the  palace  with  such  suddenness  and  force  that  nearly  all 
the  registers  and  records  of  the  Empire  were  lost." 

The  only  portion  now  visible  is  the  arched  substructures  of  the 
south  front,  with  a  row  of  cells  very  poorly  lighted,  ventilated, 
and  ornamented  (see  Fig.  49).  They  must  have  been  occupied 
by  soldiers  or  slaves.  One  of  them  (A)  protected  by  a  wooden 
railing,  is  very  rich  in  grafiiti,  lately  published  and  explained  by 
Professor  Correra  in  "  Bull.  arch,  com.,"  1894,  p.  95,  plates  2-4. 
There  ai-e  mairy  names,  followed  by  the  specification  castre\ji]sis, 
"from  the  praetorian  camp,"  or  milea,  "soldier."  One  of  them 
writes  in  tolei-ably  good  Greek,  " Many  have  Mritten  many  tilings 


on   this   wall,  I   nothing ;  "   to   which   another  hand   subscribes 
••  Bravo  !  "  Per- 
haps   the  most 

curious  sratiito  ,  v    ,.,( 

is     a    rough  TV /.L/V^X^'I 
sketch    of    the 

head  of  Nero  made  by  a  soldier  named 
TuUius  Romanus.  ^^  ^   ^-,\\  k  3;  i 

Rough  sketches  and  bona-lide  carica-  .^^'^.'    ^t  :i}''<^''-^ 

turesof  Imperial  heads  are  not  unknown      ; '-    .''   i"  \ 

on   the    Palatine.     One   was    found    in      /,^    ,/|y        iT^_^> 
March,  1876,  by  an  English  lady,  graf-    ^'V,f      \  \ 

fito  on  a  slab  of  giallo  antico  with  the     \  ' ,  j|.^   ^^  ~ 

semi-barbaric  legend  "  Caxir  Xero  "  (iVero     V\Vj 'A   v\S\vx  ..   -^  JS 
Ccesar),  the  work  of  one  of  the  Teutonic      •    \!    ^  C^-""   '"^J 

body-guard.i     This  also  is  a  specimen  of  \  ~^^  i 

the  artistic  propensities  of  another  sol-  A  /f 

dier,  who  perhajjs  had  just  seen  the  Em-  1 2_  // 

peror  walking  in   front  of  the  corpx-de-  /\^  { 

fjarde  of  the  Domus  Tiberiana.     Several  A 

officers  from  the  Domus  Tiberiana  are  /'J 

recorded   in   Roman  epitaphs  :    a  balam-       // 
helus  acuarius,  or   plumber    (Corpus,  n.       Fig.  55.  —  A  Graffito  of  the 
8653)  an  alhanus  a  supelectile.  or  keeper  Domus  Tiberiana. 

of  plate  (n.  8654) ;  ajucundus  vilicus,  or  caretaker  (n.  8655),  etc. 

XVII.  House  of  Germanicus  (Fig.  .54,  XV.). —  This  beau- 
tiful edifice  was  discovered  in  the  spring  of  1869,  and  I  well  re- 
memV)er  the  excitement  created  among  artists  and  archseologists 
by  the  appearance  of  its  celebrated  paintings.  It  is  the  only  Ro- 
num  private  house  now  existing,  the  one  discovered  l)y  Azara  in 
the  Villa  ]\Iontalto,  near  the  present  railway  station,  having  been 
destroyed  in  1777,  and  its  paintings  cut  away  from  the  walls  and 
sold  to  Lord  Bristol. ^ 

The  house  has  but  one  entrance  (B),  not  from  the  streets,  which 
go  round   thi-ee  sides  of   it,  but   from  the  cryptoporticus  of  the 

1   Published  in  facsimile,  Bull.  arch,  cow.,  1877,  p.  166. 

■-  The  house  discovered  by  Azara  was  illustrated  by  Angelo  Uggeri, 
Iconografia  deyli  erlifizi  di  Roma  antica,  vol.  iii.  pis.  14-17,  p.  53;  vol.  ii. 
pi.  24.  —  Raffaele  Mengs  and  Camillo  Buti,  Pitture  trovate  I'  anno  1777  nelhi 
rilln  Ner]voni.  13  plates.  —  Camillo  Massimi,  Notizie  della  villa  Massimi, 
Rome,  1836,  p.  214.  — Luigi  Canina,  Edijizl  di  Roma  antica,  vol.  iv.  tav.  192. 


palace  of  Tiberius  and  CaligTila,  in  which  the  murder  of  the  latter 
took  place  on  January  24,  a.  d.  41.  The  historians  who  describe 
the  event  say  that  the  murderers,  not  daring  to  retrace  their  steps 
for  fear  of  the  guards  posted  at  the  main  entrance  by  the  Velia, 
ran  away  in  the  opposite  direction  and  concealed  themselves  in 
the  house  of  Germanicus.  This  statement  leaves  no  doubt  as  to 
the  identity  of  the  building,  which,  besides,  abounds  in  hiding- 
places,  crypts,  and  underground  passages  running  in  the  direction 
of  the  house  of  Augustus.  The  intense  love  felt  by  the  Romans 
for  the  unhappy  prince,  and  the  veneration  for  his  memory,  which 
lasted  for  centuries,  explain  the  fact  that  this  house  alone,  among 
so  many  public  and  private  buildings,  altars,  shrines,  temples, 
palaces,  etc.,  destroyed  by  the  Cpesars,  was  kept  as  a  national 
relic  down  to  the  fall  of  the  Empire.  Evidence  of  the  care  taken 
of,  and  of  repairs  made  on,  the  house  from  time  to  time  is  to  be 
found  in  the  legends  of  its  water-pipes.  One  bears  the  name 
"  Ivliae-Avg"  (Julia,  the  daughter  of  Titus,  or  Julia  Domna)  ;  the 
second,  "  Domitiani  Caesar[/.s']  Avg[usti]  " ;  the  third  has  the  name 
of  a  plumber,  "  \j\iicius'\  Pescennivs  Eros,"  probably  a  contempo- 
rary of  Septimius  Severus. 

The  fore  portion  of  tlie  house,  sunk  below  the  level  of  the 
street,  is  built  of  reticulated  work  with  small  prisms  of  yellowish 
tufa.  The  angles  and  arches  are  of  the  same  material,  without 
any  mixture  of  bricks,  a  style  of  masonry  which  came  into  fashion 
towards  the  end  of  the  Republic.  Like  all  Roman  private  resi- 
dences, it  is  divided  into  two  sections:  one  for  the  reception  of 
friends  and  clients,  one  for  domestic  use.  We  enter  the  first  by 
an  inclined  vestibule  paved  with  fine  mosaic.  Tlie  atrium  (C)  was 
probably  testudinatum,  viz.  covered  by  a  roof  with  no  impluinum 
in  the  centre.  The  pavement  is  of  fine  mosaic ;  and  there  are 
remains  of  the  altar  of  the  domestic  gods  (D).  Three  halls  open 
on  the  side  opposite  the  vestibule ;  the  first  on  the  left  (E),  dam- 
aged by  the  sinking  of  the  outer  wall,  has  some  good  decorative 
panels  divided  by  slender  columns,  with  ivy  and  vines  woven  around 
their  shafts. 

The  central  hall  or  tablinum  (F)  has  a  similar  decoration  of 
composite  columns,  but  the  panels  contain  frescoes  far  superior 
to  the  others  in  interest,  design,  and  execution.  They  have  been 
reproduced  many  times  and  by  various  processes  by  Rosa,  Perrot, 
and  the  German  Institute ;  the  best  copes  in  facsimile,  made  at 
the  time  of  the  discovery  by  M.  Layraud,  were  presented  by 
Napoleon  III.  to  the  Library  of  the  l^cole  des  Beaux  Ai'ts. 


The  one  in  the  back  wall  represents  Polyphemus  the  giant,  half 
merged  in  the  waters  of  the  sea,  who,  having  crushed  his  rival 
Akis  under  a  heavy  rock,  turns  toward  Galatea  with  an  expression 
of  cruelty  mingled  with  tenderness.  The  Xymph  glides  over  the 
water  on  the  back  of  a  sea-horse,  followed  by  two  Nereids.  The 
passion  by  which  the  giant  was  nuxstered  is  represented  by  a 
Cupid,  who  stands  upright  on  his  left  shoulder  and  guides  him 
with  a  ribbon. 

On  the  right,  and  above  the  frieze,  there  is  a  smaller  panel 
rejiresenting  a  scene  of  private  initiation.  The  picture  which 
follows,  on  turning  to  the  right  wall,  belongs  to  the  landscape 
order,  and  show^s  a  sti-eet  scene  with  houses  many  stories  high 
on  either  side.  A  woman,  followed  by  her  attendant,  knocks  at 
one  of  the  doors,  and  four  or  five  figures  appear  at  the  windows 
or  on  the  balconies  to  make  sui'e  who  is  seeking  for  admittance. 
The  second  small  panel,  above  the  frieze,  seems  to  indicate  the 
preparations  for  a  domestic  sacrifice. 

The  last  and  best  picture  pertains  to  the  myth  of  lo,  loved  by 
Jupiter  and  persecuted  by  Juno.  The  fair  daughter  of  Inachus  is 
kept  jirisoner  in  the  sacred  wood  by  Mycen.T,  and  sits  at  the  foot 
of  a  pillar  surmounted  by  the  image  of  the  jealous  goddess.  The 
all-seeing  Argos,  armed  with  lance  and  sword,  gazes  intently  at 
the  girl  in  his  custody.  Behind  the  rock,  on  which  he  is  leaning 
with  the  right  elbow,  Mercury  appears  to  advance  cautiously, 
waving  the  caduceus  as  a  symbol  of  his  mission  from  the  father 
of  the  gods  for  the  deliverance  of  lo.  The  name  EPMH2  is  written 
in  white  letters  under  the  Messenger's  feet,  and  there  is  no  doubt 
that  the  other  jiersonages  were  likewise  indicated  by  their  proper 
names  in,  APFOS. 

The  dining-room  or  Irirlinium  (G)  opens  on  the  west  side  of 
the  court.  Its  frescoes  have  suffered  very  mucli  from  exposure 
and  damp,  the  apartment  being  sunk  four  metres  l)elow  the  street. 
The  walls  have  been  found  coated  with  flange  tiles,  with  the  rim 
turned  inwards,  so  as  to  leave  a  free  space  for  the  circulation  of 
air  and  the  evaporation  of  moisture.  A  curious  vase  of  glass  filled 
with  fruit  is  painted  above  the  entrance  door.  The  panels  have  a 
vermilion  ground,  except  two  which  show  fanciful  groups  of  birds, 
animals,  trees,  etc.,  on  a  white  surface,  the  work  of  a  very  inferior 

Admittance  to  the  inner  (and  higher)  rooms  is  gained  by  a 
narrow  wooden  staircase  (H)  on  the  west  side  of  the  atrium,  near 
the  door  of  the  iricliniiDii :  but  they  hardly  deserve  a  visit,  having 
been  despoiled  of  every  bit  of  ornamentation. 


References.  —  Pietro  Rosa,  Plan  et  peintures  de  la  niaison  pnternelle  de 
Tib'ere,  s.  1.  —  Lanciani  and  Visconti,  Guida  del  Palatino,  Rome,  Bocca,  1873, 
p.  132.  —  Georges  Perrot,  Memulres  d^ircheologie,  Paris,  Didier,  1875,  p.  74. 
(Les  peintures  du  Palatin.) — J.  H.  Middleton,  The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome, 
vol.  i.  p.  175.  —  Monumenti  delV  lustituto,  vol.  xi.  pis.  22,  23. 

XVIII.  DoMUS  Gaiana  (house  of  Caligula),  Fig.  54,  XVI. — 
Suetonius  (Calig.  22)  and  Dion  Cassius  (lix.  28;  Ix.  6)  say  that 
Caligula  protracted  the  Imjjerial  Palace  as  far  as  the  Forum  {ad 
Forum  usque),  making  use  of  the  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux 
for  a  vestibule.  lie  must  have  thus  occupied  and  built  over 
the  ground  once  covered  by  the  houses  of  Clodius,  Cicero,  and 
other  wealthy  citizens,  described  in  §  ii.,  and  crossed  by  the  Clivus 
Victorife.  The  front  of  the  palace  opened  on  the  Nova  Via, 
towering  above  its  pavement  to  the  height  of  150  feet.  This 
facade  is  represented  in  its  present  ruinous  state  by  the  following 
plate  (Fig.  56). 

Starting  from  the  foreground  —  the  Clivu.s  Sacer  by  the  Arch 
of  Fabius  Allobrogicus  —  we  first  see  the  house  of  the  Vestals, 
with  the  statues  of  the  priestesses  lining  the  south  side  of  the 
peristyle ;  and  above  it  the  Nova  Via,  by  which  the  house  was 
separated  from  Caligula's  palace.  The  whole  mass  of  arched 
masonry  which  rises  above  the  street,  and  which  appears  ci'owned 
by  a  clump  of  ilexes,  represents  only  the  substructures  built  by 
Caligula  to  raise  the  slope  of  the  hill  to  a  level  with  its  summit. 
The  palace  itself,  with  its  state  apartments  and  halls  and  porti- 
coes, began  where  the  ruins  actually  stop,  not  a  particle  being  left 
above  ground  to  tell  the  tale.  The  substructures,  at  all  events,  are 
well  worth  visiting  :  we  gain  by  them  the  true  idea  of  the  human 
fourmilliere  of  slaves,  servants,  freedmen,  and  guards,  which  lived 
and  moved  and  worked  in  the  substrata  of  the  Palatine,  serving 
the  court  in  silence  and  almost  in  darkness.  It  is  difficult  to 
understand  or  to  explain  how  the  greater  portion  of  these  under- 
ground dens  were  lighted  and  ventilated.  I  believe  that,  in  the 
oi'iginal  design,  they  were  well  provided  with  such  essential  ele- 
ments of  light  and  comfort :  the  cryptoporticm,  where  the  mux'der 
of  Caligula  took  place,  received  light  from  tlie  Forum  Palatinum 
(Fig.  54,  XVII.)  by  means  of  skylights  opening  under  each  inter- 
columniation  ;  the  rooms  KK  had  a  skylight  in  the  middle  of 
their  vaulted  ceiling,  and  so  forth.  In  progress  of  time,  aiul  on  the 
occasion  of  the  repairs  and  changes  which  every  Emperor  consid- 
ered it  his  duty  to  make,  no  regard  was  paid  to  the  original  plan  : 
staircases,  windows,  and  corridors  were  condemned,  intercepted,  or 



closed :  rooms  subdivided  into  two  or  four  apartments  ;  free  spaces 
built  over ;  and  streets  tm-ned  into  dark  passages. 

The  student's  most  perplexing  labor  on  the  Palatine  is  to  single 
out  which  parts  are  architecturally  essential  and  pertain  to  the 


original  plan,  and  which  are  later  changes  deserving  no  considera- 
tion. His  task  is  made  even  more  tronblesome  by  the  fact  that  all 
maps  of  the  hill,  from  that  of  Zangolini,  which  I  published  in 
1873,1  to  the  latest  of  Richter  (1889),  Middletou  (1892),  and  Bm-ns 
(1895),  mark  existing  remains  with  the  same  shade  of  color, 
no  matter  whether  they  belong  to  the  great  banqueting-hall  of 
the  masters  of  the  world,  or  to  a  cellar  sunk  deep  iu  the  ground. 
I  have  tried  to  avoid  this  mistake  in  Sheets  xxix.  and  xxxv.  of 
the  "  Forma  Urbis,"  where  only  the  living  apartments  and  public 



Fig.  57.  — A  Corner  of  tlie  Palace  of  Caligula  according  to  Rosa's  Map. 

buildings  are  marked  in  full  tint,  the  substructures  and  cellars 
in  lighter  color  or  in  simple  outline.  The  results  obtained  by  this 
process  of  sifting  are  in  many  cases  remarkable.  The  following 
from  Caligula's  house  might  serve  for  all. 

The  portion  of  the  house  which  spans  the  Clivus  Victorias  is 
represented  in  guide  and  topographical  books  as  follows  (Fig.  57)  : 

According  to  this  accepted  plan,  none  of  the  rooms  marked  AA, 
BB,  CC  had  light  or  air,  the  whole  space  —  the  street  included  — 
being  vaulted  over.  Now,  as  "  several  rooms  .  .  .  are  richly 
1  The  same  that  I  have  made  use  of  in  Ancient  Rome,  pp.  106,  107. 



decorated  with  a  combinatiou  of  colored  stucco  reliefs  and  paint- 
ings on  the  flat,  very  gorgeous  in  effect,  but  almost  invisible  for 
want  of  light,  except  that  of  lamp,"  ^  and  others  have  an  elaborate 
mosaic  floor,  as  is  suitable  for  rooms  inhabited,  not  by  slaves,  but 
by  officers  of  superior  rank,  we  w^ere  trying  to  find  the  proper  ex- 
planation of  these  facts,  but  in  vain.  It  came  in  the  most  satis- 
factory way  w  hen  I  adopted  the  system  of  distinguishing,  in  color 
or  in  outline,  the  original  walls  from  later  additions. 

By  glancing  at  the  nuip  made  with  this  caution.  Fig.  58,  we  see 
at  once  that  when  the  palace  was  built  by  Caligula,  the  apartments 

Fig.  58.  — The  Same,  according  to  Sheet  xxix.of  the  "  Forma  Urbis." 

now  plunged  in  darkness  received  light  and  air  from  a  court  32 
metres  long  and  26  wide,  through  which  passed  the  Clivus  Victoria^. 
The  rooms  on  the  southwest  side  opened  on  a  balcony  "  supported 
on  stone  corbels  carrying  a  series  of  arches."  These  and  the 
front  of  the  balcony  "  are  richly  decorated  with  delicate  reliefs, 
modeled  in  stucco,  of  figures  and  foliage,  once  covered  with  gold 
and  colored  decoration,  and  designed  with  great  skill  and  beauty 
of  effect "  (Middleton).  The  marble  railing  or  parapet  is  an 
addition  by  Rosa. 

The  rooms  under  the  balcony,  on  a  level  with  the  court,  were 
used  as  a  corps  de  garde.     The  walls  of  one  (now  protected  by  a 

1  Middleton,  i.  194. 


wooden  railing)  are  covered  with  graffiti.  There  are  names  like 
"  Philaronivs,"  "  Annaevs,"  "  Aprilis  ;  "  the  inipi-ession  of  a  coin 
repeated  five  times  ;  and  the  phrase,  written  perhaps  in  the  hour 
of  the  siesta  in  a  hot  summer  day  :  "  Somnvs  clavdit  ocellos." 
(See  Bull,  arch,  com.,  1895,  p.  195.) 

Another  portion  of  the  building,  the  cri/ptopnriicus,  marked 
XVIII,  Fig.  51,  has  been  identified  beyond  any  shade  of  doubt 
with  the  "  solitary  and  obscure  corridor  "  in  which  the  assassina- 
tion of  Caligula  took  place  on  January  14,  a.  d.  41.  The  event  is 
described  at  some  length  on  pp.  117-119  of  "  Ancient  Rome." 

Near  the  bend  of  the  crriptoporticus  towards  the  house  of  Ger- 
manicus,  there  is  an  oval  basin,  which  Rosa  calls  a  fish-pond 
(vivaio  di  pesci).  I  doubt  whether  it  is  ancient,  or  the  work  of  a 
mediaeval  farmer.  It  marks  the  i^lace  in  which  the  Renaissance 
lime-burners  established  their  kilns.  One  of  these  was  discovered 
by  Rosa  in  1866,  filled  to  the  brim  with  exquisite  works  of  art, 
some  of  which  had  by  an  accident  escaped  the  effects  of  fire.  The 
objects  formerly  exhibited  in  the  local  Museo  Palatino,  where 
they  attracted  intense  interest,  and  now  scattei'ed  in  various  rooms 
of  the  Museo  delle  Terme,  comprise  a  veiled  head  of  the  Emperor 
Claudius;  a  head  of  Nero;  three  caryatides  or  eaHe/j/io/-rt«  of  nero 
antico  of  an  archaistic  type  ;  an  exquisite  statue  of  an  ephebos  in 
green  basalt,  with  the  arms  and  lower  portion  of  the  legs  miss- 
ing ;  ^  head  of  Arpokras,  and  several  fragments  of  less  importance. 

The  last  place  deserving  of  a  visit  is  the  long  and  well-preserved 
staircase  which  leads  from  the  Clivus  Victoriae  to  the  top  of  the 
ruins,  where  a  charming  little  grove  of  evergreens  now  casts  its 
shade.  The  grove  is  known  in  literary  histoi'y  as  the  first  place 
of  meeting  of  the  Accademia  degli  Arcadi. 

The  palace,  or  whatever  remained  of  it  in  tolerable  preservation 
after  the  barbarian  inroads,  was  taken  possession  of  and  some- 
times inhabited  by  the  popes,  as  a  practical  evidence  of  their 
political  power  in  Rome.  The  palace  was  put  under  the  cai'e  of 
an  officer  styled  a  ciira  jjalatii.  One  of  them  named  Plato,  whose 
epitaph  was  seen  by  Pietro  Sabino  in  tlie  pavement  of  the  church 
of  S.  Anastasia,  rebuilt  or  repaired  about  680  the  long  staircase 
which  I  have  just  mentioned  as  descending  from  tlie  top  of  the 
ruins  to  the  Clivus  Victoi-iae  and  the  Porta  Romanula.  His  son, 
having  been  elected  pojie  in  705  under  the  name  of  ,Iohn  VI I.,^ 

1  The  statue  has  been  recently  ilUistrated  by  F.  Hauser  in  the  MlUhnlunijen 
for  1805,  pp.  97-119,  pi.  1.     (Basalt  statue  vom  Palatin.) 

2  John  VII.  was  buried  in  S.  Peter's  before  the  altar  of  the  Sudario,  which 



conceived  the  plan  of  making  the  palace  of  the  Caesars  the  perma- 
nent and  official  residence  of  the  Bishops  of  Rome  ;  and  accord- 
ingly "  super  ecclesiam  sanctaj  Dei  genitricis  qua?  antiqua  vocatur 
[above  the  church  of  S.  ]\Iaria  Liberatrice]  episcopium  construere 
vol  nit,"  1  and  established  brick-kilns  for  the  purpose,  the  produce 
of  which  is  marked  by  the  stamp  shown  in  Fig.  59. 

Fig.  59.  —  A  Brick  Stamp  of  Jolin  VII. 

John  YIT.  did  not  live  to  see  his  project  accomplished :  his 
successors  did  not  care  for  it,  and  they  repaired  to  the  convents 
or  strongholds  of  the  Palatine  only  in  case  of  necessity.  Celes- 
tinus  II.  died  in  1144  apud  Palladium  (in  the  monastery  of  S. 
Cesario) ;  Lucius  II.  in  114.3  ap>id  ecclesiam  S.  Gregorii  (in  the 
fortress  of  the  Septizonium)  ;  Eugenius  III.  was  elected  pope  in 
1145  apud  monasteriiun  S.  Cesarii ;  Gregory  IX.  in  1227  apiid  sep- 
temsolium.  They  were  simply  chosen  as  places  of  refuge  in  times 
of  popular  disorder,  which  once  quelled,  the  popes  resumed  their 
habitual  residence  at  the  Lateran. 

Caligula's  palace  has  not  been  excavated  since  the  sack  by  the 
Duke  qf  Parma  in  1725-27 ;  and  we  do  not  know  whether  thei'e 
are  still  traces  left  of  the  work  of  John  VII.  or  of  his  Imperial 

XIX.  The  Palace  of  Domitiax  (ojKi'a  Ao/xenavoC).  —  One  of 
the  first  thoughts  of  Vespasian,  after  iiis  election  in  a.  d.  69,  was 
to  reduce  the  Imperial  residence  to  its  old  limits  on  the  Palatine, 

he  had  built  and  endowed.    His  portrait,  a  miniature  in  a  golden  ground,  is 
given  by  Giacomo  Grimaldi,  Cod.  Barb.,  f.  9-3. 

1  References. —  Liber  pontijicalis,  in  .lohann.  VII.,  ed.  Duchesne,  vol.  i. 
p.  385. —  G.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Notizie  deyli  Scari,  dicemb.  188-3.  —  Rodolfo 
Lauciani,  L'  itinerario  di  Einsiedlen,  p.  63. — Louis  Duchesne,  Btdletin  cri- 
tique, 188.5,  p.  417  sq. ;  and  Milanrieif  de  V Ecole  franq(nse  de  Rome,  1896,  fasc. 
ii.  — Grisar  Hartniann,  S.  .T.,  in  CiriUa  Cattol,  May,  189G. 


and  give  back  to  the  people  the  immense  tract  of  land  which 
Nero  had  usurped  for  his  Golden  House.  At  the  same  time  he 
could  not  abstain  from  raising  himself  a  new  palace,  to  be  used 
for  state  receptions  and  banquets.  This  great  structure,  called  by 
Nerva  cedes  publicce  populi  Romani,  was  brought  to  perfecticg;i  by 
Domitian,  who  lavished  upon  it  all  the  costliest  productions  of 
contemporary  art.  Hence  Plutarch  (Poplic,  15)  calls  it  o'lKia 
Aofieriavov,  and  compares  Domitian  to  Midas,  who  turned  into  gold 
whatever  fell  under  his  touch.  See  also  the  eulogy  of  Statins 
(Sylv.,  iv.  11,  18).  It  stands  between  the  palaces  of  Tiberius  and 
Caligula  on  one  side,  and  that  of  Augustus  (with  its  temples  and 
porticoes)  on  the  other,  in  the  line  of  the  valley  which  runs  from 
the  Arch  of  Titus  to  the  Circus.  The  valley  was  still  occupied  at 
that  time  by  private  mansions,  and  by  one  or  two  shrines ;  they 
were  not  destroyed,  but  made  use  of  to  support  the  platform  on 
which  the  palace  stands.  Some  of  these  older  buildings  are  still 
visible,  and  will  be  described  below.  The  plan  of  the  palace  is 
that  of  a  private  Roman  house,  but  it  is  of  a  size  and  magnificence 
becoming  the  ruler  of  the  world.  Little  or  nothing  is  known  of 
its  history ;  in  fact,  it  seems  never  to  have  required  repairs  on 
account  of  the  solidity  of  its  construction.  The  Emperors  did 
not  live  in  it,  but  held  their  levees,  delivered  their  judgments, 
presided  over  councils  of  state,  received  foreign  envoys,  and  gave 
official  banquets  in  the  various  apartments  set  apart  for  such 
purposes.  The  last  Emperor  seen  in  the  palace  was  Heraclius, 
whose  coronation  took  place  in  the  throne-room  a.  d.  629.  We 
hear  of  it  again  nine  centuries  later,  when  the  northern  half  of  the 
Palatine  was  bought  by  the  Farnese.  To  this  family  we  owe  the 
first  excavations  of  the  Palatine.  They  took  place  in  1536,  when 
the  avenue  now  called  di  S.  Gregorio  was  cut  open  between  the 
Septizonium  and  Constantine's  Arch  for  the  triumphal  progress  of 
Charles  V.  In  the  legal  deeds  for  the  acquisition  of  property  on 
the  hill,  the  Farnese,  and  above  all  the  glorious  Cardinal  Alessan- 
dro,  always  betray  their  inclination  for  archaeological  discoveries. 
One  of  them,  dated  January  17,  1542,  contains  these  words : 
"Marco  Antonio  Palosio  sells  to  tlie  cardinal,  etc.,  his  vinej^ard 
on  the  Palatine,  adjoining  that  of  Yirginio  da  Mantaco,  with  its 
crypts,  ruins,  edifices,  marbles,  and  statues,  whether  visible  above 
ground  or  covered  yet  by  the  accumulation  of  soil."  The  result 
of  the  Farnese  excavations  is  not  known ;  but  considering  that 
the  front  walls  of  the  gardens  (destroyed  in  1881)  cut  the  house 
of  the  Vestals  right  in  two,  that  the  Uccelliera  (now  the  Uffizio 


degli  Scavi)  was  founded  on  Caligula's  palace,  and  the  Casino 
(described  on  p.  164)  on  that  of  Domitian,  something  of  value  must 
certainly  have  come  to  light.  Tlie  only  monument  mentioned  by 
contemporary  archfeologists  is  the  pedestal  (Corpus  Inscr.,  vi.  456) 
which  marks  approximately  the  site  of  the  ^des  Penatium  in 
Velia.     It  was  discovered  near  the  Arch  of  Titus. 

Three  halls  open  on  the  front  of  Domitian's  palace  :  tlie  throne- 
room,  aula  regia,  in  the  centre ;  the  chapel,  or  lararium,  on  the  left ; 
and  a  basilica,  or  court-room,  on  the  right.  The  throne-room,  built 
of  bricks  from  the  kilns  of  Flavia  Domitilla,  is  160  feet  long  and  120 
wide,  and  was  decorated  with  sixteen  columns  of  pavonazzetto  (aa), 
having  bases  and  capitals  exquisitely  cut  in  ivory-coloi-ed  marble. 
There  were  three  niches  on  either  side  for  colossal  statues  or  groups, 
and  each  of  them  was  flanked  by  smaller  columns  of  porphyry. 
The  two  statues  of  black  basalt,  discovered  in  the  adjoining 
basilica  in  1724,  had  been  probably  removed  from  these  niches. 
On  either  side  of  the  great  door  (b),  opening  on  the  front  portico, 
stood  two  columns  of  giallo  antico,  which  the  Duke  of  Parma  sold 
to  the  stone-cutters  Perini  and  IMaciucchi  for  3000  scudi.  The 
threshold  was  made  of  a  block  of  Greek  marble  so  large  that  the 
high  altar  of  the  church  of  S.  M.  ilotonda  has  been  cut  out  of  it. 
The  throne  (c),  or  augustale  solium,  was  placed  ojDposite  the  door, 
in  the  apse  where  Bianchini  in  1726  set  up  his  mendacious  praise 
of  Francis  I.,  Duke  of  Parma  and  Piacenza,  the  last  destroyer  of 
the  Palatine.  Bianchini  has  given  the  name  of  lararimn,  or  do- 
mestic chapel,  to  the  room  on  the  left,  on  account  of  the  altar 
which  he  found  built  against  the  back  wall.  The  altar,  which  was 
approached  by  two  flights  of  stairs,  has  since  been  demolished. 
Here  took  place  the  remarkable  find  described  in  "  Ancient  Rome," 
p.  127.  Heliogabalus,  according  to  Herodianus,  had  attempted  to 
collect  into  the  chaj^el  attached  to  the  palace  of  the  Caesars  the 
most  famous  relics  of  the  Roman  world  —  the  Palladium,  the  fire 
of  Vesta,  the  ancilia,  and,  of  course,  the  Acus  Matris  Deum  or 
meteoric  stone  from  Pessinus,  described  in  §  xiii.  The  stone,  it  may 
be  remembered,  was  very  large,  of  conical  shape,  and  brown  in 
color.  Monsignor  Bianchini,  who  excavated  the  lararium  in  1725, 
seems  to  have  positively  discovered  the  relic.  "  I  am  sorry,"  he 
says,  "  that  no  fragment  of  statue  or  bas-relief  or  inscription  has 
been  found  in  the  chapel ;  .  .  .  the  only  object  discovered  was  a 
stone  nearly  three  feet  high,  conical  in  shape,  of  a  deep  brow'n 
color,  looking  very  much  like  lava,  and  ending  in  a  sharp  point. 
I  do  not  know  what  became  of  it." 

THE   PALACE    OF    DOM  TT I  AN  159 

If  my  siu-mise  i.s  well  founded,  and  the  identity  between  the 
Acus  Matris  Deum  and  Bianchini's  stone  probable,  if  not  certain, 
we  can  better  understand  the  passage  of  the  "  A^ita  Heliog.,"  iii. 
The  templum  HeJiogahali  iuxta  (edes  imperatorias,  which  he  men- 
tions, must  have  been  close  to  the  lararium,  unless  the  lararium 
itself  was  transformed  into  a  temple. 

Behind  the  chapel  is  the  only  staircase  (d)  yet  discovered  in 
these  apartments.  It  led  to  the  iipper  galleries,  from  which  the 
great  ceremonies  of  state  coidd  be  witnessed  by  invited  guests. 
Another  flight  of  steps,  now  buried  again,  leads  to  the  wine-cellars, 
whei-e  Bianchini  discovered,  in  1721,  rows  of  amphorfe  marked 
with  the  label  liquamen  excellens  L.  Purelli  Gemelli  (Bianchini,  p. 
260).  The  walls  of  the  staircase  and  those  of  the  room  (e)  were 
covered  with  exquisite  fresco  paintings,  of  which  not  a  square 
inch  has  been  spared  desti-uction.  Fortunately  they  were  copied 
in  time  b}-  Gaetano  Piccini  and  Francesco  Bartoli.  Piccini's 
album  is  to  be  found  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Hofburg,  Vienna; 
Bartoli's  plates  in  the  Topham  collection  at  Eton.  These  last 
number  58,  of  which  10  are  of  great  size.  They  represent  cam- 
pestrian  scenes,  sacritices,  and  Bacchic  dances,  crowded  with  grace- 
fid  figures.! 

Some  of  the  subjects  have  also  been  engraved  on  copper.  They 
are  to  be  found  in  Cameron's  "  Baths  of  the  Romans  from  tlie 
Restorations  of  Palladio  "  (London,  1772)  ;  in  INIorghen's  appen- 
dix to  the  "  Pictura?  antiquas  Cryptarum  Romanarum  "  of  Bartoli ; 
and  in  tlie  '•  Collection  of  Ancient  Paintings  after  the  Originals  at 
Rome,  witli  Critical,  Historical,  and  Mythological  Observations 
upon  them,"  by  George  Turnbull,  LL.  D.  (London,  1741,  folio, 
54  plates).  When  we  think  that  these  exquisite  specimens  of 
the  golden  art  of  Domitian's  age  were  found  intact  in  the  first 
quarter  of  last  century,  under  the  eyes  of  such  men  as  Cardinal 
Alessandro  Albani,  Pier  Leone  Ghezzi,  Francesco  Bianchini,  and 
Fi-ancesco  Bartoli,  and  that  the  very  walls  w^hich  they  covered 
wei-e  demolished  for  the  sake  of  the  bricks,  we  may  indeed  ask  by 
what  right  we  continue  blaming  the  iSIiddle  Ages  or  the  barbarians 
for  deeds  Avhich  are  not  as  disgraceful  as  those  here  recorded. 

The  hall  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  throne-room  is  thought  to 
have  been  a  hasilica,  or  court-room,  where  the  prince  delivered 
judgment  in  cases  pertaining  or  submitted  to  the  crown.     There 

1  See  Disegni  di  antichita  nella  BiMiott-ca  di  S.  Maria  di  Eton  (in  Bull, 
arch,  com.,  1894,  p.  164).  —  Pirturw  antiqiM  Cryptanim  Romanarum  {ibidem, 
189.5,  p.  182).—  II palmzo  Mar/r/iore  (in  Mittheilung-en.  1894,  p.  26). 


are  still  traces  of  the  suggestum  or  platform  on  which  sat  the  Im- 
perial judge  and  his  assessors,  and  of  the  staircases  which  led  to  it. 
The  fragment  of  a  marble  screen,  dividing  the  apse  from  the  space 
reserved  for  the  audience,  and  the  columns  by  which  the  hall  would 
be  divided  into  aisles  and  nave,  are  "  restorations  "  of  Commenda- 
tore  Rosa,  resting  on  no  sufficient  evidence.  The  basilica  was 
excavated  for  the  first  time  (?)  in  1724.  There  is  an  account  of 
the  results  in  MSS.  p.  248  of  the  queen's  library  at  Windsor, 
from  which  we  gather  that  the  two  colossal  statues  of  Bacchus 
and  Hercules  in  black  basalt,  now  in  the  Museo  at  Parma,  were 
found  lying  on  the  floor  on  April  20  of  the  same  year. 

Behind  the  three  front  halls  opens  the  inner  court  or  peristyle, 
the  area  of  which  amounts  to  3600  square  metres.  The  columns 
were  of  porta  santa,  with  columns,  capitals,  and  entablature  cut  in 
white  marble  like  lace-work.  Suetonius  says  that  this  was  a  favor- 
ite haunt  of  Domitian,  who  could  walk  under  the  colonnades  away 
from  the  crowd  and  secure  from  danger.  The  biographer  adds 
that  the  side  walls  had  been  inci'usted  with  slabs  of  phengite 
marble,  reflecting  the  images  like  a  mirror,  so  as  to  allow  the 
prince  to  see  whatever  might  take  place  behind  his  shoulders. 
The  two  sides  of  the  peristyle  are  occupied  by  a  set  of  nine  rooms 
of  various  shapes,  the  use  of  which  it  is  not  easy  to  imagine. 
Considering,  however,  that  the  middle  room,  octagonal  in  shape, 
forms  a  vestibule  through  which  personages  driving  to  the  palace 
by  the  Forum  Palatinum  were  admitted  into  it,  it  is  obvious  that 
they  were  used  for  cloak  and  waiting  rooms,  porter's  lodge,  etc. 

Before  proceeding  any  farther  in  our  description,  it  is  necessary 
to  remember  that  below  the  halls  we  have  visited,  and  even  below 
the  peristyle,  there  are  other  splendid  apartments,  galleries,  crypto- 
porticuses,  and  bathrooms,  the  existence  of  which  has  remained 
unknown  to  the  modern  excavators  of  the  Palatine.  I  only  dis- 
covered it  myself  in  1892,  while  examining  Bianchini's  manu- 
scripts in  the  Biblioteca  Capitolare  at  Verona,  and  the  Topham 
collection  of  drawings  at  Eton.  The  subject  is  so  curious  and  new 
that  a  few  words  of  explanation  will  not  be  out  of  place. 

In  1722,  the  Marchese  Ignazio  de'  Santi,  Minister  of  Parma  to 
the  Pope,  asked  leave  for  his  master,  the  Duke  Francis,  to  excavate 
the  Palatine  Gardens  which  he  had  inherited  from  the  Farnese. 
Cardinal  Patrizi,  in  giving  consent  on  behalf  of  Innocent  XTII., 
imposed  two  conditions  :  that  if  the  value  of  gold  and  silver  coins, 
engraved  stones,  and  medals  should  eventually  exceed  the  sum  of 
10.000  scudi,  the  Pope's  treasury  should  share  the  profits  ;  secondly. 

THE   PALACE    OF   DO  MIT  I  AN  161 

that  life-size  statues  and  architectural  marbles  should  not  be  re- 
moved from  Rome.  Duke  Francesco  rebelled  against  these  fair 
conditions,  and  his  agent  in  Rome  gave  so  much  trouble  that,  on 
April  4,  1720,  Cardinal  Albani  gave  him  carte  blanche  to  do  what 
he  pleased  on  the  Palatine.  He  did  not  hesitate  about  it.  The 
acts  of  vandalism  committed  by  this  Ignazio  de'  Santi  and  his 
successor  Count  Suzzani,  with  the  tacit  consent  of  Monsignore 
Francesco  Bianchini,  w^ho  had  been  appointed  superintendent  of 
the  excavations,  have  no  parallel  in  the  history  of  the  destruction 
of  Rome.  The  words  ladronecci  infami,  used  by  Guattani  in  re- 
ferring to  them,  are  comparatively  mild.  The  prelate  was  the  only 
one  to  sufifer.  While  watching  the  works  one  day,  the  ground 
gave  way  under  his  feet,  and  although  the  di'op  w^as  hardly  four- 
teen feet,  the  shock  was  ultimately  the  cause  of  his  death.  His 
posthumous  volume,  "  II  palazzo  dei  Cesari,"  is  almost  worthless, 
both  in  the  text  and  in  the  plates,  which  an  eye-witness  of  the 
excavations,  Pier  Leone  Ghezzi,  denounces  as  ••'  impostures."  The 
discovery  of  an  underground  floor  is  not  mentioned  nor  illustrated 
by  Bianchini,  and  I  had  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to  Yerona,  Eton, 
and  Paris  to  collect  information  about  it.^  Without  entering  into 
particulars  already  published  in  the  "  Mittheilungen  "  of  1894,  I 
will  merely  mention  the  discovery  of  a  bathroom  21.30  metres  long 
and  11.50  metres  deep,  the  richest  and  most  beautiful  apartment, 
as  far  as  we  know,  in  the  whole  palace  of  the  Caesars.  The  walls 
were  incrusted  with  "  Florentine  "  mosaic  work  in  pieti-a  dura, 
alternating  here  and  there  with  marble  bas-reliefs  set  in  a  richly 
carved  frame,  and  with  niches  for  statues.  A  colonnade  of  por- 
phyry shafts,  each  two  feet  in  diameter,  ran  along  three  sides  of 
the  hall ;  while  on  the  f oui'th  side  five  lions'  heads  of  gilt  bronze 
threw  jets  of  water  into  a  marble  basin.  Each  fountain  was  flanked 
by  ten  columns  of  porph^Ty,  sei'pentine,  giallo,  verde,  and  pavo- 
nazzetto,  with  capitals  and  bases  of  gilt  bronze.  The  roof  (frag- 
ments of  which  lay  scattered  on  the  pavement  inlaid  with  crusts 
of  the  rarest  breccias)  seems  to  have  been  divided  into  panels, 
some  of  which  contained  mythological  groups  in  fresco  painting, 
others  figurines  of  white  stucco  on  a  heavily  gilt  ground. 

All  these  treasm-es  were  destroyed  in  May,  1721.  An  English 
artist,  E.  Kirkall,  who  has  left  two  rare  coloi'ed  prints  of  this  hall, 
says  in  the  footnote,  ''  The  plan  of  Augustus's  (Domitian's)  bath, 

1  The  memory  of  the  find  was  lost  altogether  by  the  houses  of  Parma  and 
Naples  and  by  their  diplomatic  agents  in  Rome,  so  much  so  that  in  18-35 
another  search  was  made  in  the  same  spot,  naturally  without  results. 


found  underground  on  the  east  side  of  the  Pahitine  hill  in  Rome 
in  the  year  1721,  and  barbarously  defaced  and  broken  in  pieces 
during  the  conclave  of  that  year,  and  the  broken  pieces  sent  to 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  this  underground  portion  of  Domitian's 
palace,  without  which  we  shall  never  be  able  to  understand  the 
working  and  mechanism  of  Roman  Imperial  state  life,  should  be 
still  buried  under  a  mass  of  rubbish.  The  only  rooms  now  visible 
(under  the  west  wing  of  the  peristyle  —  very  damp  and  chilly) 
have  nothing  to  do  with  it :  tliey  belong  to  a  private  mansion  of 
the  late  Republic,  which  Domitian  left  undisturbed  because  it  lay 
below  the  level  of  his  artificial  platform.  The  discoverers  of  1720 
misnamed  it  the  Baths  of  Livia  (see  Fig.  60).  The  first  room  at 
the  foot  of  the  (modern)  stairs  was  decorated  with  arabesques  and 
festoons  on  a  ground  of  gold ;  the  second  with  groups  of  figurines 
on  a  blue  ground  ;  the  ornaments  of  the  ceilings  were  also  worthy 
of  the  golden  age  of  Augustus.  Owing  to  the  neglect  in  which 
this  gem  of  Roman  domestic  architecture  has  been  kept  since  1726, 
the  decorations  have  nearly  disappeared. 

The  triclinium,  or  great  state  lianqueting-hall,  opens  on  the 
south  side  of  the  peristyle.  Nardini  has  identified  it  with  the 
lovis  Cenado,  in  which  the  murder  of  Pertinax  took  place,  as  de- 
scribed in  the  "  Vita,"  ch.  xi.  The  biographer  says  that  the  three 
hundred  rebels  from  the  Prjetorian  camp  entered  the  palace  by  the 
vestibule  opening  on  the  Forum  Palatinum,  and  rushed  through 
the  locus  qui  appellatur  Sicilia  to  the  lovis  Cenatio,  where  they 
met  with  their  Imperial  victim.  If  the  lovis  Cenatio  is  the  name 
of  the  dining-room,  that  of  Sicilia  must  belong  to  the  peristyle. 
Nothing  remains  to  tell  us  how  this  hall  was  decorated  save  two 
fragments  of  granite  columns,  of  which  there  must  have  been 
sixteen.  The  pavement  of  the  apse,  where  the  table  of  honor  was 
set,  is  well  preserved,  but  the  administration  is  compelled  to  keep 
it  covered,  to  save  it  from  frost,  rain,  and  the  hands  of  tourists. 
It  is  made  of  crusts  of  porphyry,  serpentine,  giallo,  and  pavo- 
nazzetto  in  imitation  of  geometrical  patterns.  The  small  tri- 
angidar  cabinet,  on  the  left  of  the  apse,  was  probably  a  latrina. 
The  dining-room  was  necessarily  connected  with  kitchens  and 
pantry,  haunted  by  hundreds  of  coci;  but  here  again  we  are  left 
in  the  dark  because  the  excavations  have  stojjped  at  the  wrong 
level.  The  tombstones  of  members  of  the  Imperial  household, 
collected  in  vol.  vi.  part  ii.  pp.  11.50-1204  of  the  "  Corpus  Inscrip- 
tionum,"  mention    among  other  officers   several  members  of  the 


collegium  cocorum  Ccesaris  (No.  8750)  ;  a  grand  chef,  prcepositus 
cocorum  (No.  875'2) ;  cooks  that  the  Emperors  had  purchased  or 
obtained  from  the  Cornufician  and  Sestian  families  (Nos.  8753, 
8754) ;  a  butler  a  cena  centurionum  (No.  8748),  viz.,  for  the  service 
of  the  officers  of  the  bodyguard  on  duty  at  the  palace ;  a  super- 
intendent of  the  wine-cellars  (No.  8745)  ;  a  Gemellus  prcejmsilus 
argenti  potorii,  keeper  of  silver  drink ing-cups  (No.  8729) ;  an 
Ulpius  Ilierax,  keeper  of  gold  plate  and  cups  (No.  8733)  ;  a  i7-iclini- 
archa  or  chief  butler  (No.  1884)  ;  a  keeper  of  lamps  (No.  8868) ; 
keepers  of  table-linen,  bakers,  pastry-cooks,  and  jn-cegustatores. 
Princes  and  jjrincesses  of  the  Imperial  family  had  their  own 
special  cooks  like  the  Zethus,  No.  8755,  who  calls  himself  cocus 
Marcellce  minoris. 

In  the  portion  of  the  Imperial  palace  or  palaces  visible  to  us 
there  is  no  room  for  the  lodging  and  keeping  of  such  a  powerful 
army  of  servants  as  we  know  to  have  been  attached  to  the  court. 
The  columbaria  of  servants  and  freedmen  of  Augustus  and  Livia 
on  the  Appian  Way  —  described  in  "  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  130  —  con- 
tained about  six  thousand  cinerary  urns.  The  number  must  have 
been  doubled  under  the  extravagant  nde  of  Nero  and  Caligula ; 
and  yet  not  half  of  the  Palatine  was  built  over  in  those  days. 
There  are  many  mysteries  to  be  solved  before  we  gain  a  satisfac- 
tory knowledge  of  the  material  organization  and  working  of  the 
Imperial  Court. 

There  is  one  more  hall  of  the  olKia  Aofienavov  to  be  visited  on 
the  right  of  the  triclinium.  It  was  used  as  a  ni/mphceum,  where 
the  water,  playing  in  various  ways,  the  light,  filtering  through 
bushes  of  exotic  plants,  the  perfume  of  rare  flowers,  and  the 
balmy  air  adnutted  through  Cizycene  windows,  made  the  post- 
prandial siesta  most  agreeal)le.  The  fountain  is  elliptical  in 
shape,  with  inches  and  recesses  for  flower-jjots  and  statuettes. 
The  pavement  is  inlaid  with  the  most  rare  bits  of  oriental  ala- 
baster. Upon  it  were  lying  at  the  time  of  the  discovery  (1862) 
two  pieces  of  fluted  columns  of  giallo  brecciato,  and  a  statue  of 
Eros  with  large  wings,  restored  by  Karl  Steinhauser,  and  removed 
to  the  Louvre.  Froehner  (Musee  National  du  Louvre,  Sculjsture 
antique,  p.  311,  No.  325)  describes  it  as  "un  torse  grec  d'une 
exquise  delicatesse  de  ciseau.  De  la  main  droite  levee,  Eros  ado- 
lescent versait  du  vin  dans  une  coupe."  The  statue  has  been  illus- 
trated by  Froehner  himself  in  the  "  Illustration,"  1867,  p.  1-52,  and 
by  Henzen  in  the  "  BulL  Inst.,"  1862,  p.  227. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  remind  the  reader  that  the  palace  of 


Domitiiiu  is  syuimetrical  in  all  its  parts,  and  tliat  a  room  of  the 
same  style  and  size  as  this  Nymj)hieum  is  lying  buried  under  the 
Convent  of  the  Visitation  (Villa  Mills). 

On  the  edge  of  these  ruins  Cardinal  Alessandro  Farnese  raised 
a  casino,  the  north  portico  of  which  was  painted  in  arabesques  by 
a  pupil  of  Taddeo  Zuccari.  The  panels  represent  vEneas  visiting 
J^vander,  Cacus  stealing  the  oxen  of  Hercules,  Evander  sacrificing 
to  Hercules,  the  grotto  of  the  Lupercal,  the  foundation  of  Rome, 
subjects  drawn  from  the  Virgilian  reminiscences  of  the  Palatine. 

The  works  of  art  discovered  in  the  Palace  of  Domitian  are 
scattered  to  the  four  winds.  The  basalt  statues  of  Hercules  and 
Apollo,  found  in  1724,  are  in  the  Museo  di  Antichita  at  Parma, 
together  with  other  architectural  and  ornamental  marbles ;  more 
pieces  were  removed  to  the  Palazzo  Farnese  at  the  end  of  last  cen- 
tury. Napoleon  III.  presented  to  the  Louvre  the  most  rare  and 
beautiful  results  of  his  excavations  (November  4,  1861,  to  April, 
1870)  ;  even  the  small  but  highly  interesting  local  museum  founded 
by  Commendatore  Rosa  (catalogued  in  the  Guida  del  Palatino,  p. 
52)  has  been  dispersed,  and  its  contents  have  lost  their  individu- 
ality in  the  great  collections  of  the  Museo  Nazionale  alle  Terme. 

As  to  the  fate  of  the  fresco  paintings  discovered  behind  the 
lararium  in  1721-25,  I  quote  this  passage  from  Winckelmann's 
"  Storia  delle  Arti,"  ed.  Fea,  vol.  iii.  p.  105,  §  26 :  "A  hall  forty 
feet  long,  with  the  walls  entirely  covered  with  frescoes,  was  un- 
earthed on  the  Palatine  in  1724.  The  panels  were  separated  by 
columns  (in  the  so-called  grotesque  style)  very  thin  and  long. 
The  panels  detached  from  the  walls  went  first  to  Parma,  then  to 
Naples,  together  with  other  rare  objects  inherited  from  the  Farnese. 
But  as  they  were  kept  in  their  boxes  for  twenty-four  years,  the 
mildew  and  damp  effaced  every  trace  of  them,  except  in  the  case 
of  a  small  Caryatid,  which  is  now  exhibited  at  Capo  di  ^Nlonte." 

All  writers  on  the  Palatine  describe  some  exquisitely  carved 
marbles,  spoils  of  the  excavations  of  1725,  which  had  been  laid 
aside  by  the  Uccelliera ;  and  Luigi  Rossini  has  illustrated  them 
in  one  of  the  best  jjlates  of  his  work  "  I  Sette  Colli."  Twenty-four 
pieces  were  shipped  to  Naples  in  1787,  by  order  of  Carlo  Paniceri, 
agent  of  the  king;  the  others  were  removed  to  the  Palazzo  Far- 
nese about  1830.  In  May,  1834,  Count  Ludolf,  the  Neapolitan 
envoy,  asked  leave  of  Gregory  XVI.  for  the  removal  to  the  Museo 
Borbonico  of  this  last  remnant  from  the  Palatine.  The  govern- 
ment had  not  courage  to  refuse,  and  tried  to  throw  the  responsi- 
bility on  a  committee  of  experts.     The  commissioners  in  this  case 

THE    GARDEyS    OF   ADONfS  165 

gave  the  goveniiueiit  a  good  lesson.  Their  report,  signed  by  Carlo 
Fea,  the  veteran  defender  of  our  archaeological  patrimony,  contains 
these  words:  "Carlo  Fea  begs  to  be  excused  for  not  giving  his 
consent  to  the  removal,  because  these  marbles  are  essential  parts 
of  the  Imperial  palace,  and  must  be  left  where  they  belong  for 
the  use  of  archaeologists,  historians,  and  artists,  who  could  never 
understand  the  architecture  and  the  ornamentation  of  those  noble 
ruins  without  them.  We  must  not  renew  the  example  of  Absyrtus 
and  Orpheus,  whose  limbs  were  torn  to  pieces  and  scattered  far 
and  wide." 

A  last  observation  about  the  Palace  of  Domitian  and  the  Far- 
nese  gardens  in  general.  The  rubbish  or  newly  made  ground 
which  covers  the  ruins  is  not  entirely  local,  but  has  been  brought 
there  from  various  parts,  fi'om  the  foundations  of  the  Chiesa  del 
Gesii,  built  by  the  same  cardinal  (1.375)  and  by  the  same  archi- 
tect (Vignola),  from  those  of  the  Palazzo  Farnese,  etc.  Under 
the  rule  of  the  Frencli  invaders,  1809-14,  the  earth  from  the  ex- 
cavations of  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Kome  was  deposited  in  the 
strip  of  land  between  the  Xova  Via  and  the  Palace  of  Caligula. 

REFERE^•CES.  —  Francesco  Bianthini,  //  palazzo  dei  Cesari,  Veroua,  1738, 
chap.  V.  p.  48.  — Wilhelm  Henzen,  Ann.  Inst.,  1862,  p.  225;  1865,  p.  346.— 
Friedlaencler,  Jfaurs  Romaints,  vol.  i.  p.  156.  —  Wilhelm  Froehner,  V IlluMm- 
tion,  1867,  p.  152. 

XX.  The  Gardens  of  Adonis  (Ilorti  Adonfea  —  Vigna  Bar- 
berini).  —  Domitian  added  to  the  comfort  and  luxury  of  the 
state  apartments  gardens  laid  out  in  Oriental  style,  and  called 
"  Horti  Adon.Ta."  ^  He  had  borrowed  the  idea  from  the  Assyrians, 
who  dedicated  such  places  to  Adonis,  as  the  representative  of  the 
Sun  and  the  promoter  of  vegetable  life.  Amongst  their  specialties 
were  the  ktjttoi  'ASwciSos,  large  pots  of  clay,  sometimes  of  brass  and 
silver,  in  which  fennel,  lettuce,  and  other  special  plants  were  sown 
on  the  approach  of  the  anniversary  feast  of  the  god.  The  Palatine 
gardens  are  represented  in  a  fragment  of  the  marble  plan,  Jordan's 
"  Forma,"  pi.  10,  n.  44,  reproduced  on  the  next  page  (Fig.  61). 

Where  were  the  horti  located?  The  answer  is  not  so  easily 
given  :  perhajis  they  were  laid  out  in  the  corner  of  the  hill  above 
the  Coliseum,  which  had  already  been  incorporated  in  the  Impe- 

1  Philostratus,  in  the  Life  of  ApoIIuniii.^  of  Tyana,  vii.  32,  mentions  not  gar- 
dens but  avKrtv  'ASaJct^os,  which  means  either  a  hall  or  a  villa:  m  the  first  case 
the  indication  of  Philostratus  might  be  referred  to  the  hall  designed  in  Fig.  61 
in  the  middle  of  the  gardens;  in  the  second  case  it  refers  to  the  gardens  them- 


rial  domain  by  Nero,  and  which  is  tlie  only  one  that  the  plan  fits. 
This  rectangnlar  space,  supported  by  great  substruction  walls,  is 
the  property  of  the  Barberini,  and  is  called  either  the  Vigna  di 
S.  Sebastiano  or  Vigna  dell'  Abbadia. 

A  visit  to  this  lovely  spot  is  necessary  to  complete  our  study 

Fig.  61.  —The  Horti  Adonaea,  a  Fragment  of  the  Marble  Plan  of  Rome. 

of  the  Palatine.  No  special  permission  is  required,  and  the  gate 
—  Via  di  S.  Bonaventura,  No.  3  —  is  usually  kept  open  ;  but  the 
gardener  has  acquired  the  habit  of  asking  exorbitant  fees.  It  is 
better  to  address  one's  self  to  the  keeper  of  the  Cappella  di  S.  Se- 
bastiano. on  the  left  of  the  entrance. 

The  topographers  of  the  Renaissance  have  given  this  Vigna 



Barberini  the  iiauip  of  Foro  A^ecchio,  derived  obviously  from  the 
Curi»  Veteres,  which  were  located  at  this  very  corner  of  the  hill. 
Lucio  Fauno  (Antichita,  p.  106)  says  "in  molti  istromenti  antichi 

(S.  Bonaventura) 

(Villa  Mattel -Mills) 

(Modern  Street) 



(Vigna    Barberini) 







Fig.  62.  —  Plan  of  the  Horti  Adona?a  (?),  according  to  Ligorio. 

di  notai  si  truova  questo  luogo  cognominato  alia  Curia  Vecchia."  ^ 

Ligorio  (Bodleian,  f.  55)  gives  the  plan  of  the  ruins  here  presented 

(Fig.  6'2),  stating  at  the  same  time  that  their  condition  was  such 

1  In  deeds  and  records  of  notaries  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries. 


that  he  could  not  vouch  for  the  exactness  of  his  survey.  Flavio 
Biondo  (Rom.  Inst.,  i.  76),  who  visited  the  place  at  the  time  of 
Eugenius  IV.  (1431-39),  speaks  of  it  as  one  of  the  best  preserved 
and  most  imposing  parts  of  the  Palatine :  "  Remarkable  ruins 
they  are,  with  marble  doors  in  the  circuit  of  the  walls,  finer  and 
more  perfect  than  any  others  to  be  found  in  Rome."  In  chap.  ix. 
part  i.  of  "  Fabiola,"  Cardinal  Wiseman  gives  a  charming  descrip- 
tion of  this  spot,  where  he  supposes  that  his  hero  Sebastian  was 
quartered ;  and  in  chap.  xxv.  part  iii.  desci'ibes  his  martyrdom  in 
the  "  court  of  the  palace  near  his  own  dwelling,  planted  with  rows 
of  trees  and  consecrated  to  Adonis,"  and  "  that  ancient  chapel 
which  stands  in  the  midst  of  the  ruined  Palatine,  to  mark  the  spot 
on  which  he  fell."  The  Acts  of  Sebastian  are  not  altogether  trust- 
worthy, having  been  written  in  the  fifth  century,  but  their  topo- 
graphical indications  are  genuine.  They  place  the  scene  of  the 
martyrdom  in  hippodromo  palatii;^  and  we  know  from  other 
sources  that  this  was  precisely  the  name  given  to  the  present 
Vigna  Barberini  from  the  fall  of  the  Empire  to  the  tenth  century, 
when  it  was  transferred  to  the  so-called  Stadium. 

In  the  appendix  to  the  "  Piante  di  Roma,"  the  late  Comm.  de 
Rossi  has  published  a  curious  description  of  the  Palatine,  written 
at  the  foot  of  a  map,  in  twelve  numbers,  corresponding  to  those 
marked  in  the  map  itself.  It  is  a  document  of  the  Byzantine 
period.  After  describing  the  atrium,  the  throne-room,  the  basilica, 
the  banqueting-hall,  etc.,  of  the  Palace  of  Domitian,  it  passes  to 
the  house  of  Augustus  (VII),  to  the  great  baths  of  the  Palace  of 
Severus  (VIII),  to  the  stadium  or  gymnasium  (IX),  to  an  un- 
known coquina  (X),  to  the  great  reservoir  of  the  Aqua  Claudia  at 
S.  Bonaventura  (XI)  ;  and  beyond  it,  viz.  at  the  corner  of  the  hill 
above  the  Meta  Sudans,  it  places  the  hippodromum. 

References.  —  Pirro  Ligorio,  Cod.  Bodl.,  f.  .55.  Cod.  Turin.,  xiv. — 
Francesco  Bianchini,  Palazzo  dei  Cesari,  p.  139,  sq.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Forma 
Urbis  Romce,  tab.  x.  n.  44,  p.  59.  —  Gaston  Boissier,  Promenades  archiol.,  p. 
132,  n.  1.     Melanges  de  V Ecole  frangaise,  avril  1893,  pp.  101-104. 

XXI.  The  pi'esence  of  a  memorial  to  Sebastian,  the  gallant 
officer  who  gave  his  life  for  his  faith,  in  the  very  gardens  (the 
hippodrome  of  later  days)  in  -which  church  traditions  place  the 
scene  of  his  execution,  proves  how  well  founded  is  the  tradition. 
The  chapel,  the  earliest  mention  of  which  dates  from  the  eleventh 
century,  was  restored  in  1636  by  Prince  Taddeo  Barberini.     We 

1  Bolland,  Acta  SS.,  u.,  Jan.,  p.  278.  —  Mabillon,  Mtis.  ital.,  ii.  pp.161, 
574. — Jordan,  Topographie,  ii.  384. 

THE    CHURCH   OF   S.    C.ESARIUS   IN  PAL  AT  10 


could  not  make  our  study  of  the  Palatine  complete  without  noti- 
cing the  three  ecclesiastical  buildings  which  made  this  cornel*  of 
the  hill  famous  in  the  Middle  Ages. 

A.  EccLESiA  S.  C.ESARii  IX  Palatio  (the  Imperial  Christian 
oratory  and  Christian  representative  of  the  classic  Lararium). — 
It  is  first  mentioned  in  the  time  of  Phocas  (603),  but  it  may  be 
older.  The  titular  saint  is  believed  to  be  Caesarius,  an  African 
deacon,  who  suffered  martyrdom  at  Terracina;  but  it  is  evident 
that,  whoever  he  may  be,  his  name  was  selected  to  suit  the  place 
to  which  the  chapel  belonged.  Such  coincidences,  which  almost 
amount  to  jeu  tie  mots,  are  by  no  means  fortuitous.  The  remains 
of  the  villa  near  Velitrae,  where  Augustus  passed  his  youth, 
are  actually  called  S.  Cesario.^     The  images  of  the  Byzantine 

Fig.  63.  —The  Church  of  S.  Caesarius  in  Paliitio. 

Emperors  were  exhibited  in  this  chapel,  as  a  mark  of  the  power 
they  still  claimed  over  the  ancient  capital  of  the  Empire ;  and 
their  keeping  was  intrusted  to  Greek  monks  ordinis  saccitarum, 
a  name  perhaps  derived  from  the  ample  fi'ocks  they  wore.  Saint 
Saba  junior,  sent  on  a  diplomatic  mission  from  Amalfi  to  Otho 

1  The  following  distich  was  engraved  on  the  door  of  the  church  of  S. 
Martina,  huilt  on  the  site  of  the  Martisforuin  (Marforio):  Martyrii  gtstans 
cirgo  Martina  coronam,  Eiectv  hiiic  Martis  numine  templet  tenes. 


III.  in  989-991,  died  while  a  guest  of  these  monks,  and  his  funeral 
was  attended  by  Otho's  Empress  Theophania.  "  The  monks,"  says 
Anselmus  of  Avelbury,  "  use  the  fermented  bread  for  the  Holy 
Communion,  instead  of  the  azym,  without  the  pope  or  the  Roman 
Catholics  taking  offense  at  it."  The  last  mention  of  8.  Cesario 
occurs  in  the  fourteenth  century,  when  there  was  but  one  offici- 
ating priest  left. 

The  site  of  this  historical  sanctuary,  seen  and  described  only 
iive  centuries  ago,  is  not  known  to  us ;  but  1  am  inclined  to  place 
it  among  the  remains  of  the  so-called  baths  of  Heliogabalus  on 
the  Sacra  Via,  represented  in  the  cut  above. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  object  of  this  edifice  in  classic 
times  (third  century  after  Christ),  there  is  no  doubt  that  it 
was  transformed  into  a  church  at  the  end  of  the  fifth  century. 
At  the  time  of  its  discovery  in  1872  many  particulars  could  be 
traced  which  have  now  disappeared :  patches  of  Byzantine  mosaic 
in  the  floor,  traces  of  inscriptions  and  paintings,  not  to  speak  of 
the  secretarium  and  of  the  baptistery.  The  apse  and  the  presby- 
terium  are  still  discernible,  as  well  as  many  rooms  and  cells  suited 
for  the  abode  of  monks.  No  name  has  yet  been  given  to  this 
church  :  that  of  S.  Csesarius  in  Palatio  seems  the  most  appropriate, 
especially  if  we  consider  how  close  it  is  to  the  Tui-ris  Chartularia, 
the  great  mediaeval  stronghold  of  the  popes. 

B,      MONASTERIUM      QUOD      PALLADIUM     DICITUR     (cliapcl     and 

monastery,  variously  called,  of  S.  Maria  in  Pallara;  of  SS.  Sebas- 
tiano  and  Zotico ;  of  S.  Sebastiano  alia  Polveriera ;  of  S.  Andrea 
in  Palladio,  etc.).  —  The  first  mention  occurs  in  documents  of  the 
year  1001,^  but  it  may  belong  to  the  Constantinian  era,  that  is  to 
say,  to  the  group  of  memorials  raised  under  that  Enq^eror  to  the 
heroes  and  heroines  of  the  last  persecution  of  Diocletian. 

The  monastery  was  fortified,  or,  to  speak  more  exactly,  was 
included  in  the  Palatine  fortifications  of  the  Frangipani.  In 
describing  the  election  of  Pope  Gelasius  II.  (1118),  the  "Liber 
pontificalis"  (ed.  Duchesne,  vol.  ii.  p.  313)  calls  it  locum  iutissimum 
infra  domos  Leonis  el  Cencii  Frniapane.^  Later  on  it  became 
the  official  residence  in  Rome  of  the  abbots  of  Monte  Cassino. 
Under  Urban  V.  (1362-70)  we  find  it  intrusted  to  the  care  of  a 
single  clergyman,  Angelo  Riccardelli.  The  ruins  of  the  church, 
on  the  walls  of  which  the  history  of  the  martyrdom  of  S.  Zoticus 

1  Pertz,  Monumenta  Germanice  historica,  vol.  iv.  p.  7G8. 

2  Ceiicio  Frangipane  is  the  same  to  whom  the  monks  of  S.  Gregory  leased 
the  Septizonium  and  the  tower  of  the  Circus  Maximus  in  1145. 

THE    MONASTERY    OF   S.  MARIA    IN   PALLARA        171 

was  painted,  are  described  by  Baronio.  At  tlie  time  of  Urban 
VIII.  the  building  was  entirely  profaned  and  turned  into  a  farm- 
house. Michele  Lonigo  saw  on  the  spandrils  of  the  front  of  the 
tribune  two  remarkable  figures  :  one  representing  a  certain  Petrus 
illustris  medicus,  a  mediaeval  restorer  of  the  church,  offering  a 
model  of  it  to  S.  Sebastian ;  the  other  his  wife  Giovanna  offering 
other  gifts  to  S.  Zoticus. 

Pope  Barberini  and  his  nephew  Taddeo  restored  the  chapel 
in  1636,  destroying  at  the  same  time  all  traces  of  the  frescoes, 
except  those  of  the  apse.  They  had  been  copied,  however,  in 
1630  by  Antonio  Ecclissi;  but  he  failed  to  catch  the  spirit  and 
the  meaning  of  the  subjects,  as  we  can  ourselves  judge  from  the 
facsimiles  which  are  now  exhibited  in  the  chapel. 

The  frescoes  of  the  apse  represent  the  Saviour  between  SS.  Law- 
rence, Stephen,  Sebastian,  and  Zoticus,  the  last  two  wearing  the 
costume  of  the  court  officers  of  the  fifth  century.  There  is  a 
lower  belt  of  figures  painted  in  the  eleventh  century  at  the  expense 
of  the  monk  Benedictus. 

The  two  columns  of  breccia  corallina  on  the  altar  were  probably 
removed  from  the  upper  cloisters  of  the  house  of  the  Vestals.  The 
halaustri  in  front  of  it  are  cut  in  the  rarest  kind  of  lumachella. 

The  monastery  had  its  own  cemetery,  where  burial  was  carried 
on  in  the  Roman  fashion,  the  corpses  being  protected  by  a  double 
row  of  tiles  placed  in  a  slanting  position.  The  cemetery  was  dis- 
covered on  May  24,  1879. 

C.  The  Turris  Chartularia  (the  centre  of  the  fortifications 
of  the  Frangipani,  in  which  the  archives  of  the  church  were  kept 
for  a  long  time).  — The  foundations,  built  of  chips  of  marble,  si- 
lex,  and  travertine,  rest  on  an  ancient  bed  of  concrete,  and  are 
flanked  by  huge  blocks  of  peperino,  belonging  to  the  temple  of 
Jupiter  Stator.  (See  Book  Til.  §  viii.)  The  date  of  its  construc- 
tion is  not  known.  In  1167  Pope  Alexander  III.,  persecuted  liy 
the  partisans  of  Barbarossa,  found  shelter  in  it.  The  name  of 
Chartularia  is  derived,  according  to  Marini,  from  a  manufacture 
of  papyrus-paper ;  according  to  Cancellieri  from  the  archives 
which  it  contained.  The  cut  (Fig.  64)  shows  the  state  of  the 
tower  in  the  sixteenth  century,  to  which  it  had  been  reduced  by 
Brancaleone  in  1257.  Valadier  destroyed  the  rest  in  1829.  A 
detailed  account  of  it  is  given  by  Nibby,  "  Roma  Antica,"  vol.  ii. 
p.  471. 

References.  —  Louis  Duchesne,  Bulletin  critique,  1885,  p.  417.  —  Gio.  Bat- 
tista  de  Rossi,  Bullet,  crist.,  1867,  p.  15  ;  and  Notizie  Scavi,  December,  1883.  — 


Enrico  Stevenson,  //  cimitero  di  Zutico,  Modena,  1871,  p.  71  ;  and  Bull.  arch, 
com.,  1888,  p.  295.  —  Mariano  Avmellini,  Chiese  di  Roma,  '2d  ed.,  pp.  517,  524. 
—  Heinricli  Jordan,  Topogi-aphie,  vol.  ii.  p.  609.  —  Pasquale  Adinolfi,  Roma 
neW  eta  di  mezzo,  vol.  i.  pp.  392-397. 


Fig.  64.  —  The  Torre  Cartularla  in  tlie  Sixteeiitli  Century. 

XXIT.  The  so-called  Stadium  (Xystus).  —  The  name  of 
Stadium  has  been  given  to  the  circus-like  ediiice,  160  metres  long 
and  47  wide,  which  sejmrates  the  house  of  Augustus  from  the  Baths 
of  Septimius  Severus.  The  giving  of  this  name  seemed  justified 
first  by  the  oblong  shape  of  the  place,  with  a  sliglitly  cui-ved  end  ; 
secondly,  by  the  measure  of  160  metres,  which  comes  very  near 
that  of  a  stadium  (177.40)  ;  thirdly,  by  the  two  fountains  which 
occupy  the  place  of  the  goals.  Professor  Marx,  on  the  other  side, 
thinks  the  name  to  be  wrong,  and  that  the  place  was  a  garden,  a 
xystus  with  a  gestatio,  etc.,  attached  to  the  house  of  Augustus. 
The  question  is  too  technical  and  minute  to  be  treated  in  these 
pages.  One  theory  does  not  absolutely  exclude  the  other.  For 
the  sake  of  clearness  1  shall  follow  the  old  denomination,  without 
taking  any  responsibility  for  it. 


The  foundation  of  the  Stadium  is  attributed  to  Doniitian  while 
rebuilding  the  Donius  Augustana.  The  style  of  the  brickwork  is 
the  same  in  both,  and  so  are  some  of  the  brick  stamps  from  the 
kilns  of  T.  Flavins  Clonius  and  T.  Flavius  Hermes,  freedmen  of 
the  Emperor.  By  a  close  examination  of  the  structure  in  its 
present  state  we  can  reconstruct  its  history  from  the  time  of  Do- 
mitian  (if  not  of  Augustus)  to  that  of  Theodoric.  Originally  it 
was  nothing  but  a  level  space  of  ground,  perhaps  laid  out  in  grass 
and  flower-beds,  inclosed  by  a  wall  slightly  curved  at  the  western 
end.  There  was  no  portico,  no  seats,  no  steps,  nothing  character- 
istic of  a  place  of  public  meeting.  Hadrian  probably  built  the 
two-storied  portico,  as  shown  by  the  style  of  masonry  and  by  the 
brick-stamps  of  the  years  123-134:,  found  in  great  numbers  in  the 
excavations  of  1871  and  1893.  Septimius  Severus  improved  the 
aspect  of  the  Stadium  by  the  addition  of  an  Imperial  tribune  or 
hejtedra.  The  lower  arcades  of  the  portico  rest  on  half  columns 
coated  with  slabs  of  portasanta,  the  bases  of  which  are  hollow, 
and  fit  into  the  masonry  like  half-rings.  One  of  tlie  capitals  dis- 
covered in  1868  by  Yisconti  is  cut  out  of  a  block  quarried  a.  d. 
195  under  the  consulship  of  Scapula  Tertullus  and  Tineius  Cle- 
mens. The  portico,  thei-efore,  was  included  by  Septimius  Severus 
in  his  general  reconstruction  and  embellishment  of  the  place.  A 
prefect  of  the  city  of  the  fourth  century  made  other  restorations, 
if  we  may  believe  the  words  of  a  fragmentary  inscription  discov- 
ered in  1878.  Last  of  all.  King  Theodoric  tried  to  stop  the  ruin 
and  the  fall  of  this  part  of  the  Imperial  buildings.  His  name  has 
been  read  many  times  on  bricks  discovered  by  Visconti  in  1868 
and  by  myself  in  1877.  Theodoric  seems  to  have  propped  with 
buttresses  the  walls  which  threatened  to  collapse,  and  to  have 
also  transformed  the  plan  and  the  destination  of  the  building. 
The  arena,  once  used  for  athletic  s^jorts  or  for  flower-beds,  was  then 
occupied  by  a  large  oval  basin,  which  we  would  call  a  swimming- 
bath  were  it  not  for  the  absence  of  a  water-tight  floor ;  probably 
it  was  meant  for  a  small  amphitheatre.  It  is  highly  interesting 
to  the  student  of  the  decline  and  fall  of  Imperial  Rome  to  ex- 
amine the  work  of  Theodoric  in  its  details.  First  of  all,  when 
the  basin  was  built,  the  floor  of  the  Xystus  was  already  covered 
with  a  bed  of  rvibbish  from  two  to  three  feet  thick,  as  we  can 
certify  by  comparing  the  level  of  the  original  marble  pavement 
with  that  of  the  foundations  of  the  oval.  These  foundations  are 
built  of  chips  and  blocks  of  porphyry,  serpentine,  giallo  antico, 
and,  above  all,  of  pieces  of  cipoUino  columns,  belonging  to  the 


second  floor  of  the  portico.  The  Stadium  therefore  must  have 
been  half  ruined  iu  Tlieodoric's  age,  probably  in  consequence  of 
the  earthquake  mentioned  in  the.  contemporary  inscriptions  of 
the  Coliseum.!  Another  circumstance  deserving  notice  is  that 
on  either  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  ring  there  are  two  marble 
pedestals  removed  from  the  house  of  the  Vestals,  and  inscribed 
with  the  name  of  Coelia  Claudiana,  virgo  vestalis  maxima.  In 
adapting  them  to  their  new  object,  Theodoric's  masons  did  not 
even  take  time  and  care  to  erase  the  name  of  the  illustrious 

Nothing  is  known  of  the  fate  of  the  building  in  the  Middle 
Ages.  The  document  of  the  eightli  century  produced  by  De  Rossi 
(Piante  di  Roma,  p.  127),  of  which  mention  has  been  made 
above,  describes  it  as  a  gpnnasium,  viz.  locus  diver-sis  exercitationum 
yeneribus  deputatus.  In  the  tenth  or  eleventh  century  it  was  occu- 
pied by  a  colony  of  stone-cutters  and  lime-burners,  whose  sheds 
and  workshops  were  seen  and  described  in  the  excavations  of  1877. 
The  floor  around  the  sheds  was  covered  with  chips  and  fragments 
of  statues  and  architectural  marbles.  When  we  recollect  that 
there  were  on  each  tier  of  the  portico  eighty-six  columns,  and 
over  a  thousand  feet  of  richly  carved  marble  cornice,  and  marble 
roofs,  and  marble  parapets,  floors,  and  incrustations,  and  number- 
less statues  and  bas-reliefs,  of  which  hardly  a  trace  is  left,  the 
magnitiide  of  the  work  of  destruction  needs  no  comment.  There 
is  an  altar  left  standing  in  the  middle  of  the  arena,  which  they 
had  begun  to  hammer  and  split,  when,  for  a  reason  unknown  to 
us,  the  work  of  destruction  was  suddenly  given  up.  To  one 
object  only  they  seem  to  have  paid  respect,  namely,  the  beautiful 
statue  of  Juno,  discovered  March  3,  1878,  and  now  exhibited  in 
the  Museo  delle  Terme."  We  found  it  lying  on  two  supports 
(cuscini)  of  stone,  on  which  it  had  been  placed  so  carefully  that 
not  even  the  most  delicate  folds  of  the  peplum  had  suffered 
damage  from  the  operation.  The  photograph  of  this  masterpiece 
is  given  in  the  "  Notizie  "  for  1879,  pi.  1,  n.  2.  A  regular  search 
for  plunder  was  opened  in  15.52  by  Alessandro  Ronconi.  Julius  III. 
being  engaged  at  that  time  in  building  his  famous  Villa  Giulia, 
outside  the  Porta  del  Pojiolo,  a  campaign  was  opened  against  the 
antique  monuments  of  the  city  by  all  those  wishing  to  please  the 
pope,  or  to  make  money  by  dealing  with  him  in  marbles  for  the 
palace,  or  in  statues  and  inscriptions  for  the  ornamental  grounds 
by  which  it  was  surrounded.  The  tombs  of  the  Via  Flaminia  at 
1  Corpus  Inscr.,  vi.  1716,  a,  b. 



Torre  di  Quinto,  the  remains  of  the  gardens  of  Domitia  in  tlie 
Vigna  of  Bindo  Altoviti  (Prati  di  Castello),  the  Baths  of  the 
Aqus  Albula^  near  Tivoli,  the  Baths  of  Agrippa  behind  the  Pan- 
tlieon,  the  Villa  of  the  Acilii  on  the  Pincian,  the  ruins  of  Porto  and 

Fig.  G5.  —  Headless  Statue  of  a  Muse  discovered  in  the  so-called  Stadium. 

Ostia,  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  in  the  Villa  Colonna,  and  the 
stadium  of  the  Palatine  were  put  to  ransom.  Between  ]\Iay  and 
July,  1552,  Alessandi-o  Ronconi  sold  to  the  pope  columns  of  cipol- 


lino,  pedestals  and  bases,  and  even  the  gutter  of  white  marble 
which  carried  off  the  drippings  from  the  roof  of  the  portico. 

Francesco  Ronconi,  son  or  nephew  of  Alessandro,  was  more  suc- 
cessful in  his  excavations  of  1570.  Their  results  are  thus  de- 
scribed by  Flaminio  Vacca  (Mem.  77)  :  "  I  remember  the  finding 
in  the  Vigna  Ronconi  of  eighteen  or  twenty  mutilated  statues  of 
Amazons  (Danaids),  somewhat  larger  than  life-size.  In  the  same 
place,  and  exactly  under  the  wine-press,  which  Ronconi  was  re- 
pairing at  the  time,  the  Hercules  of  Lysippus  was  discovered." 
The  fate  of  the  Danaids  is  unknown,  except  that  in  the  account 
books  of  Cardinal  Ippolito  d'  Este  the  following  entry  has  been 
discovered  by  Professor  Venturi :  "  March  5, 1.570  :  To  expense  for 
statues,  seventy-five  scudi  to  Francesco  Ronconi  and  Leonardo 
Sormano  for  a  life-size  statue  of  an  Amazon." 

Pius  IX.  in  1868,  Commendatore  Rosa  in  1872,  and  the  Italian 
government  in  1877,  1878,  and  1893,  have  liberated  the  Stadium 
once  for  all  from  its  heavy  pall  of  ruins.  No  other  part  of  the 
Palatine  impresses  us  more  vividly.  There  is  no  break  in  the 
inclosure  wall,  nor  in  the  colonnade  of  the  lower  portico,  although 
many  of  the  shafts  are  only  a  few  feet  high  :  the  remains  of  the 
Imperial  hexedra  tower  at  tlie  height  of  120  feet.  The  east  end 
of  the  portico  is  especially  well  preserved  and  so  are  the  meta? 
in  the  shape  of  fountains,  and  some  of  the  monuments  which 
mark  the  middle  line  of  the  arena. 

The  hexedra  deserves  a  few  words  of  description.  There  is  a 
ground  floor,  level  with  the  arena,  with  a  middle  hall  of  good  size, 
and  a  smaller  room  on  each  side  of  it.  The  pavement,  the  marble 
incrustations,  and  the  paintings  of  the  hall  have  been  destroyed, 
with  the  exception  of  the  frescoes  in  the  lunette  of  the  vault. 
They  would  hardly  be  noticeable,  owing  to  their  bad  style  and 
imperfect  preservation,  were  it  not  for  a  rare  and  perhaps  unique 
representation  of  a  terrestrial  globe  fixed  to  the  circle  of  the  hori- 
zon, which  rests  on  three  pegs.  This  globe  shows  how  wide-spread 
in  Roman  schools  was  the  theory,  known  and  supported  since  the 
time  of  Aristotle,  that  the  earth  was  a  sphere. 

This  hall  formed  part  of  the  castle  of  the  Frangipani,  facing 
the  monastery  of  SS.  Andrea  e  Gregorio  in  Clivoscauri.  In  the  ex- 
cavations of  1871  some  thirty  skeletons  of  men  who  seem  to  have 
perished  in  their  youth  were  found  at  the  foot  of  the  wall  on  the 
right ;  some  of  the  skulls  bore  marks  of  blows  and  cuts  from 
battle-axes  or  swords.  We  thought,  while  gazing  at  these  remains, 
that,  during  one  of  the  bloody  contests  which  every  now  and  then 



marked  the  election  of  a  pontiff,  these  young  warriors  had  lost 
their  lives  in  the  defense  of  the  stronghold  of  the  Septizoniuni, 
and  had  been  buried  in  haste  under  the  Imperial  tribune.  The 
vaulted  ceiling  of  the  hall  must  have  been  intact  at  that  time, 
because  the  skeletons  were  found  covered  by  great  masses  of 

The  small  room  on  the  right  was  never  finished  and  its  floor 
never  paved ;  the  other  one,  on  the  contrary,  is  nicely  painted  and 

Fig.  66. 

-  Female  head  of  Greek  workmanship  discovered  in  the  so-called 

has  a  mosaic  floor  with  festoons  and  birds  in  black  and  white. 
There  are  graflati  on  the  plaster  to  the  left  of  the  entrance,  among 
which  is  a  roll  of  names  followed  by  a  cipher.  The  names  may  be 
of  athletes  or  sportsmen,  and  the  figures  may  refer  to  their  con- 
tests or  to  the  victories  won. 


The  Imperial  box  occupied  the  whole  hemicycle  on  the  upper 
floor.  A  colonnade  of  syenite  granite  decorated  its  front,  another 
of  pavonazzetto  the  curve  of  the  apse.  Shafts,  capitals,  bases,  and 
fragments  of  the  entablature  cover  the  floor  in  front  of  it.  It  is 
probable  that  the  Hercules  of  Lysippus  discovered  by  Ronconi  in 
1570,  and  bought  by  Cosimo  III.  for  the  Pitti  Palace,  belonged  to 
one  of  the  eleven  niches  of  the  hexedi-a. 

This  statue  is  the  only  one  pertaining  to  the  Stadium  which  has 
been  taken  away  from  Rome.  I  have  already  spoken  of  the  fate 
of  the  Danaids  discovered  by  the  same  Ronconi.  The  Muse  found 
by  Visconti  in  1868  and  the  Juno  of  1878  are  exhibited  on  the  west 
side  of  the  quadrangle  in  the  Museo  delle  Terme.  In  the  exca- 
vations of  1893  several  remarkable  works  of  art  came  to  light, 
namely,  a  headless  statue  of  another  Muse  (Mai'ch  29),  which  has 
been  left  on  the  sf)ot,  at  the  east  end  of  the  north  portico  ;  a  bust 
of  Antoninus  Pius;  a  torso  of  a  Faun;  and  a  superb  female  head 
of  pure  Greek  workmanship,  of  which  I  give  a  reproduction  (Fig. 
(36).  It  is  the  work  of  a  great  master  of  the  fifth  century  b.  c, 
and  may  belong  to  one  of  the  Muses  by  which  the  image  of  Apollo 
C'itharoedus  was  surrounded  in  the  neighboring  temple.  These 
marbles  are  preserved  in  the  Museo  delle  Terme. 

Rej'eren.ces.  —  Carlo  Liidov.  Visconti,  Di  un  nuovo  graffito  palatlno  (in 
Giorn.  arcad.,  vol.  Ixii.).  —  Visconti  and  \^s.\\c\a,m,  Guida  del  Palatino,  p.  87. — 
Pietro  Rosa,  Relazione  sulle  scoperte  archeologiche,  p.  78,  Rome,  1873.  —  Fabio 
Gori,  Archivio  Stoi'ico,  vol.  ii.  p.  374.  —  Henry  Deglane,  Gazette  archeologique, 
1888,  p.  216  ;  and  Melanges  Ecole  /rang,  d'e  Rome,  ix.  1889,  pp.  184-229.  — 
Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1878,  p.  66  ;  1879,  tav.  i.  n.  2  ;  1893,  pp.  31,  70,  117,  162  ; 
1894,  p.  94. — Josepli  Sturm,  Das  kaiserliche  Stadium,  Wiirzlnirg,  1888. — 
Monumenti  antichi pubblicati  per  cura  della  r.  Accademia  dei  Lincei,  vol.  v., 
189.5,  p.  17.  —  Friedrich  Marx,  Das  sogennante  Stadium  (in  Jahrbuch  des  deut- 
schen  Instituts,  1895,  p.  129).  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Mittheil:,  1894,  p.  16.— 
Christian  Huelsen,  Ibid.,  1895,  p.  276. 

XXIII.  The  Palace  of  Septimius  Severus  (sedes  Severi- 
anre).  —  Between  the  two  summits  of  the  Palatine,  the  Cermalus 
and  the  Palatium,  there  is  a  marked  difference  in  shape.  The  first 
was,  and  is  still  for  the  most  part,  surrounded  by  cliffs  which  made 
it  inaccessible ;  the  second  slopes  down  more  gently  towards  the 
Ciselian  and  the  Piscina  Publica ;  and  while  the  Imperial  buildings 
stop  with  the  edge  of  the  precipice  on  one  side,  they  descend  to 
the  bottom  of  the  slope  and  to  the  level  of  the  valley  on  the  other. 
Immense  substructures  were  raised  here  by  Septimius  Severus  and 
Caracalla  to  reach  the  average  level  of  the  other  palaces,  as  shown 
by  the  following  engraving  from  a  photograpli,  taken  from  the 



Aventine.  The  letters  AA'  mark  the  level  of  the  platform  ;  B  marks 
the  remains  of  the  Palace  of  Severus,  built  on  the  platform  ;  C, 
the  curved  end  of  the  Stadium ;  D,  the  remains  of  the  palace  of 


No  other  section  of  the  Palatine  has  sutt'ered  as  much  as  this  one 
from  the  action  of  time  and  from  the  hand  of  man.  By  measure- 
ments on  the  spot,  compared  with  descriptions  and  documents  left 
by  those  who  saw  the  ruins  in  a  better  state,  I  have  ascertained  that 
the  ^des  Severianse  must  have  covered  an  area  of  '24,500  square 
metres,  and  must  have  reached  the  height  of  fifty  metres  above  the 
pavement  of  the  streets  which  inclosed  them  on  two  sides.  This 
gives  a  volume  of  one  million  and  a  quarter  cubic  metres,  a  perfect 
mountain  of  masonry,  of  which  only  a  few  traces  are  left  standing 
to  tell  the  tale.  The  edge  of  the  substructures,  marked  A'  in  the 
illustration,  is  celebrated  for  its  fine  view,  which  extends  over 
hills  and  dales  as  far  as  the  coast  of  Ostia  and  Laurentum.  (See 
Ancient  Rome,  chap.  v.  p.  126.)  In  gazing  at  it  from  his  lofty 
point  of  vantage  the  reader  must  remember  that  he  is  only  level 
with  the  ground  floor  of  the  palace,  which  rose  from  twenty-five  to 
thirty  metres  above  his  head.  The  ruins  were  granted  in  975 
to  the  monks  of  S.  Gregorio  by  Stephen  of  Hildebrand,  then  ruler 
of  Rome.  We  gather  from  the  act  of  donation  that  there  were 
at  that  time  thirty-eight  arches  still  standing  on  the  side  of  the 
Circus,  which  were  pojiularly  called  the  -'  Porticus  Materiani ; " 
others  were  visible  in  the  adjoining  property  of  John  de  Papa  de 
Septem  Viis.  Above  this  line  of  crypts  and  arcades  there  was  a 
strip  of  cultivated  land,  and  still  higher  up  the  bathing  apart- 
ments of  the  palace  (wit  dicilur  balneum  imperatoris). 

On  March  18,  1145,  the  rviins,  or  at  least  the  portion  of  them 
between  the  stronghold  of  the  Seiitizoniura  and  the  tower  which 
had  been  raised  over  the  triumphal  Arch  of  Titus  at  the  entrance 
to  the  Circus  Maximus,  were  leased  to  Cencio  Frangipane.  A 
century  later  the  monks  thought  it  best  suited  to  their  interests 
to  break  up  the  property  and  lease  the  crypts  and  arcades  one  by 
one.  Between  1215  and  1218  twenty-one  were  rented  individually 
for  various  purposes,  which  in  progress  of  time  were  reduced  to 
one,  for  a  hay-loft  (ad  retinendum  fenuiii)  !  One  of  the  conditions^ 
in  these  contracts  obliged  the  tenant  to  paint  the  coat-of-arms  of 
S.  Gi'egory  above  the  gate  of  the  crypt,  and  keep  it  fresh  and 
bright.  The  abuse  was  suppressed  in  1862  after  the  terrific  fire 
which  consumed  in  one  night  thousands  of  bales  of  hay,  and 
threatened  to  destroy  the  whole  mass  of  buildings. 

This  corner  of  the  Palatine  is  connected  with  two  well-known 
names,  that  of  Tommaso  Inghirami  da  Volterra,  surnamed  Fedra, 
a  famous  poet,  orator,  and  scholar  of  the  sixteenth  century,  and 
that  of  Marcello  Venusti,  a  painter  and  a  pupil  of  Michelangelo, 


like  Sebastiano  del  Piombo  aud  Daniele  da  Volterra.  The  first 
owned  the  part  of  the  palace  called  balneum  imperatoris, 
which  he  sold  to  Marcello  Crescenzi,  auditor  of  Clement  VII., 
on  January  22,  1533 ;  the  second  owned  the  vigna  (marked  "  dei 
Benfratelli "  in  the  plan  facing  p.  107),  which  he  had  bought  on 
April  24,  1560,  from  Concordia  Maccarani,  widow  of  Francesco 

The  only  work  of  art  found  —  as  far  as  I  know  —  among  these 
ruins  is  a  torso  of  Minerva  with  the  aegis  dotted  with  stars. 
Paolo  Biondi  discovered  it  by  accident  on  June  5,  1823,  and  it 
was  removed  soon  after  to  the  Museo  Yaticano.  I  may  mention 
also  a  precious  gold  fibula,  a  piece  of  Byzantine  work  of  the  sixth 
century,  discovered  by  Mr.  Bliss  at  the  top  of  the  stairs  leading 
from  the  Stadium  to  the  hexedra.  It  is  now  exhibited  in  one  of 
the  ground  rooms  of  the  Museo  delle  Terme,  together  with  the 
"  tesoro  "  of  Castel  Trosino.^ 

XXIV.  The  Septizonium. —  Few  remains  of  the  Imperial 
palace,  or  indeed  of  the  whole  city,  are  as  widely  known  as  the 
Septizonium,  and  yet  archaeologists  are  still  discussing  what  the 
name  means  and  what  was  the  real  nature  of  the  edifice.  Vis- 
conti  (Guida  del  Palatino,  pp.  4!)  and  93)  thinks  that  "  Septizo- 
nium "  was  the  name  of  the  front  of  the  Palace  of  Severus  facing 
the  south,  which  was  ornamented  with  seven  rows  (septem  zonce) 
of  columns,  symbolizing  the  seven  bands  or  atmospheres  of  hea- 
ven.^  He  supports  the  theory  by  two  arguments :  first,  that  the 
hebdomadal  cycle  in  honor  of  the  seven  planets  came  into  fashion 
and  practical  use  about  the  time  of  Septimius  Severus ;  second, 
that  even  in  the  Middle  Ages  the  Septizonium  was  connected  with 
the  sun  and  the  moon.  Jordan  and  others,  on  the  other  hand, 
deny  that  there  were  seven  tiers  of  columns :  they  fix  the  maxi- 
mum at  three,  which  is  the  number  represented  in  the  earliest 
designs  of  this  noble  ruin.  Now  as  the  word  septifolium  indicates 
a  plant  with  seven  leaves,  and  the  word  septimontium  indicates  a 
group  of  seven  hills,  so  the  word  septizonium  must  indicate,  in  the 
present  case,  an  edifice  with  seven  bands  or  horizontal  lines ;  in 
other  words,  with  seven  entablatures  supjiorted  by  rows  of  columns 
one  above  the  other.  It  is  also  possible  that  the  rows  were  only 
six,  if  we  reckon  among  the  horizontal  bands  the  basement  and 

1  Referexck.  —  Benedetto  Mittarelli,  Ann.  Camaldul.  (Mittheilungen, 
1894,  vol.  ix.  p.  4). 

-  Rawlinson,  The  Five  Great  Monarchies,  vol.  ii.  pp.  269,  547. 


the  stejis  of  the  structure.  Visconti  also  remarks  that  we  actually 
have  a  bona  fide  septizonium  in  the  Campanile  of  Pisa,  the  tiers 
of  which  were  only  seven  in  the  original  design  of  Wilhelm  and 
Bonanno.  The  eighth  was  added  about  a  century  later.  We  must 
remember  in  the  last  case  that  the  three  rows  of  columns,  of 
which  the  Septizonium  was  composed,  reach  only  the  height  of 
25.64  metres  above  the  level  of  the  Via  Triuniphalis.  The  existing 
remains  of  the  Palace  of  Severus  are  at  least  55  metres  high  ;  thei-e- 

Fig.  68.  —  Tlie  Remains  of  the  ^des  Severianse  and  of  the  Septizonium,  from  a  Sketch 
by  du  Cerceau. 

fore  if  the  Septizonium  was  built,  as  we  believe,  to  screen  the  con- 
fused mass  of  structures  behind,  and  to  serve  as  a  monumental 
facade  to  the  Palace  of  Severus,  it  must  have  been  higher  than 
we  supposed.  This  condition  of  things  appears  evident  in  the 
above  sketch  by  Jacques  Androuet  du  Cerceau,  which  I  borrowed 
from  his  volume  of  1560,  marked  E,  f/,  26  in  the  Cabinet  des 
Estampes,  Paris. 

As  we  have  seen  above  (pp.  178,  179),  the  line  AA'  marks  the 
top  of  the  substructures  and  the  beginning  of  the  palace.     Sup- 


posing  the  Septizonium  to  have  been  only  three  stories  high,  it 
would  hardly  have  masked  even  the  substructures. 

The  Septizonium  was  already  in  a  ruinous  condition  at  the  end 
of  the  eighth  centiu-y.  The  inscrij^tion  engraved  in  the  frieze  of 
the  lower  colonnade  numbered  280  letters,  of  which  118  were 
copied  by  the  so-called  Einsiedlensis  on  the  extreme  left,  towards 
the  Circus  Maximus ;  45  by  the  anonymous  Barberinianus  (Cod. 
XXX.  25)  on  the  extreme  right,  towards  the  Arch  of  Coustantine. 
There  was  consequently  a  gap  of  117  letters  between  the  two  ends 
of  the  ruins,  which  were  respectively  called  '•  Septem  solia  niaior  " 
and  "  Septem  solia  minor."  The  total  length  of  the  building  being 
90  or  95  metres,  two  fifths  of  it  had  already  collapsed  in  the  eighth 
centiuy.  On  July  22,  975,  John,  abbot  of  S.  Gregory,  was  allowed 
to  destroy  the  minor  portion  ;  but  he  did  not  take  advantage  of 
the  perniission.  In  the  year  1084  Henry  IV.,  while  besieging  the 
fortress  of  Septem  Solia,  in  which  Rusticus,  nephew  of  Gregory 
Vn.,  had  sought  refuge,  caused  the  fall  of  many  columns  (quam- 
plurimus  columnas  subvertit).  In  1257  the  larger  portiofi  was 
desti'oyed  by  Senatore  Brancaleone.  The  last  remnants  disap- 
peared in  the  winter  of  1588-89  by  order  of  Sixtus  V.,  and  at  the 
hand  of  his  favorite  architect  Domenico  Fontana.  The  destruc- 
tion cost  the  pope  905  scudi,  but  he  recovered  more  than  his 
money's  worth  by  making  use  of  the  materials,  whether  blocks  of 
peperjno  and  travertino  or  columns  of  rare  marbles. 

Thh'ty-three  blocks  of  stone  were  vised  in  the  foundations  of  the 
pedestal  of  the  obelisk  in  the  Piazza  del  Popolo ;  104  of  marble 
in  the  restoration  of  the  column  of  Marcus  Am-elius,  including 
the  base  of  the  bronze  statue  of  S.  Paul ;  15  in  the  tomb  of  the 
pope  in  the  Cappella  del  Presepio  at  S.  Maria  Maggiore ;  and  an 
equal  number  in  that  of  Pius  V.  The  staircase  of  the  Casa  dei 
jNIendicanti,  or  workhouse,  by  the  Ponte  Sisto ;  the  washing- 
house,  or  lacalore,  in  the  baths  of  Diocletian ;  the  door  of  the 
Palazzo  della  Cancellaria ;  the  north  facade  of  the  Lateran  Palace, 
its  court  and  staircases ;  and  the  church  of  S.  Girolamo  degli 
Schiavoni,  had  all  theii"  share  of  the  spoils  of  the  Septizonium. 

Keferexces.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Bullettino  dell'  Instituto,  1872,  p.  145; 
and  Forma  Urbis  Romce,  pp.  37-41,  tab.  viii.  n.  -38.  —  Antonio  Bertolotti, 
Artisti  Lombardi,  vol.  i.  p.  87:  Libro  xix.  de!  cav.  Fontana  per  la  disfattura 
dolla  scola  di  Vergilio.  Milan,  Hoepli,  1881.  —  Christian  Huelsen,  Das  Sep- 
thoniu?n,  etc.:  xlvi.  Programm  ziim  Winckelmannsfeste  der  archaeologischen 
(Jesellscliaft  zu  Berlin.  188G.  —  Enrico  Stevenson,  II  settizonio  Severiano 
(Bullettino  comm.  arch.,  1888,  p.  269,  tav.  xiii.).  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  E 
Falazzo  Maggiore  (in  Mittheilungen,  vol.  ix.,  1894,  p.  4). 


XXV.  The  Water  Supply  and  Reservoirs  of  the  Palace. 

—  Nothing  is  known  of  the  water  supply  of  the  Palatine  before 
the  time  of  Domitian.  The  fact  that  Augustus  would  take  his 
siesta  in  summer  months  "  by  the  fountain  of  the  peristyle,"  proves 
that  his  house  was  well  provided  with  water  from  the  time  of  its 
first  construction.  After  doubling  the  extent  of  the  Imperial 
domain  on  the  hill,  Domitian  carried  a  powerful  siphon  from  the 
reservoir  of  the  Arcus  Ca?limontani  (Aqua  Claudia)  by  the  temple 
of  Claudius,  to  the  highest  point  of  the  hill  by  S.  Bonaventura. 
The  pressure  must  have  been  enormous,  as  the  siphon  crossed 
the  valley  between  the  two  hills  at  a  point  41  metres  (41.16)  be- 
low the  feeding  reservoir.  It  luust  have  reached  four  atmospheres. 
Remains  of  Domitian's  hydraulic  work  were  discovered  in  1658 
and  1742.  The  pipe,  made  of  solid  sheets  of  lead,  and  oval  in 
shape,  measured  about  a  foot  in  diameter,  and  could  carry  276 
unities  {oiicie)  of  water.  The  laying  of  the  siphon  had  been 
inti'usted  to  the  care  of  M.  Arrecinius  Clemens,  the  brother-in-law 
of  Titus  and  consul  a.  d.  73,  and  its  construction  to  a  plumber 
named  Postumius  Ameiimnus.  We  have  been  able  to  follow  the 
course  of  the  water  not  only  across  the  valley,  but  through  the 
various  sections  of  the  Imperial  palace.  The  pipe  supplying  the 
house  of  Augiistus  bore  the  inscription  dornvs  avgvstan.e  and 
the  name  of  Evhodas,  the  procurato?'  aquanun;  that  supplying 
the  house  of  Germanicus,  the  names  of  Eutychus,  procurator,  and 
Hymnus,  plumber ;  that  of  the  Stadium  the  names  of  Epagathus, 
procurator,  Martialis  and  Alexander,  plumbers,  and  so  forth. 

Domitian's  sijihon  is  thrown  into  the  shade  by  the  exploit  of 
Septimius  Severus.     After  rebuilding,  repairing,  and  connecting  in 

^.S.Bonaaentura  Via  di  s.\  Gregorio 





SS.Ciouannl  e 




one  mass  the  various  sections  of  the  palace,  damaged  by  the  fire 
of  Commodus;  after  raising  another  palace  of  his  own,  to  which 
the  Septizonium  served  as  a  fa9ade  ;  after  providing  the  Imperial 



residence  with  therms  of  great  size  and  magniticence,  he  carried 
the  channel  of  the  CLiudia  from  the  top  of  tiie  Ca?lian  to  the  top 
of  the  Palatine,  making  it  span  the  valley  at  a  prodigions  height. 
The  viaduct,  composed  of  four  lines  of  arcades,  measured  at  least 
425  metres  in  length  and  42  metres  in  height.  The  sketch  on  the 
opposite  page  represents  the  portion  above  the  modei-n  Via  di  S. 
Gregorio.  The  five  arches  on  the  left  on  the  road,  shaded  in  black, 
are  still  in  existence  ;  the  six  on  the  other  side  were  destroyed,  on 
November  14, 1596,  by  Caprizio  Cornovaglia  (Cornwall),  the  owner 
of  what  is  now'  called  "Orto  Botanico." 

The  water  was  stored  in  the  great  reservoir,  afterwards  turned 
into  a  refectory  for  the  monks  of  S.  Bonaventura.  Among  the 
discoveries  made  when  the  convent  was  built,  Bartoli  mentions  a 
spigot  of  Corinthian  brass  weighing  ninety  pounds. 

References. — Rodolfo  Lanciani,  /  rnmenliirii  di  Frontino,  etc.,  Koina, 
Salviucci,  1880,  pp.  211,  234.— Kiddlliiiu  Viiiuti,  Homa  antiai,  vol.  i.  p.  38. 

XXVI.  Twomore  ^v» ^,^n>^. ,.,.•,,„ .,,  „  .,i4p- 

edifices,  or  rather 
two  parts  of  the 
same  edifice,  remain 
to  be  examined  be- 
fore we  leave  the 
Palatine  :  the  P.*> 
DAGOGiuM  and  the 
DoMus  Gklotiaxa. 
The  Domus  Gelo- 

tiana  was  purchased 
and  embodied  in  the 
crown  property  by 
Caligula,  not  for 
want  of  additional 
space  and  accommo- 
dation, but  to  satisfy 
his  passion  for  the 
races  of  the  circus, 
and  his  aifection  for 
the  squadron  of  the 

greens,  /actio  prasi-  h.hS 

na,  in  whose  stables  -v  ^ .  i     ■    ^^        .  . 

(by   SS.    Lorenzo   e  ^^^  ^'-  ^^-^^^^^ 

Damaso)      he      used  Fig.  to.  -  Plau  of  the  Domus  Gelotiana. 

to  spend  days  and  nights  indulging  in  all  kinds  of  excesses. 



hoiuse  adjoined  the  Circus  and  the  Carceres,  where  the  riders  were 
massed  on  race  days,  so  that  it  was  easy  for  the  young  prince  to 
join  his  friends  without  leaving  the  Imperial  palace.  The  Domus 
Gelotiana  is  composed  of  two  parts  :  one  adjoining  the  Circus, 
which  is  still  in  private  hands,  and  is  entered  from  the  gate  No. 
45  Via  dei  Cerchi.  It  contains  the  vestibule,  the  atrium,  the  tab- 
linum,  and  the  triclinium.  The  inner  part,  which  is  Government 
property,  contains  many  smaller  apartments  opening  on  a  second 
courtyard  or  peristyle,  and  it  has  become  famous  for  the  graffiti 


Fig.  71.  — One  of  the  Walls  of  the  Paedagogium  with  Greek  and  Latin  GraflSti. 

which  cover  its  walls.  We  learn  from  them  that,  after  the  death 
of  Caligula,  the  Domus  Gelotiana,  or,  at  least,  this  inner  part  of  it, 
was  turned  into  a  training-school  for  court  pages,  under  the  name 
of  Psedagogium.  The  name  occurs  very  often  in  the  graffiti :  Co- 
rinthus  exit  de  pccdagogio  !  Marianus  Afer  exit  de  jxedagogio  !  as 
if  the  boys  wanted  to  chronicle  their  liberation  from  the  rod  of 
the  master  on  the  walls  which  had  long  imprisoned  them.  There 
was  another  amusing  allusion  to  the  hardships  of  school  life, 
composed  of  a  vignette  and  its  explanation.  The  vignette  repre- 
sented a  donkey  turning  the  mill,  and  the  legend  said,  Labora, 


aselle,  quomodo  ego  lahoravi  et  proderit  tihi.  "  Work,  work,  little 
donkey,  as  I  have  ^A'orked  myself,  and  thou  shalt  be  rewarded 
for  it."  This  graffito  was  destroyed  by  an  unscrupulous  tourist 
in  1886.  The  most  interesting  of  the  set  is  the  one  representing 
a  caricature  of  the  Crucifixion  of  our  Lord,  discovered  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  year  1857,  and  removed  soon  after  to  the  Kirche- 
rian  Museum  of  the  Collegio  Romano. 

The  front  part  of  the  house,  entered  by  the  Via  dei  Cerchi,  No. 
45,  was  partially  excavated  in  1888,  when  a  remarkable  set  of 
fresco  paintings  was  discovered  in  the  dining-liall,  marked  A  in 
Fig.  70. 

The  figures,  varying  in  height  from  1.60  metres  to  1.80,  rep- 
resent butlers  and  waiters  in  the  act  of  leading  the  guests  to  the 
banqueting  table.  The  tricliniarch  with  a  rod  in  his  hand  stands 
by  the  entrance  door,  whilst  other  men  are  carrying  napkins, 
wreaths,  silver  plate,  etc.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  such  an  inter- 
esting place  should  not  be  accessible  to  the  public,  and  that  the 
front  and  back  sections  of  this  historical  house  shovdd  not  be  ex- 
cavated at  one  and  the  same  time.  The  discovery  of  the  triclinium 
has  been  illustrated  by  Marchetti  in  the  "  Xotizie  degli  Scavi," 
1892,  p.  44 ;  and  by  Hiielsen  in  "  Mittheilungen,"  1894,  p.  289. 

Literature  on  the  graffiti  of  the  Pa?dagogiiim.  —  Raffaele  Garrucci,  // 
crocifisso  graffito  nella  casa  dei  Cet'dri.  Rome,  1857;  and  GraJ/iti  di  I'oinpei, 
p.  97,  plates  30,  31.  —  Ferd.  Becker,  Das  sjjott crucifix  d.  roin.  Kaiserj)al<i.<le. 
Breslau,  1866.  —  Franz  Xaver  Kraus,  Das  sjwttci-ucijix  iwin  Palatin.  Freiburg 
im  Breisgau,  1872.  —  G.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Btdl.  Inst,  1857,  p.  275;  Btdl.  crist., 
18G3,  p.  72;  1867,  p.  75.  —  C  Ludovico  Visconti,  Di  un  nitovo  graffito palati no 
(in  Giornale  areadico,  vol.  Ixii.);  and  SuUa  interpretazione  deUa  sigle.  V.  D. 
N.  dei  graffiti  2^alntini.  Rome,  1868.  —  Visconti  and  Lanciani,  Guida  del 
Pahitino,  p.'lS.  —  Fabio  Gori,  in  Giornale  arcndico,  vol.  lii.  p.  45.  —  Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Ancient  Rome,  p.  119.  — Liiigi  Correra,  Graffiti  di  lioma  (in  Bull, 
com.,  1893,  p.  245;  1894,  p.  89). 


A    WALK     THROUGH     THE     SACRA     VIA     FROM    THE     COLISEUM     TO 

I.  The  Sacra  Via.  —  The  line  and  direction  of  the  Sacra  Via 
in  Imperial  times  is  no  longer  a  matter  for  discussion,  because, 
since  April  21,  1882,  its  pavement  has  been  laid  bare  from  one 
end  to  the  otlier,  together  with  the  remains  of  the  edifices  which 
bordered  it,  of  the  monuments  in  honor  of  different  worthies 
which  decorated  its  pavement,  and  of  the  drains  which  ran  under 
it.  The  topography  of  this  "  queen  of  streets  "  was,  however,  very 
different  in  Kingly  or  early  Republican  times.  It  can  be  made 
out  in  two  ways :  from  the  remains  of  Kingly  or  Republican 
buildings  which  ai:)pear  here  and  there,  below  the  level  of  the 
Imperial  ones  (for  instance,  under  the  house  of  the  Vestals  and 
under  the  Basilica  Julia),  or  from  the  configuration  of  the  ground. 
Geological  analysis  proves,  among  other  things,  that  the  primitive 
road  crossed  the  ridge  of  the  Velia,  not  by  the  Arch  of  Titus,  as 
it  did  afterwards,  but  fifty  metres  north  of  it,  where  the  church  of 
S.  Francesca  Romana  now  stands.  The  furrow  followed  by  the 
road  was  discovered  by  Nibby  in  1827-32  by  means  of  borings 
through  the  clay  and  marl  strata  of  which  the  ridge  is  composed. 
The  same  archaeologist  found  remains  of  private  houses  under  the 
pavement  of  the  present  or  Imperial  road.  From  these  pieces  of 
evidence  we  can  conclude  that  the  primitive  Sacra  Via  left  the 
hollow  of  the  Coliseum  at  a  point  equidistant  from  the  Colossus 
(I  in  plan)  and  the  Meta  Sudans  (II),  —  I  mention  these  monu- 
ments to  give  the  reader  some  "  points  de  repere ; "  crossed  the 
depression  between  the  Palatine  and  the  Oppian  on  the  line  of  the 
axis  of  the  Templum  Rom;Tj  et  Veneris  (IV)  ;  descended  the  north- 
ern slojie  towards  the  Forum  along  the  Porticus  INIargaritaria 
(XII)  ;  then  turned  diagonally  towards  the  Vicus  Tuscus  (XXIX), 
passing  l)etween  the  Temple  of  Vesta  (XIX)  and  the  habitation  of 
the  Pontifex  Maximus  (Regia,  XVIII).    From  the  junction  of  the 

MAP      OF     SACRA     VIA       fu,  7Z 

R  Lanriam     efe/m 


THE   SACRA    VTA  189 

Vicus  Tuscus  to  the  Capitoliiie  hill  no  changes  seem  to  have  taken 
place.  The  whole  course  of  the  primitive  Sacra  Via  was  irregular 
and  winding  as  becomes  a  much  frequented  path  over  undulating 
ground  not  encumbered  by  buildings  or  obstacles  of  any  kind; 
but  as  soon  as  buildings  began  to  rise  on  either  side,  it  took  a 
definite  shape,  and  angles  were  substituted  for  curves  until  the 
street  was  made  to  turn  at  a  right  angle  no  less  than  five  times. 
The  transformation  was  obviously  accomplished  by  degrees :  first 
in  42  B.  c,  when  the  Temple  of  Cfesar  was  raised  on  the  spot 
wliere  his  body  had  been  incinerated,  secondly  after  the  fire  of 
Nero,  thirdly  after  that  of  Commodus,  and  lastly  after  that  of 
Carinus.  Each  of  these  calamities  gave  rise  to  a  new  "  piano 

After  the  fall  of  the  Empire,  when  traffic  was  practically  reduced 
to  its  primitive  state,  and  the  glorious  monuments  of  this  "  celeber- 
rinuis  urbis  locus  "  crumbled  into  dust,  the  bend  round  the  Temple 
of  Ca?sar  was  abandoned,  and  the  traffic  resumed  the  ancient  line, 
which  was  the  easiest  and  shortest.  This  late  path  is  still  marked 
by  bits  of  rough  pavement  made  up  with  old  worn-out  paving- 
stones,  blocks  of  marble,  and  architectural  fragments. 

The  primitive  path  was  named  Sacra  Via  (tnfima,  summa,  clivus 
sneer)  because  three  very  sacred  hut  temples  stood  on  its  border : 
tlie  hut  for  pvil)lic  fire,  or  Temple  of  Vesta,  that  in  which  the 
Penates  brought  from  Troy  were  kept,  and  a  third  inhabited  by 
the  high  priest.  The  people  adopted  the  form  Sacra  Via,  instead 
of  Via  Sacra,  and  its  inhabitants  were  called  Sacravienses.  In  the 
early  days  of  Rome  it  was  divided  into  three  sections,  the  first 
from  its  origin  near  the  Sacellum  Strenia;  (site  unknown,  but  near 
the  (Jiardino  delle  Mendicant!)  to  the  house  of  the  "rex  sacrifi- 
culus  "  on  the  top  of  the  ridge  ;  the  second  from  this  house  to  the 
Kegia  or  habitation  of  the  Pontifex  Maximus ;  the  third  from 
the  Regia  to  the  summit  of  the  Capitoline  hill.  In  Imperial 
times  the  ascent  to  this  hill  was  called  cliinis  Capitoiinits.  Its  total 
length  from  the  Meta  Sudans  to  the  foot  of  ascent  was  790  metres. 
The  street  retained  its  name  at  least  up  to  the  ninth  century  after 
Christ,  as  certified  by  the  "  Liber  Pontificalis "  in  the  Life  of 
Paschal  I.  (817-824,  "ecclesia  Cosmoe  et  Daniiani  in  Via  Sacra"), 
but  its  classic  meaning  was  altogether  forgotten.  The  church  of 
S.  Cosma  and  that  of  S.  Adriano  were  called  "in  Via  Sacra" 
because  they  were  on  the  line  of  the  great  pontifical  processions, 
which  entered  the  Forum  by  the  Via  di  Marforio  and  left  it  in  the 
direction  of  the  Arch  of  Titus. 

190  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

LiTERATUKE.  —  Aiiibrosch,  Siudien  und  Andeutungen.  Breslau,  1839. — 
Adolf  Becker,  De  Muris,  p.  23;  and  Topographie,  pp.  219-243.  —  Antonio 
Nibby,  Roma  nell'  anno  1838,  part  i.  vol.  i.  p.  49. — Luigi  Canina,  Bcscrizione 
del  Foro.  Kome,  1845.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Capitol,  Forum  und  Sacra  Via, 
Berlin,  Weidmann,  1881;  and  Topograpliie,  vol.  i.  p.  155.  —  J.  Francis 
Nichols,  Tht  Roman  Forum,  pp.  277-299.  —  J.  Henry  Parker,  The  Via  Sacra 
in  Rome,  London,  1876. 

II.  The  Colossus  (colossal  statue  of  the  Sun)  (I  in  plan). — 
The  platform  of  the  Velia,  from  the  "summa  Sacra  Via"  to  the 
site  of  the  amphitheatre,  was  occupied  by  the  vestibule  of  the 
Golden  House  of  Nero,  a  square  portico  with  a  colossal  bronze 
statue  in  the  centre.  The  statue  had  been  cast  in  Rome  by  Zeno- 
dorus  in  tlie  likeness  of  Nero ;  but  after  the  death  of  the  tyrant 
the  head  had  been  changed  into  that  of  the  radiant  Sun,  1  he  face 
beai'ing  a  resemblance  to  that  of  Titus.  Vespasian  generously 
rewarded  the  artist  who  had  thus  served  the  interests  of  the 
Flavian  dynasty.  When  Martial  wrote  the  second  epigram,  "De 
spectaculis,"  about  a.  d.  75,  tlie  Golden  House  had  already  been 
pulled  down,  and  the  ground  near  the  Colossus  seems  to  have 
been  occupied  by  scaffoldings  connected  with  the  work  of  the  new 
amphitheatre.  The  statue  remained  in  its  place  until  121 ,  when 
Hadrian,  having  chosen  the  site  for  his  Temple  of  Venus  and 
Rome,  caused  it  to  be  placed  neai'er  to  the  Coliseum.  I'he  dis- 
placement was  effected  by  the  architect  De(me)trianus  with  the 
help  of  twenty-four  elephants,  the  statue  remaining  all  the  while 
uiiright  and  suspended  from  the  movable  scaffolding.  The  diffi- 
culty of  the  operation  may  be  estimated  by  the  fact  that  the 
bronze  mass  was  30.5  metres  high.  The  seven  rays  round  the 
head,  each  6. 68  metres  long,  were  a  later  addition.  The  "  Vita 
Comm."  affirms  that  the  head  was  changed  once  more  by  Commo- 
dus  to  bear  his  own  likeness.  It  is  represented  in  coins  of  Alexan- 
der Severus  and  Gordianus.  The  last  classic  mention  occurs  in 
the  Chronicon  of  Cassiodorus ;  the  first  mediaeval  record  (V)  in  a 
document  of  a.  d.  972  ("  domus  posita  Romse  regione  quarla  non 
longe  a  Colosso  ").  The  pedestal  of  the  Colossus  (I  in  plan)  was 
discovered  by  Nibby  in  1828.  It  is  built  of  concrete  with  brick 
facing,  once  covered  with  marble  slabs. 

Literature.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Roma  nelV  anno  1838,  part  i.  vol.  ii.  p. 
442.  —  Fr.  Morgan  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  294.  —  J.  H.  Parker, 
The  Via  Sacra  in  Rome,  London,  1876,  plate  38.  —  Donaldson,  Arvhiicctura 
numism.,  n.  79.  —  De  Rossi,  Piante  di  Roma,  p.  76,  n.  1. 

III.  Meta  Sudans  (II  in  plan),  a  fountain  called  7nf'ta  from 

THE   ARCH   OF    CONST  ANT  IX  E  191 

its  shape  like  a  goal  of  the  circus,  or  from  its  location  at  the 
meeting  point  of  four  regions,  II,  III,  IV,  X,  and  sudans  from  the 
playing  of  its  water  in  sprays  and  cascades.  The  Chronicon  of 
Cassiodorus  names  Domitian  as  its  founder,  and  the  year  97  as  the 
date  of  its  construction.  Perhaps  Domitian  only  enlarged  and 
embellished  a  fountain  akeady  existing,  because  a  meta  of  pyra- 
midal shape  appears  in  the  medal  struck  in  the  year  80  for  the 
dedication  of  the  Coliseum ;  and  besides  Seneca,  who  died  in  65, 
mentions  the  neighborhood  of  the  foimtain  as  the  place  where 
people  would  try  new  bugles  and  flutes,  and  make  an  unbearable 
noise  (Ep.  Ivi.  5).  The  round  basin  of  the  present  day  dates  from 
the  time  of  Constantine,  When  Ficoroni  excavated  it  for  the 
first  time  in  1713,  there  Avere  six  metres  of  rubbish  around  the 
meta.  It  is  represented  in  the  marble  mouth  of  the  well  of  the 
Vatican  museum,  Corridoio  delle  Iscrizioni,  compartment  XIII., 
right  side,  the  photograph  of  which  is  marked  Xo.  4(371  in  Park- 
er's collection.  Xibby,  however,  declares  that  this  meta  is  the 
work  of  a  modern  restorer.  A  church  of  S.  Maria  de  Meta  is 
mentioned  by  Armellini  (Chiese,  2d  ed.  p.  522). 

LiTKRATUKE.  —  Coheii,  Motin.  imp.,  vol.  i.  p.  •i62,  n.  18-t;  p.  359,  n.  1G3. — 
Donaldson,  Arch,  numism.,  n.  79.  —  Ficoroni,  Vestujit  di  Roma,  vol.  i.  p.  3G.  — 
Allierto  Cassio,  Corso  delle  acque,  vol.  ii.  p.  194.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Roma  nell' 
anno  183S,  part  i.  vol.  i.  p.  370. 

IV.  The  Arch  of  Coxst.\xtixe  (III  in  plan).  —  The  origin 
of  this  noble  monument  is  described  in  "  Pagan  and  Christian 
Rome,"  p.  20.  It  was  raised  in  a.  d.  815  to  commemorate  the  vic- 
tory of  the  first  Christian  Emperor  over  ^Maxentius,  with  marbles 
taken  at  random  from  other  pul)lic  and  private  monuments.  The 
bas-reliefs  of  the  Attic,  the  statues  of  the  Dacian  kings,  the  eight 
medallions  above  the  side  arches,  the  eight  columns  of  giallo 
antico,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  entablature  were  removed  from 
a  triumphal  arch  of  Trajan,  probably  from  the  "  Arcus  divi  Trai- 
ani  "  which  spanned  the  Via  Appia  near  the  Porta  Capena.  A 
piece  of  the  inscription,  probably  from  the  same  arch,  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Coliseum. ^ 

The  two  bas-reliefs  on  each  side  of  the  middle  passage  are  at- 
tributed by  Xibby  to  the  time  of  Gordianus  the  younger,  all  the 
rest  to  the  time  of  Constantine.  The  inside  of  the  strticture  is  also 
built  with  a  great  variety  of  materials  taken  from  monuments 
belonging  to  the  Fabii  and  to  the  Arruntii,  the  carvings  and 
1  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1880,  217,  n.  9. 

192  A    WALK   THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

inscriptions  of  which  are  still  perfect.  The  bricks  alone  are  con- 
temporary with  Constantine,  and  are  stamped  with  the  well-known 
seal  OF(Jicin(e)  s(«crfc)  R^atiorris). 

The  name  of  the  pious  Emperor  saved  the  arch  from  destruction 
in  the  darkest  period  of  mediaeval  history.  A  little  church  dedi- 
cated to  the  Saviour  also  shielded  it  from  damage  ;  it  was  called 
S.  Salvatore  de  Trasi  from  the  name  of  Arcus  Traseus,  or  Arco 
de'  Trasi,  given  to  the  monument  in  the  twelfth  century,  perhaps 
from  the  statues  of  the  Thracian  (Dacian)  jirisoners  which  stand 
on  the  attic. 

Giovio  and  others  have  accused  Lorenzino  de'  Medici,  the  mur- 
derer of  Duke  Alessandro,  of  having  decapitated  the  statues  and 
some  of  the  bas-reliefs  of  the  arch.  He  was  capable  of  the  deed,  but 
the  charge  is  not  proved.  The  heads  were  not  removed  to  Flor- 
ence :  in  fact,  no  one  has  ever  traced  them ;  one  only  was  found 
buried  deep  in  the  ground  at  the  foot  of  the  arch  about  1795. 
The  state  of  the  sculptures  in  the  sixteenth  century  is  most  care- 
fully reproduced  in  a  drawing  of  the  Laing  collection  at  Edin- 
burgh (vol.  xi.  pi.  24).  Paul  III.  removed  the  earth  which  covered 
the  arch  up  to  the  plinth  of  the  columns,  to  prepare  the  way  for 
the  triumphal  entry  of  Charles  V.  Clement  VIII.  laid  hands  on 
one  of  the  columns  of  giallo  antico,  to  make  it  pair  with  another 
from  the  Forum  of  Trajan,  and  placed  both  under  the  organ  in  the 
transept  of  the  Lateran. 

Literature.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1139.  —  De  Rossi,  Bull,  crht.,  18G.3, 
p.  49.  —  Rohault  de  Floiirv,  L'aix  de  Constaniin  (in  Revue  archeol.,  Sept. 
1803,  p.  250).  —  Wilhelm  Henzen,  Bull,  inst.,  1863,  p.  183.  —  Antonio  Nibby, 
Roma  nell'  anno  1838,  part  i.  vol.  i.  p.  443.  —  Beschreibumj  der  Stadt  Rom,  iii. 
1,  p.  314. — Antonio  Guattani,  iJown  rfescrzVia,  i.  p.  41.  —  Theodor  Schreiber, 
Berichten  der  k.  sachs.  Geselhclwft  der  Wissenschaften,  April,  1892,  p.  121.  — 
Eugfene  Petersen,  Mhtheil.,  1889,"  p.  314. 

The  "  conservatori  "  of  Rome  and  Clement  XTT.  ordered  a  gen- 
eral restoration  of  the  arch  in  17S1.  The  works  were  superin- 
tended by  Marchese  Alessandro  Capponi,  who  made  use  of  a  co- 
lossal piece  of  the  marble  entablature  of  the  Neptunium  which 
had  just  been  found  near  the  Piazza  di  Pietra.  The  missing  column 
was  replaced,  although  of  different  marble  ;  the  heads  of  nine 
Dacian  kings  and  one  of  the  statues  (the  third  on  the  S.  Gregorio 
side)  were  replaced.  The  position  of  the  latter  was  occupied  by  a 
fragment  which  is  now  kept  in  the  Capitoline  museunt.  The  words 
"  ad  arcvm"  are  engraved  on  its  plinth,  an  address  for  the, porters 
who  had  to  remove  it  from  the  sculptor's  studio  to  the  arch. 



194  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

The  Arch  of  Constantine  has  been  a  favorite  subject  for  artists 
since  the  early  Renaissance.  It  appears  many  times  in  the  back- 
ground of  famous  pictures,  like  the  "  Dispute  of  S.  Catherine," 
by  Pinturicchio,  in  the  Appartamento  Borgio  ;  or  in  the  "  Castigo 
del  Fuoco  Celeste,"  by  Sandro  Botticelli,  in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  of 
which  I  give  a  rejiroduction. 

When  I  first  visited  the  staircase  and  the  rooms  in  the  attic 
story,  on  February  27,  1879,  the  first  signature  of  a  visitor  which 
struck  me  at  the  first  landing  was  that  of  INIichelangelo,  dated 
14U4:  (genuine  ?).  Antonio  da  Sangallo  the  elder  and  Cherubino 
Alberti  have  also  left  accounts  of  their  exploration  of  those  rooms. 

V.  vEdes  Rom.k  et  Veneris  (Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome) 
(IV  in  plan),  designed  and  built  by  Hadrian  on  the  site  of  the 
vestibule  of  the  Golden  House.  —  As  the  Temple  of  Castor  and 
rollux  was  named  in  progress  of  time  from  Castor  alone,  so  that 
of  Venus  and  Rome  is  called  simply  templum  Urhis  by  the  "  Vita 
Hadriani,"  Urhis  fanum  and  delubrum  Itomce  by  others.  The  foun- 
dation stone  was  laid  on  the  birthday  of  Rome,  April  21,  a.  d. 
131,  and  the  dedication  solemnized  in  135.  Antonio  Nibby,  who 
led  the  excavations  of  the  temple  from  November,  1827,  to  Decem- 
ber, 1829,  found  many  brick  stamps  of  123,  and  a  few  of  124.  Dion 
Cassius  relates  that,  when  the  work  was  already  in  progress,  Ha- 
drian submitted  his  drawings  to  Apollodorus  of  Damascus,  the 
illustrious  architect  of  Trajan's  Forum,  whom  in  a  fit  of  jealousy 
he  had  already  banished  to  a  remote  island.  The  architect  did 
not  disguise  his  opinion  :  the  statues,  he  said,  were  too  large  for 
their  niches,  and  the  temple  ought  to  have  been  raised  much 
higher  so  as  to  be  seen  to  greater  advantage  from  the  side  of  the 
Clivus  Sacer.  This  arrangement,  besides,  would  have  permitted 
the  construction  of  caves  and  vaults  under  the  foundation,  use- 
ful botli  for  storing  the  machinery  of  the  ampbitheati-e  and  for 
preparing  it  out  of  sight  for  immediate  use.  It  is  related  that  the 
great  man  paid  for  his  criticism  with  his  life. 

The  temple  was  brought  to  perfection  by  Antoninus  Pius,  on 
whose  medals  it  appears  with  the  legend  romae  aeternae  v^e- 
NERi  FELici,  perha^js  the  very  one  engraved  on  either  front  of  the 
structure.  Having  been  greatly  injured  by  fire  in  807,  it  was  re- 
stored by  Maxentius,  whose  brick  stamps,  0¥F(icina')  s(ummae') 
R(ei),  F(ecj<)  DOM(i7ms),  ai"e  found  in  great  numbers  in  the  walls 
of  the  double  cella.  Ammianus  Marcellinus  includes  it  among  the 
1  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  294. 



marvels  of  Kome  (a.  d.  356).  In  391  it  was  closed  and  abandoned 
to  its  fate,  but  the  solidity  of  the  building  was  such  that,  two  cen- 
turies later,  we  find  it  still  intact.     Pope  Honorius  I.  (625-040) 

196  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE    SACBA    VIA 

obtained  from  the  Emperor  Heraclius  the  gilt-bronze  tiles  of  the 
roof,  which  he  removed  to  that  of  S.  Peter's.  Many  of  these 
were  carried  off  by  the  Saracens  in  the  loot  of  846  ;  those  left  on 
the  roof  of  the  nave,  seen  and  described  by  Grimaldi  in  1606, 
must  have  been  melted  by  Paul  V.,  together  with  the  other  bronzes 
of  the  fountain  of  Symmachus.  (See  Pagan  and  Christian 
Rome,  p.  136.)  Paul  I.  (757-767)  built  a  church  in  honor  of  SS. 
Peter  and  Paul  on  the  vestibule  of  the  temple  facing  the  Forum, 
where  the  fall  of  Simon  the  Magician  was  believed  to  have  taken 
place.  Two  small  cavities  in  one  of  the  paving-stones  of  the 
Sacra  Via  were  shown  to  the  faithful,  as  the  marks  left  by  the 
knees  of  the  prince  of  the  Apostles,  while  jiraying  for  the  discom- 
fiture of  the  impostor.  The  stones  are  still  kept  in  the  present 
church  of  S.  Francesca  Romana,  on  the  right  of  the  tomb  of 
Gregory  XI.  The  chapel  of  Paul  I.  did  not  last  long :  at  the 
time  of  Leo  IV.  (847-8.55)  its  place  was  occupied  by  the  church  of 
S.  Maria,  called  Nova,  in  opposition  to  that  of  S.  Maria  Antiqua, 
still  existing,  behind  the  remains  of  the  Augustaeum.  The 
present  edifice,  dedicated  to  S.  Francesca  Romana,  dates  from  the 
time  of  Paul  V.,  1612. 

All  these  chapels  and  churches  were  built  at  the  expense  of  the 
temple.  Nibby  says  that  the  bed  of  rubbish  immediately  above 
the  antifpie  pavement  was  composed  of  architectural  fragments, 
split  and  charred ;  that  he  found  in  1810  a  lime-kiln  near  the  Arch 
of  Titus,  bordered  by  pieces  of  precious  columns  of  porphyry  —  a 
material  refractory  to  fire  —  and  filled  with  sculptiired  fragments  ; 
and  that,  while  restoring  the  church  of  S.  Francesca  in  1828  and 
1829,  he  found  the  walls  built  with  pieces  of  marble ;  yet  enough 
plunder  was  left  among  the  ruins  of  the  temple  to  satisfy  the 
greed  of  scores  of  modern  excavators.  Flaminio  Vacca  could  pur- 
chase about  1.575  slabs  of  Greek  marble  from  the  pavement  of  the 
cella  facing  the  Coliseum,  which  he  descril)es  as  a  "  cosa  stupenda." 
Ligorio  says  that  pieces  of  columns  and  of  the  entablature  found 
by  the  monks  of  S.  Maria,  in  adding  a  wing  to  their  convent,  were 
made  use  of  in  the  "  fabbrica  di  S.  Pietro."  Other  beautiful  mar- 
bles are  described  and  designed  by  the  Gobbo  da  Sangallo.  An 
oval  basin  of  a  fountain  of  oriental  granite,  5.57  metres  in  diame- 
ter, discovered  also  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  "  ruinato  dalle 
scellerate  mani  "  of  the  excavators.  At  last,  when  these  vandals 
thought  that  nothing  was  left  to  plunder  above  ground,  they  at- 
tacked the  foundations  of  the  portico  and  temple,  which  were  built 
of  blocks  of  travertine  or  peperino !     Not  one  is  left  in  situ.     The 



annexed  plan  explains  the  form  and  architectiu-e  of  the  building, 
The  portico  inclosing  the  temenos  had  columns  of  gray  granite, 
seventy-two  pieces  of  which  have  escaped  destruction,  simply 
because  they  were  unfit  for  the  lime-kiln,  and  too  hard  to  be  made 

Fig.  75.  —  Bas-relief  with  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome. 

use  of.  If  these  columns  were  raised  into  their  former  position, 
as  has  been  done  with  those  of  the  Basilica  Ulpia,  the  Temple  of 
Venus  and  Eome  wovild  become  the  most  picturesque  ruin  of  this 
classic  district.  The  peristyle  of  the  double  cella  was  made  of 
shafts  of  cipollino,  six  feet  in  diameter.  There  is  one  fragment 
lying  on  the  northeast  side  of  the  platform,  which  the  stone-cut- 
ters engaged  in  the  repairs  of  S.  Paolo  fuori  le  Mura  had  begun 

198  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

to  saw,  to  make  discs  for  the  pavement  of  that  church.  This  last 
act  of  destruction  was  stojiped  by  Carlo  Fea,  then  Superintendent 
of  Antiquities,  who  broke  the  saw  and  put  the  stone-cutters  to 

The  drains  which  run  parallel  with  the  wings  of  the  portico  are 
beautifully  j^reserved ;  they  are  2.70  metres  high  and  0.90  wide,  and 
the  tiles  of  their  roofs  are  marked  with  the  consulates  of  Paetinus 
and  Apronianus  (a.  d.  123),  and  Servianus  III.  and  Varus  (125). 
The  north  corner  of  the  platform  is  built  over  the  remains  —  still 
visible  through  a  trap-door  —  of  a  jirivate  mansion.  They  include 
part  of  the  atrium  with  the  impluvium  paved  with  pieces  of  blue, 
green,  and  white  enamel. 

The  temple  is  represented  in  a  bas-relief,  formerly  in  the  Muti 
house.  Piazza  della  Pescheria,  and  now  half  in  the  Museo  delle 
Terme,  half  in  the  Lateran !  An  illustration  of  it  was  given  by 
Professor  Petersen  in  the  "  Mittheilungen  "  of  1896.    (See  Fig.  75.) 

Literature.  —  Dion  Cassius,  Ixix.  5.  —  Amm.  Marcelliu.,  xvi.  10.  —  Fla- 
miiiio  Vacca,  Memorie,  n.  73.  —  Carlo  Fea,  Miscdlanea,  vol.  i.  p.  85,  note  («); 
Varieta  di  Notizie,  p.  137. — Nibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  723.  —  J.  H. 
Parker,  Archceology  of  Rome,  vol.  ii.  p.  86.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Z'  itinerario 
di  Ehmedlen,  pp.  62-67;  Melanges  de  I' Ecole  frangaise  de  Rome,  IBlll,  p.  164, 
pi.  3.  — F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  293. 

VI.  So-called  Baths  of  Heliogabalus,  and  Church  of  S. 
Cesakio  in  Palatio  (V  in  plan).     See  p.  169. 

VII.  TuRRis  Chautularia  (VI  in  plan).     See  p.  171. 

VIII.  The  Temple  of  Jupiter  Stator  (VII  in  plan).  —  The 
Tiu'ris  Chartularia  marks  most  likely  the  site  of  the  Temple  of 
Jupiter  Stator,  and  the  blocks  of  j)eperino  of  which  its  founda- 
tions are  built  belong  probably  to  the  cella.  The  temple  vowed  by 
Komulus,  during  his  first  encounter  with  the  Sabines  in  tlie  valley 
of  the  Forum,  was  only  built  in  296  by  M.  Atilius  Regulus. 
Classics  place  it  near  the  Mugonia  gate  of  the  Palatine,  at  the 
highest  point  of  the  [Nova  Via,  near  the  highest  point  of  the 
Sacra  Via,  and  within  the  limits  of  the  fourth  region.  The  four 
indications  concur  in  loca.ting  the  temple  on  the  site  of  the  Turris 
Chartularia,  side  by  side  with  the  Arch  of  Titus ;  and  in  precisely 
this  position  do  we  find  it  in  the  famous  pictorial  bas-relief  of  the 
Haterii,  exhibited  in  the  tenth  room  of  the  Lateran  ISluseum. 
According  to  this  sculptural  sketch,  the  temple  was  of  the  Co- 
rinthian order,  and  hexastyle,  the  front  facing  the  north.     It  is 



liai'dly  necesyary  to  reniiud  the  reader  that  a  certain  mass  of 
concrete  at  the  entrance  of  Domitian's  palace  on  the  Palatine  hill, 

Fig.  76.  — Arch  of  Titus  —  Temple  of  Jupiter  Stator  in  the  Bas-relief  of  the  Haterii. 

described  in  books  and  shown  to  visitors  as  the  Temple  of  Stator, 
lias  nothing  in  common  witli  it.  That  mass  of  concrete  belongs 
to  the  foundations  of  one  of  the  towers  built  by  the  Frangipani 
to  make  their  Palatine  stronghold  a  locus  tullssinius. 

I^ITKRATUI^E.  —  I'jiiil  Briinn,  Annall  dcW  Inst.,  vol.  xxi.  1849,  p.  370. — 
Ileinricli  Jordan,  Topoyrajihie,  \~,  p.  277.  —  Wolfgang  Helhig,  Guide  to  the 
Public  Collections  of  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  4f)G,  n.  (571.  —  Fuvma  f'rbis,  pi.  xxix. 

11  \'igna  Barberini.  S.  Sebastiano  Lii  Pallara 




Fig.  77.  —  Plan  of  Neighborhood  of  the  Arch  of  Titus. 

IX.     The  Arch  of  Titus  (VIII  in  plan). — It  stands  at  the 
west  corner  of   the   great  platform   of  Venus   and   Rome  at  the 



highest  point  of  the  Sacra  Via;  it  is  called,  therefore,  Arcus  in 
Sacra  Via  Summa  in  the  bas-relief  of  the  Haterii  reproduced  above. 

The  title  of  divus  (deified)  given  to  the  conqueror  of  Judaea  in  the 
inscription  of  the  attic  (Corpus,  vol.  vi.  n.  945),  as  well  as  the  relief 
of  his  apotheosis,  shows  that  the  monument  was  finished  only  after 

THE   ARCH   OF   TITUS  201 

his  death.  The  style  is  that  prevalent  in  Domitian's  time,  with 
a  superabundance  of  carving  in  the  architectural  lines.  Having 
been  included  in  the  fortifications  of  the  Frangipani,  it  suffered 
great  damage  during  the  fights  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  cen- 
turies. To  insm-e  its  safety  after  the  demolition  of  the  tower  and 
houses  by  which  it  was  partly  supported,  Giuseppe  Valadier  took 
down  the  whole  structure  piece  by  piece  in  1822,  strengthened  the 
foundations,  and  reconstructed  it  in  its  present  form,  completing 
the  missing  parts  in  travertine  so  as  to  make  them  easily  dis- 
tinguishable from  the  originals,  which  are  in  pentelic  marble.  The 
bas-reliefs  on  the  left  represent  the  triumph  of  Titus,  those  on  the 
right  the  spoils  taken  from  the  Temple  of  Zion,  like  the  seven- 
branched  candlestick  (from  which  comes  the  name  of  Arcus  Septem 
Lucernarmn  given  to  the  arch  in  the  Middle  Ages),  the  golden 
table,  the  silver  trumpets,  etc.  These  spoils  were  deposited  in  the 
Temple  of  Peace  in  a.  d.  75,  five  years  after  the  conquest  of  Judaea, 
together  with  a  marvellous  collection  of  works  of  art,  which  in- 
cluded a  statue  of  Naukides  fi'om  Argos,  a  figure  of  the  Nile  sur- 
rounded by  the  sixteen  infants  all  cut  in  a  single  block  of  basalte 
ferrigno,  the  lalysos,  a  celebrated  pictiire  of  Protogenes,  the  ScyUa 
of  Nikomachos,  the  Hero  of  Parrhasios,  and  many  other  master- 
pieces. All  these,  except  the  Jewish  relics,  perished  in  the  fire  of 
191.  They  ultimately  fell  the  prey  of  Genseric  and  were  landed 
safely  at  Carthage  in  455,  where,  eighty  years  later,  Belisarius 
recaptm-ed  them  and  sent  tliein  to  Constantinople. 

Literature. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  945  (943).  —  Flavius  Josephus, 
Jud.,  book  vii.  17. —  Antonio  Nibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  p.  490. — Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Ancient  Rome,  p.  291. 

Nearly  opposite  the  arch,  at  the  corner  of  the  Porticus  Margari- 
taria  on  the  Nova  Via,  is  a  shapeless  mass  of  concrete,  believed 
to  be  the  pedestal  of  the  equestrian  statue  of  Cloelia,  described  by 
Livy,  Seneca,  Plutarch,  and  Servius.  The  surmise  is  not  improba- 
ble, especially  as  we  know  that  the  group  was  still  existing  in 
Sacra  Via  Summa  at  the  time  of  Servius,  viz.,  at  the  beginning  of 
the  fifth  century.  A  centiiry  later  Cassiodorus  mentions  as  yet 
visible  in  the  same  place  a  group  of  bronze  elephants. 

Literature.  —  Becker,  De  muris  atque portis,  p.  38. —  Nichols,  The  Roman 
Fonim,  p.  311. 

X.  Basilica  Nova  (Basilica  of  Constantine)  (IX  in  plan). — 
The  space  of  ground  covered  by  this  vast  building  was  probably 
occupied  at  an  early  age  by  the  Macellum  or  Forum  Cupedinis,  a 



market  for  the  sale  of  fruit,  honey,  flowers,  and  wreaths,  the  last 
inentiou  of  which  occurs  under  Augustus.  Doniitian  built  on 
part  of  the  ground  the  Horrea  piperataria,  warehouses  for  Oriental 
spices,  which  were  burnt  down  in  the  fire  of  191,  together  with 
many  private  houses,  one  of  which,  discovered  in  1811  under  the 
right  aisle,  is  described  by  Fea  (Varieta  di  Notizie,  p.  24).  I  have 
myself  seen  traces  of  other  buildings,  on  the  occasion  of  repairs 
made  to  the  water-pipe  which  supplies  the  fountains  of  the  Palatine 
and  which  crosses  the  basilica  diagonally.  The  basilica  was  begun 
by  Maxentius  and  finished  by  Constantine,  partly  with  materials 

Fig.  79.  —  Plan  of  Constautiue's  Basilica. 

found  on  the  spot,  partly  with  bricks  made  expressly  in  one  of  the 
ufficince  summce  rei.  Hundreds  of  these  were  found  in  the  ex- 
cavations of  1880.  It  seems  that  when  Maxentius  lost  his  life 
in  the  battle  of  October  27,  312,  the  basilica  was  very  nearly  com- 
pleted, as  is  shown  by  the  discovery  of  a  silver  medallion  —  bear- 
ing the  legend  maxentius  v{ius)  ¥(elix)  aug(w*/m^-)  —  in  1828,  in 
a  block  of  masonry  fallen  from  the  highest  i^oint  of  the  building. 

The  basilica  had  a  nave  and  two  aisles.  The  noble  vaulted  ceil- 
ing of  the  nave,  eighty-two  metres  long  and  twenty-five  broad,  was 
supported  by  eight  fluted  columns  of  Proconnesian  marble,  of 
which  only  two  appear  in  the  vignettes  and  designs  of  the  Renais- 



sance.  Such  is,  for  instance,  a  sketch  by  Bramante  in  the  Uffizi  col- 
lection (No.  1711),  which  shows  one  between  the  first  and  second 
arches,  with  its  capital  and  entablature,  and  another  without  capi- 
tal between  the  second  and  third.  This  last  must  have  disappeared 
at  the  time  when  Sangallo  the  elder  was  directing  the  works  of 
S.  Peter's;  certainly  he  made  use  of  its  base,  which  is  described  by 

Fig.  80.  — The  Basilica  of  Constantine  at  the  time  of  Paul  V. 

Dosio  as  "  larga  piedi  8  dita  7  .  .  .  ed  e  la  basa  d'  una  delle  colonne 
.  .  .  che  fu  portata  (a  S.  Pietro)  a  tempo  che  era  architetto  el  San- 
gallo." The  other  pillar,  so  conspicuous  in  the  vignettes  of  the 
sixteenth  century  —  among  which  I  may  mention  the  one  painted 
by  Raphael's  pupils  in  the  last  room,  first  floor,  of  the  Farnesina  — 

204  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

was  removed  to  the  Piazza  di  S.  Maria  Maggiore  by  Paul  V.  in 
1613,  and  set  up  in  honor  of  the  Virgin,  as  described  in  "  Pagan 
and  Christian  Rome,"  p.  136.  We  can  account  also  for  the  fate  of 
a  third  base.  It  supplied  the  material  for  the  statue  of  Alexander 
Farnese,  now  in  the  Sala  dei  Capitani,  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori. 

The  basilica,  in  its  original  construction,  faced  the  east,  and  was 
entered  from  the  side  of  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome  by  a 
clumsy  portico  out  of  proportion  with  the  rest  of  the  edifice. 
Later  on,  a  new  entrance  was  opened  on  the  south  side  facing 
the  Sacra  Via,  and  a  new  tribune  built  in  harmony  with  it.  The 
entrance  was  decorated  with  four  large  columns  of  porphyry, 
pieces  of  which  were  found  in  1487,  1819,  and  1879,  and  restored 
to  the  place  to  which  they  belong.  Here  also  were  discovered  the 
fragments  of  the  colossal  marble  statue  of  Domitian,  now  in  the 
Cortile  dei  Conservatori. 

The  collapse  of  this  ungraceful  structure  must  date  from  a  com- 
paratively recent  time,  because  Nibby  asserts  that  he  saw  traces 
of  a  Christian  fresco  painting  of  the  thirteenth  century  in  the 
north  apse.  Perhaps  the  ceiling  of  the  nave  fell  in  the  earthquake 
of  1349,  described  by  Petrarch  (Epist.  x.  2),  carrying  down  with  it 
the  greater  portion  of  the  south  aisle.  The  roof  of  the  north  aisle, 
still  perfect,  was  granted  by  the  city  in  1547  to  Eurialo  Silvestri, 
who  laid  out  a  garden  on  the  top  of  it  and  filled  it  with  antiques. 
The  basilica  itself  was  used  as  a  cattle-shed  until  1714,  when  it 
was  granted  to  Marchese  Emilio  de'  Cavalieri  for  a  riding-school. 
Ten  years  later  I  find  it  used  as  a  hay-loft  by  the  architect  Bari- 
gioni.  The  French  invaders  began  excavating  it  in  1812,  and 
Pius  VII.  continued  their  work  in  1818-19.  In  1828  Nibby  laid 
bare  the  pavement,  which  remained  in  good  condition  till  the  sec- 
ond French  invasion  of  1849.  The  basilica  having  been  selected 
as  a  drilling-place  for  French  recruits,  the  last  trace  of  the  pave- 
ment was  destroyed  about  18.54  by  the  treading  of  feet. 

Literature.  —  Carlo  Fea,  La  basilha  di  Costantliw  sbandita  dalla  via 
Sacra,  Rome,  1819;  Prodromo  di  nuove  osservazioni,  1816,  p.  24;  Miscellatiea, 
vol.  ii.  p.  47.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Delia  via  Sacra,  etc.,  p.  189;  Del  tempio  della 
Pace  e  della  basilica  di  Coslantino,  Rome,  1819;  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  238. 
—  Nicola  Ratti,  Su  le  r ovine  del  iempio  delta  Pace.  Rome,  1823.  —  Bunsen, 
Beschreibung,  vol.  iii.  11.  291.  —  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1879-80. — Rodolfo  Laii- 
ciani,  Bull,  com.,  1876,  p.  48. 

The  basilica  was  freed  from  the  granaries  and  factories  and 
ironworks  which  concealed  its  northern  apse  between  March,  1878, 
and  February,  1880,  when  the  tunnel  known  in  the  Middle  Ages 
as  the  Arco  di  Latrone  was  again  made  accessible  (X  in  plan). 



Before  the  construction  of  the  basilica  direct  communication 
existed  between  the  Sacra  Via  and  the  region  of  the  Carina?,  the 
cross  street  passing  between  the  Forum  of  Peace  and  the  ware- 
houses for  Oriental  spices  (Horrea  piperataria).  Maxentius  brought 
his  building  into  contact  with  the  Forum  of  Peace  and  obstructed 
the  passage.  To  obviate  the  consequences  of  the  obstruction  and 
to  save  the  citizens  a  long  detour,  a  subway  was  opened  under  the 
northeast  corner  of  the  basilica.  The  subway  is  about  four  metres 
wide  and  fifteen  long ;  it  is  paved  with  tiles  inscribed  with  the 
stamp  of  the  Imperial  kilns,  off  .  s  .  r  .  f  ,  ocex  ;  the  side  walls 

Fig.  81.  — The  Arco  di  Latrone  under  the  Basilica  of  Constantine. 

are  worn  with  longitudinal  grooves  to  the  height  of  cart-wheels. 
A\'hen  the  adjoining  Temple  of  the  Sacra  Urbs  was  dedicated  by 
Pope  Felix  IV.  (526-530)  to  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damianus,  one  end 
of  the  passage  was  walled  up  and  the  passage  itself  turned  into  a 
sepulchral  cave.  Loculi  resembling  those  of  the  catacombs  are 
still  to  be  seen  in  the  upper  part  of  the  walls,  and  two  or  three 
ajipear  in  the  illustration  above.  At  a  much  later  period  hogs- 
heads of  wine  took  the  places  of  the  dead. 

This  passage  was  known  in  the  ]\Iiddle  Ages  as  the  Arco  di 
Latrone.  Pirro  Ligorio  (Bodl.,  f.  15)  speaks  of  it  as  follows: 
"  The  subway  which  we  now  call  Latrone  runs  between  the  church 

206  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

of  S.  Cosma  and  the  Temple  of  Peace  (the  Basilica  of  Constan- 
tine).  After  it  liad  served  as  a  burial-place  at  the  time  of  the 
destruction  of  Rome,  traffic  was  restored  through  it ;  but  it  was 
a  lonely,  dark  place,  and  murders  and  robberies  were  freely  com- 
mitted in  it.  To  atone  for  these  crimes,  and  to  bring  about  a 
better  state  of  things,  the  Arco  di  Latrone  was  included  in  the 
itinerary  of  the  famous  procession  of  mid- August,  when  tlie  image 
of  the  Saviour  is  removed  from  the  Lateran  to  S.  JMaria  Maggiore." 
The  procession  of  "  mezzo  agosto,"  to  which  Ligorio  refers,  was 
one  of  the  great  events  of  mediaeval  Rome ;  the  contest  for  prece- 
dence among  the  popular  corporations  afterwards  degenerated 
into  open  fights  and  bloodshed.  The  magistrates  of  the  city 
issued  regulation  after  regulation,  the  last  of  which,  engraved  on 
marble  in  the  anticpie  style,  is  still  to  be  seen  in  the  vestibule  of 
the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs.  The  regu- 
lations did  no  good  :  the  pageant  was  preceded  or  followed  by  so 
many  struggles  that  it  left  a  bloody  trail  upon  its  path.  It  was 
suppressed  in  1566  by  Pope  Pius  V. 

Literature.  —  Vincenzo  Forcella,  Iscriz.  delle  chiese  di  Roma,  vol.  i. 
n.  60,  p.  37. — Giovanni  Marangoni,  htorin  delV  oratorio  appellato  Sancfn 
Sanctorum,  p.  112.  Rome,  1747.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Archivio  della  Societa 
di  storia  patria,  vol.  iii.  p.  378;  Jtinerario  di  Einsiedlen,  p.  119. 

XI.  The  Clivus  Sacer,  or  gradient  of  the  Sacra  Via  by  the 
Basilica  of  Constantine  (XI  in  plan).  —  This  tract,  excavated 
between  March  and  June,  1878,  is  the  noblest  and  widest  of  the 
whole  line.  It  measures  23  metres  across  from  building  to  build- 
ing, and  12.35  metres  between  the  sidewalks.  Under  the  roadway 
runs  a  cloaca  2.10  metres  high,  and  0.90  wide,  built  of  bricks  and 
vaulted  over,  with  side  embranchments  to  collect  the  waters  from 
the  north  slope  of  the  Palatine  and  from  Constantine's  Basilica. 

The  left-side  pavement,  along  the  Porticus  INlargaritaria  and 
the  House  of  the  Vestals,  is  8.20  metres  wide,  and  entirely  encum- 
bered by  monuments  in  honor  of  different  people,  dating  mostly 
from  the  time  of  Septimius  Severus  and  his  successors.  There 
are  pedestals  of  single  or  equestrian  statues,  shrines,  fountains, 
hemicycles,  etc.,  which,  found  in  a  good  state  of  preservation  in 
1879  and  1882,  have  been  since  greatly  injured  by  frost  and  neglect. 
The  most  important  are :  (a)  the  pedestal  of  a  statue,  probably  of 
a  Greek  masterpiece,  set  up  by  Fabius  Titianus,  j)refect  of  the 
city  in  a.  d.  339-341,  together  with  many  others  (see  Coi'pus 
Inscriptionum,  vi.  1653)  ;  (J)  that  of  a  statue  raised  to  Constan- 
tius,  by  Flavins  Leontius,  prefect  of  the  city  in  35.5-356  ;  (c)  that 



of  a  statue  of  Titus;  (d)  an  altar  dedicated  to  the  Lares  augusti; 
(e)  a  shriue  dedicated  to  Gordianus  the  younger  by  the  people  of 
Tharsos,  together  with  his  equestrian  statue.     This  graceful  sedi- 

LJ^U ^ 

OliT     (T^         m> 


Fig.  82.  —Plan  of  Clivus  Sacer. 

cula  was  supported  by  two  columns  of  portasanta;  the  letters 
TAPCEnx  on  the  epistyle  were  of  gilt  metal.  It  could  be  recon- 
structed almost  in  a  perfect  state. 

Literature. —  Notizie  degli  Scnri,  1879,  p.  14,  tav.  vii.,  and  p.  113  ;  1882, 
p.  216,  tav.  xiv.-xvi.  —  Bull,  com.,  1878,  p.  257  ;  1880,  ]>.  80. 

On  the  side  opposite  the  Basilica  Nova  stood  the 

XII.  PoRTicT's  Margaritaria,  an  arcade  for  jewelers  and 
goldsmiths  (XII  in  plan). —  The  parallelogram  between  the  Sacra 
and  the  Xova  Via,  the  Arch  of  Titus  and  the  House  of  the  Vestals, 
remained  a  ten-a  incognita  to  the  topographer  until  the  excavations 
of  1878-7.9.  Instead  of  the  cedes  Penatinm,  of  the  house  of  the 
Tarquins,  of  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Stator,  and  other  such  edifices 
crowded  into  it  by  the  fancy  of  modern  students,  it  was  found  to 
contain  a  })ortico;  sup2>orted  by  ten  or  eleven  rows  of  stone  pilas- 
tei-s  (twenty-two  in  each  row),  similar  in  every  respect  to  the  Por- 
ticus  Septorum  under  the  Palazzo  Doria,  and  to  the  Porticus 
Vipsania  under  the  (now  demolished)  Palazzo  Piombino.  The 
stone  pilasters  stand  four  metres  apart,  and  the  covered  galleries 
must  have  been  lighted  by  openings  in  the  vault.  The  classic 
name  of  this  portico  is  easily  found  by  refei-ring  to  the  Almanac 



of  354,  which  mentions,  among  the  edifices  near  to  the  Forum,  a 
Porticus  Margaritaria,  viz.,  a  portico  occupied  by  jewelers  and 
goldsmiths.  Considering  that  the  jewelers  and  goldsmiths  of  the 
Porticus  Margaritaria  call  themselves  de  Sacra  Via,  it  is  evident 
that  the  arcades  opened  on  that  very  street.  Part  ii.  of  volume  vi. 
of  the  "  Corpus  Inscriptionum  "  contains  scores  of  epitaphs  of 
these  tradesmen  of  the  Sacra  Via :  there  are  unguejiiarii,  perfumers ; 
aurijices,  goldsmiths ;  an  auri  vestrix,  weaver  of  gold  cloth  (?)  ; 
ccelatores,  engravers  also  in  repousse  work  ;  coronarii  or  wreath- 
makers  ;  Jlaturarii,  metal-casters ;  (jemmarii  and  margaritarii,  deal- 
ers in  jewels  and  pearls  ;  pigmentai-ii,  makers  of  cosmetics  ;  tibiarii. 

Fig.  83.  —  Plan  of  Porticus  Margaritaria. 

flute-makers  ;  and  negotiatores  in  general.  Originally  tliey  must 
have  exhibited  their  precious  merchandise  in  booths  and  screens 
and  desks  under  the  shelter  of  the  portico ;  later  on,  the  portico 
was  cut  up  into  regular  shops  by  means  of  brick  walls  raised  be- 
tween each  jiair  of  stone  pilasters,  exactly  as  was  done  with  the 
Septa  and  with  the  Porticus  Vipsania.  The  space  was  cut  up  also 
vertically  by  means  of  wooden  floors,  so  as  to  secure  an  office  or 
a  bedroom  above  the  shop. 

The  visitor  who  looks  at  the  apparently  barren  site  of  the  portico 
may  wonder  how  and  where  the  subtle  eyes  of  the  topographer  can 
see  all  these  details.  The  explanation  is  this.  When  the  exca- 
vators, in  search  of  building-materials,  attacked  the  ruins  of  the 


portico  at  the  time  of  Alexander  VII.,  under  the  leadership  of 
Leonardo  Agostini,  they  removed  only  the  blocks  of  travertine  of 
which  the  pilasters  were  built,  and  left  alone  the  partition  walls 
of  brick.  The  portico,  therefore,  is  gone,  except  a  few  blocks 
which  remain  in  situ  here  and  there,  especially  on  the  side  of  the 
Nova  Via,  but  we  can  judge  of  its  shape  and  size  and  aspect  from 
the  brick  walls,  which  still  show  the  marks  of  the  blocks  stolen 
away  under  Pope  Chigi.  Many  brick  stamps  found  in  the  excava- 
tions of  1879  mention  the  kilns  of  Domitia  Lucilla,  wife  of  Lucius 
Verus.  The  shops,  therefore,  must  date  from  the  second  quarter 
of  the  second  century,  probably  from  the  year  134.  The  whole 
building  was  not  level,  but  followed  the  slope  of  the  ground,  like 
the  inclined  wings  of  Bernini's  portico  at  the  end  of  the  piazza  of 
S.  Peter's. 

Literature.  —  Notizie  deijli  Scai-i,  1882,  p.  228. — Luchvig  Preller,  Die 
Regionen  (ler  Stadt  Rom,  p.  154.  —  Forma  Urbis  Roma,  pi.  xxix. — •  Sante 
Bartoli  Pietro,  Mem.  50  (iu  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.  p.  234). —  Corpus  inscr., 
vol.  vi.  n.  1974,  9207,  9212,  9214,  9221,  9283,9418,  94.34,  9545,  9662,  9775. 

Continuing  our  descent  of  the  Clivus  Sacer,  after  passing  on  the 
right  the  street  leading  to  the  Carinse,  described  in  §  x.,  we  find 
on  the  same  side  the  monumental  group  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano, 
which  comprises  a  round  vestibule,  once  the  Heroon  Komuli,  and  a 
square  hall,  once  the  Templum  Sacra^  Urbis. 

XIII.  The  Heroox  Romuli  (Temple  of  Romuhis,  son  of  I\Iax- 
entius)  (XIII  in  plan).  —  When  this  young  prince  died  in  o(l9,  a 
coin  was  struck  with  the  legend  divo  komvlo,  on  the  reverse  of 
which  is  represented  a  round  monument  erected  to  his  memory. 
The  "  Liber  Pontificalis,"  John  the  deacon,  and  others  mention  the 
site  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano  as  that  of  a  templum  Romuli  (mean- 
ing the  founder  of  the  city),  and  this  tradition  has  lasted  to  our 
own  time.  (See  Nibby,  Roma  nell'  anno  1888,  part  i.  vol.  ii.  p.  710.) 
Commendatore  de  Rossi,  with  the  help  of  a  fragmentary  inscrip- 
tion whicli  still  remained  affixed  to  the  building  towards  1550,  has 
been  able  to  prove,  first,  that  the  round  vestibule  of  SS.  Cosma  e 
Damiano  and  the  Heroon  Romuli  are  one  and  the  same  thing ; 
secondly,  that  the  Heroon  was  still  unfinished  when  Maxentius 
lost  his  life  at  the  battle  of  Saxa  Rubra  on  October  27,  312.  The 
Senate  comjjleted  the  rotunda,  and  dedicated  it,  together  with 
the  basilica,  to  Constantine.  Pope  Felix  IV.  (526-530)  cut  open  a 
communication  between  the  rotunda  and  the  Templum  Sacrse 
Urbis  behind  it,  and  dedicated  both  to  SS.  Cosmas  and  Daniianus, 
physicians  and  martyrs. 


A     WALK    THROUGH    THE    ^ACRA    VIA 

The  style  of  the  Ilevoon  shows  a  decided  decline  in  taste  and 
elegance.  Instead  of  a  round  marble  cella  surrounded  by  a  peri- 
style of  fluted  Corinthian  pillars,  as  we  see  in  the  Temple  of 
Matuta,  of  Herciiles  iNIagnus  Custos,  etc.,  we  are  confronted  with 
a  clumsy  mixture  of  curved  and  straight  lines,  a  round  hall  be- 
tween two  rectangular  ones,  a  front  with  a  hemicicyle  between 
the  middle   columns,  and  two  doors  between  each   side   couple. 

Fig.  84.  —  The  Portico  of  the  Heroon  Romuli. 

Two  columns  (of  cipollino)  are  left  standing ;  a  third  was  removed 
at  the  time  of  Urban  VIII. ;  the  site  of  the  fourth  is  only  marked 
by  its  socle.  The  most  conspicuous  portion  of  the  building  is  the 
entrance  door,  with  bronze  folds  and  an  elaborate  entablature  sup- 
ported by  two  columns  of  porphyry.  The  door  and  its  ornaments 
were  raised  to  the  level  of  the  modern  city  by  Pope  Barl>erini 
about  1630.  The  Italian  government  restored  it  to  its  ancient 
site  in  1879.  I  may  add  that  when  Urban  VIII.  repaired  the  roof 
of  the  cupola,  the  cupola  itself  was  in  imminent  danger  of  collaps- 



ing.  We  found  ^vedg■ed  in  its  cracks  roots  of  ilexes  over  ten  centi- 
metres in  diameter,  the  remains  of  an  hortus  siccus  many  hundred 
years  old. 

LiTEKATUKK.  —  Gio.  Battista  cle  Rossi,  Bull,  crist.,  1867,  p.  66. — Rodolfo 
Lanciaui,  Bull,  com.,  1882,  p.  29,  pi.  9. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1147. — 
Mariano  Armellini,  Chiese  di  Ruiau,  pp.152  and  155. — Notizie  de<jli  Scavi, 

Fig.  85.  —  Plan  of 
SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano. 

XIV.  Templum  Sacr.e  Urbis  (archives  of  the  Cadastre)  (XIV 
in  plan).     The  inner  rectangular  hall,  back  of 
the  Heroon  Romuli,  was  built  by  Vespasian 
in  78. 

When  this  wise  prince  took  the  reins  of 
empire  after  the  great  disasters  which  had 
befallen  the  capital  under  Nero  and  Vitellius, 
the  city  was  still  "  deformis  veteribus  in- 
cendiis  atque  minis."  Its  state  may  be  com- 
pared with  that  of  Paris  after  the  Commune 
as  far  as  public  buildings  are  concerned,  but 
we  must  go  back  to  the  Chicago  fire  of  1871 
to  find  a  parallel  for  the  thousands  of  palaces, 
tenement  houses,  temples,  and  shrines  de- 
stroyed, the  ruins  of  which  covered  ten  re- 
gions out  of  fourteen.  Between  73  and  75, 
the  high  priests,  magistrates,  architects,  sur- 
veyors,   and   military   engineers,  under  the 

leadership  of  the  censors,  attended  to  the  reorganization  of  the 
city  both  materially  and  from  an  administrative  point  of  view.  The 
last  Roman  census  in  the  antique  fashion  was  taken  in  74,  the  city 
area  and  limits  were  defined,  the  ground  surveyed,  the  line  of  the 
Servian  walls  and  that  of  the  octroi  measured,  together  with  the 
length  of  the  streets  radiating  from  the  golden  milestone  towards 
the  gates,  the  fourteen  wards  divided  into  many  hundred  "  com- 
pita  larum "  (parishes  ?),  the  cadastre  of  public  and  private 
property  revised  and  brought  up  to  date,  the  pomerium  enlarged, 
the  streets  straightened  and  repaved,  the  temples  rebuilt,  and  a 
new  and  re%'ised  map  of  the  city  made.  All  the  documents  con- 
nected with  these  geodetic  and  financial  operations  were  deposited 
in  a  fire-proof  building  erected  for  the  purjiose  on  the  southwest 
side  of  the  Forum  of  Peace,  between  it  and  the  Sacra  Via.  The 
hall  had  two  entrances,  one  from  the  northwest,  decorated  with  a 
portico  of  six  columns,  on  the  epistyle  of  which  the  following  in- 
sci'iption  was  engraved :  — 



imp  •   caes  •   vesPASiANus  •  avg  •  font  •  max  •  tribvn  •  put  • 
viii  imp  •  xviii  •  p  •  p  •  censor  •  cos  •  viii 

impp  •  caess  •  severvs  •  et  •  antoninvs  •  pii  •  avgg  •  felices 


(This  epistyle  was  broken,  with  the  fall  of  the  portico,  into 
four  pieces.     Two  are  missing;  one  was  found  about  1530  in  the 

Piazza  della  Consolazione ; 
the  last,  in  1612,  near  the  steps 
of  S.  Francesca  Komana.) 
J  The  second  entrance,  still  per- 
fect, ojjened  on  the  street  de- 
scribed in  §  X.  This  monu- 
mental gate  has  been  designed 
and  illustrated  by  Middleton 
in  the  "  Remains  of  Ancient 
Rome,"  vol.  i.  p.  41.  The  last 
two  lines  of  the  inscription, 
which  contain  the  names  of 
Severus  and  Caracalla,  refer 
to  the  restorations  made  by 
these  Emperors  to  the  edifice, 
considerably  damaged  by  the 
fire  of  Commodus.  Their  work 
can  be  easily  recognized  from 
the  fact  that  while  Vespa- 
sian's hall  was  of  opus  quad- 
ratum,  of  tufa  strengthened 
with  blocks  of  travertine  at 
the  corners,  the  restorations 
of  211  are  of  bricks.  When 
Panvinio  and  Ligorio  de- 
scribed and  sketched  the 
building  towards  the  middle 
of  the  sixteenth  ceiitury  it  was 
„„  practically   intact,    the    only 

changes   made   when   it  was 
".'■'."■".'.'",.''.'.,!':'."-''"'  J.  f.  p....  Chi-istianized    by   Felix   IV. 

being  the  introduction  of  the 

.  The  Church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Domiano  ^P^^  and  the  altar.  They  de- 
scribed the  hall  as  lighted  by 
fifteen  large  windows  (three 


Fig.  86.  ■ 

in  the  Middle  Ages. 



still  visible,  see  Fig.  86).  The  walls  were  divided  into  three  hori- 
zontal bands  by  finely  cut  cornices.  The  upper  band  was  occupied 
by  the  windows,  as  in  our  old  churches ;  the  lower  was  simply  lined 
with  marble  slabs  covered  by  the  bookcases  and  screens  which 
contained  the  papers  and  records  and  maps  of  the  cadastre ;  the 
middle  one  was  incrusted  with  tarsia-work  of  the  rarest  kinds  of 
marble,  with  panels  representing  panoplies,  the  Wolf  with  the  infant 
founders  of  Rome,  and  other  such  allegorical  scenes.  A  particu- 
lar that  may  surjirise  the  reader  is  that  a  large  percentage  of  the  tiles 
of  the  present  roof  are  ancient,  their  dates  varying  from  the  time 
of  Caracalla  to  that  of  Theodoric.     After  the  restoration  of  Cara- 

Fig.  87.  —  The  Church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano  at  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

calla  the  place  took  the  name  of  Templum  Sacrge  Urbis.  This 
most  perfect  of  the  buildings  in  the  classic  district  of  the  Sacra 
Via  was  mercilessly  mutilated  by  Pope  Urban  VIII.  in  1632.  He 
raised  tlie  level  of  the  church  by  24  feet,  destroyed  the  stone  walls 
which  made  it  fire-proof,  and  sold  or  gave  up  the  stones  to  the 
Jesuits  for  their  Church  of  S.  Ignazio.  The  bronze  gates  of  the 
Heroon  were  wrenched  from  their  sockets  and  rebuilt  out  of  place 
in  symmetry  with  the  axis  of  the  church ;  the  historic  inscription 
of  Constantine  was  destroyed,  and  the  precious  incrustations  of 

214  A    M'ALK    THROUGH   THE   SACEA    VIA 

the  nave  were  obliterated.  The  Christian  decorations  of  the  edi- 
fice had  no  better  fate.  There  was  a  ciborium  in  the  a^ise,  made 
about  1150  by  Guy,  cardinal  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano,  a  master- 
piece of  the  school  of  Paolo  Romano,  signed  by  four  of  his  son's 
pupils :  lonannes,  petrvs,  angelms,  sasso,  filii  pavli  hvivs 
OPERis  MAGiSTRi  FVERVNT.  It  was  leveled  to  the  ground,  to- 
gether with  the  ambones  of  Sergius  I.  (695).  The  frescoes  in  the 
lower  portion  of  the  walls  were  whitewashed.  Pope  Barberini  laid 
his  hands  also  on  the  mosaics  of  the  apse,  mutilating  those  of  the 
arch  as  well  as  those  of  the  calotta.  Lastly,  he  called  the  monks 
to  helji  in  the  work  of  destruction,  and  a  brief  dated  1630  (discov- 
ered by  Armellini  in  the  Archivio  dei  Brevi)  gave  "  licentiam  effo- 
diendi  lapides  "  as  they  pleased. 

The  fame  of  the  Templum  Sacrae  Urbis  comes,  however,  from 
another  cause.  When  Agrippa  and  Augustus  surveyed  the  city 
in  6  B.  c,  the  result  of  their  labors,  viz.  the  plan,  or  Forma  Urbis, 
was  publicly  exhibited  in  the  Porticus  Vipsania  on  the  Via  Fla- 
minia  (Aug.  1, 7  b.  c).  Vespasian,  likewise,  must  have  exhibited  the 
plan  of  the  city  reconstructed,  after  the  fire,  by  Nero  and  by  himself, 
in  this  building  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano.  The  third  edition  of 
the  map,  rej^resenting  the  city  rebuilt  and  reorganized  by  Severus 
and  Caracalla  after  the  fire  of  Conimodus,  was  certainly  affixed  to 
the  outside  wall  of  the  building,  looking  on  the  forum  of  Peace. 
This  celebrated  "  Forma  Urbis,"  engraved  on  marble  at  an  ap- 
proximate scale  of  1  :  '250,  the  fragments  of  which  are  exhibited 
in  the  Capitoline  museum,  has  been  described  at  length  in  Book 
I.  pp.  95-98. 

Literature  on  the  Heroon  Roimili  and  the  Tem]iliini  Sacrw  Urhis.  — Gio. 
Battista  de  Rossi,  Bull.  arch,  crist.,  1867,  p.  iW  ;  and  18'Jl,  p.  7ti,  n.  3  ;  Mu- 
saici  delle  chiese  di  Homa,  part  iv.  —  Rodoh'o  Lauciani,  Bull,  cum.,  1882,  p.  2i>, 
tav.  iii.-x.  —  Mariano  Armellini,  Cliitse  di  Homa,  2d  ed.  p.  152.  —  Leone 
Nardoni,  Di  alcune  sotterr.  confessloni  nclle  antlche  basilichc.  Rome,  1881. — 
Notizle  degli  Scavi,  1879-80,  passim ;  and  Bull,  cum.,  1881,  p.  8. 

On  the  names  Urbs  JJterna  and  Vrbs  Sacra  consult  F.  G.Moore  in  Transact. 
Amer.  Philul.  Association,  1894,  34. 

The  back  wall  of  the  temple  covered  by  the  marble  plan  formed 
at  the  same  time  part  of  the  inclosure  of  the  Forum  of  Peace 
(XV  in  plan),  the  pavement  of  which  is  inlaid  with  slabs  of 
portasanta.  The  pavement  has  been  uncovered  both  at  the  foot 
of  the  wall,  where  it  is  still  to  be  seen,  and  under  the  house  Via 
del  Tempio  della  Pace,  Xo.  11,  where  it  lies  buried  under  thirty- 
eight  feet  of  rubbish.     I  have  already  mentioned  (§  ix.)  some  of 

THE   ARCH   OF  FAB  I  US  215 

the  famous  ornaments  of  this  forum  ;  we  may  add  to  the  list  a  gal- 
lory  of  statues  of  famous  athletes  from  Greece,  of  which  we  heard 
the  first  time  in  March,  1891,  when  a  marble  pedestal  was  dis- 
covered at  the  corner  of  the  Via  del  Sole  and  the  Salara  Vecchia, 
bearing  the  inscription  nreOKAHS  '  HAEI02  ■  nENTA0AO2  "  (iro) 
ATKAEITOT  *  ('Ap76)toT.  It  refers  to  the  celebrated  statue  of 
Tythokles,  a  work  of  Polykletos,  the  original  of  which  was  erected 
at  Olympia,  in  memory  of  exploits  of  the  former  in  the  pent- 
athlon. There  the  statue  was  seen  by  Pausanias  (vi.  7,  10),  and 
there  also  its  pedestal  was  rediscovered  by  the  Germans  in  1879 
between  the  temples  of  Juno  and  Pelops.  The  original  figure 
must  have  been  leaning  on  the  right  leg,  as  shown  by  the  marks 
on  the  plinth,  whereas  the  Roman  copy  seems  to  have  been  leaning 
the  opposite  way,  unless  tlie  pedestal  has  been  made  use  of  twice, 
before  and  after  the  first  barbaric  invasion.  The  loss  of  the  Roman 
replica  is  deeply  to  be  regretted  because  we  have  no  specimen  of 
the  work  of  the  second  Polykletos.  The  pedestal  is  exhibited  in 
the  Museo  Municipale  al  Celio. 

A  little  below  the  Temple  of  Romulus,  the  Sacra  Via  was 
spanned  by  the 

XV.  Fornix  Fabiaxus  (the  Arch  of  Q.  Fabius  Allobrogicus) 
(XVI  in  plan).  —  On  the  left  footway  of  the  Sacra  Via,  nearly 
opposite  the  street  which  divides  the  Temple  of  Faustina  from 
the  Ileroon  Romuli,  are  lying  several  blocks  of  travertine,  with 
mouldings,  cornices,  and  capitals  of  very  simple  design.  They 
were  discovered  in  1882  in  the  middle  of  the  street,  not  one  stand- 
ing in  its  original  site.  Ancient  writers  place  at  this  exact  point 
the  fornix  or  archway  erected  by  Q.  Fabius  INIaxinms  Allobrogicus, 
consul  121  B.  c,  in  memory  of  his  successful  campaign  against 
the  Allobroges  and  Arvernes.  The  monument  was  celebrated 
more  from  its  location  than  for  architectural  value  or  size.  Cras- 
sus  the  orator  used  to  say  of  IMemmius  that  he  thought  himself 
so  great  that  he  could  not  enter  the  Forum  without  stooping  his 
head  at  the  Arch  of  Fabius.  Cicero  places  it  at  the  foot  of  the 
Clivus  Sacer. 

The  remains  of  the  arch  were  certainly  dug  up  in  1543,  but 
the  statements  of  contemporary  writers  are  so  contradictory  that 
it  seems  impossible  to  make  out  the  truth.  Some  assert  that  the 
stones  inscribed  with  the  name  of  the  conqueror  of  Savoy  were 
found  built  in  the  vault  of  the  Cloaca  ]Maxima  !  Others  describe 
not  only  the  exact  spot  where  the  arch  stood,  but  also  its  deco- 

216  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

rations,  trophies,  victories,  etc.  Judging  from  the  existing  frag- 
ments, it  was  a  very  simple  structure,  worthy  of  the  austerity  of 
Republican  times.  The  diameter  of  the  archway  measured  3.94 
metres.  It  was  built  of  travertine  on  the  outside,  with  the  core  of 
tufa  and  travertine.  Near  or  upon  it  were  statues  of  L.  ^milius 
Paullus  and  of  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus. 

LiTEUATURK.  —  Cicero,  De  orat.,  ii.  66 ;  and  Pro  Plancio,  7.  —  Corjnis  J7isc):, 
vol.  i.  p.  178;  and  vol.  vi.  n.  1303,  1304.  —Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  JDeW  arco 
Fabiano  nel  Foro  (in  Annal.  Inst.,  1859,  vol.  xxxi.  p.  307).  —  Notizie  der/U 
Scavi,  1882,  p.  224,  tav.  xvi. —Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  126.  — The- 
denat,  in  Daremberg  and  Saglio's  Dlctiontiaire ,  p.  1.302,  n.  28. 

The  last  building  on  the  right  side  of  the  Sacra  Via,  before 
reaching  the  Forum,  is  the 

XVI.  iEi)Es  Y>w\  Pii  ET  Div^.  Faustina,  or  Temple  of  An- 
toninus and  Faustina  —  chui'ch  of  S.  Lorenzo  in  jNliranda  (XVII 
in  plan).  —  "When  Antoninus  Pius  lost  his  wife,  Faustina  the 
elder,  in  A.  D.  141,  the  Senate  voted  a  temple  to  commemorate  her 
apotheosis,  with  priestesses  attached  to  it,  with  gold  and  silver 
statues,  etc.  On  the  architrave  of  the  temple  this  simple  inscrip- 
tion was  engraved :  — 

dIvae  •  favstInae  •  ex  •  s  •  c. 

The  same  divine  honors  were  given  to  Antoninus  after  his 
death  in  161 ;  and  his  name  was  added  to  that  of  Faustina  on  the 
frieze,  with  little  consideration  for  the  laws  of  epigraph  ic  symme- 
try. (See  Corpus  Inscriptionum,  vol.  vi.  n.  1005.)  The  edifice 
was  named  from  the  last  occupant,  ^des  divi  Pii.  It  is  prostyle, 
with  six  columns  on  the  front  and  three  on  the  sides.  The  col- 
umns are  of  Carystian  or  cipollino  marble,  which  had  come  into 
great  fashion  since  the  time  of  Hadrian.  The  frieze,  with  its 
griffins,  vases,  candelabra,  and  festoons,  is  considered  a  marvel  of 

In  the  wide  space  covered  by  the  pronaos  there  were  statues 
of  friends  or  relatives  of  the  Antonines,  like  those  of  Vitrasius 
Pollio  (Corpus  Inscriptionum,  1540),  husband  of  Annia  Faustina, 
governor  of  Asia  and  of  lower  Moesia,  consul  a.  d.  138  and  176 ; 
and  of  Bassseus  Rufus  Qhid.,  1599),  one  of  the  victorious  leaders 
in  the  Marcomannic  campaign.  The  temple  is  represented  in 
contemporary  medals,  as  well  as  in  a  bas-relief  of  the  Villa  Me- 
dici. (See  Bull.  Inst.,  1853,  p.  141.)  Its  remains,  most  beautifully 
preserved,  were  dedicated  to  S.  Lawrence  in  the  seventh  or  eighth 



century,  probably  by  a  devout  lady  named  ^Miranda  (compare  the 
names  of  S.  Lorenzo  in  Forraoso,  in  Daniaso,  in  Lucina,  etc.). 
This  saved  them  from  destruction  until  the  time  of  Urban  V., 
1362-1370,  who  allowed  the  temple  to  be  reduced  to  the  present 
state,  to  provide  stones  and  marbles  for  the  reconsti-uction  of  the 
Lateran.     Martin  V.  granted  the  church  in  1430  to  the  corporation 

Fig.  88.  —  The  Frieze  of  the  Temple  of  Faustina. 

of  apothecaries,  who  built  shrines  and  chapels  in  the  intercolum- 
niations  of  the  portico,  protected  by  a  roof  the  slanting  traces  of 
■which  are  still  \4sible.  Roof  and  cbapels  were  demolished  by 
Paul  III.  on  the  occasion  of  the  entry  of  Charles  Y.  Fra  Gio- 
condo  da  Verona  mentions  more  than  once  excavations  made 
round  the  temple  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  by  which  he 
and  Peruzzi  were  enabled  to  take  measurements  of  the  substruc- 
tures and  basement ;  but  no  further  spoliation  seems  to  have  been 
committed  until  the  temple  was  again  given  up  by  the  same  Paul 
III.  to  the  deputies  for  the  Fabbrica  di  S.  Pietro. 

The  results  of  the  loot  of  1.510  are  described  as  follows  by 
Ligorio  (Bodl.,  p.  28)  :  "  I  shall  now  describe  some  marbles  found 
at  the  foot  of  the  temple,  when  they  were  searching  for,  and  re- 
moving to  S.  Peter's,  the  beautiful  steps,  an  act  of  vandalism 


A    WALK    THE  0  UGH   THE   SAC  HA    VIA 

which  I  cannot  condemn  too  strongly.  There  was  a  bas-relief 
representing  Nereids  riding  on  dolphins ;  a  portion  of  the  figure 
which  stood  on  the  top  of  the  pediment ;  a  square  pedestal  with 
low  relief,  in  a  style  like  the  Egyptian ;  and  many  fragments  of 
statues,  capitals,  and  friezes,  half  burned  in  a  lime-kiln.  There 
was  also  the  base  of  a  statue  dedicated  to  Antoninus  by  the  corpora- 

Fig  89.  —  Graffiti  oii  the  Caiystiau  Columns  of  the  Temple  of  Faustina. 

tion  of  bakers,  which  became  the  property  of  the  Mattel."  There 
were  twenty-one  steps,  as  ascertained  in  the  course  of  the  excava- 
tions made  in  1811  by  the  French  prefect  of  the  Departement  du 
Tibre.  The  same  excavations  brought  to  light  the  threshold  of 
the  door  leading  to  the  crypt  below  the  stairs.  M.  Lacour  Gayet 
discovered  in  1885,  and  published  in  the  "  Melanges  de  I'Ecole 
fran(;aise  de  Rome  "  of  that  year,  p.  226,  a  set  of  graffiti  scratched 

THE   REGIA  219 

on  the  lower  portion  of  the  columns  of  the  pronaos,  after  their 
surface  had  been  softened  by  the  fire  of  Conimodus.  They  rep- 
resent Hercules  and  the  lion  of  Xemea,  a  Lar,  the  Alctory,  etc. 
The  inscriptions  date  from  the  Christian  era,  as  if  some  one  was 
hastening  the  "  purification  "  of  the  building.  There  are  saluta- 
tions like  EVTiciANE  VIVAS  and  the  monogram 


CO  y^  A 

which  must  have  been  sketched  by  some  one  of  Eastern  extrac- 
tion, as  the  Latins  always  made  the  Alpha  precede  the  Omega. 

The  ground  in  front  of  the  temple  was  cleared  in  January,  1870. 
Among  the  objects  recovered  on  this  occasion  were  a  fragment  of 
the  fasti  consulares  from  the  year  of  Rome  75.5  to  760 ;  a  pedestal 
of  a  statue  which,  having  been  overthro'SATi  by  an  earthquake  (fa- 
tali  necessitate  collapsa),  was  replaced  on  its  pedestal  by  Gabinius 
Vettius  Probianus,  a  prefect  of  Eome,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
fifth  century,  well  known  for  the  care  he  took  for  the  j)reservation 
of  works  of  art,  injured  in  one  way  or  another  during  those  event- 
ful years ;  and  the  pedestal  of  an  equestrian  statue  raised  \)\  the 
policemen  to  Geta.  The  ground  in  front  of  the  temple  is  called 
in  the  inscription  of  Probianus  celeberrimvs  a-rbis  locvs. 

Literature. —  Vita  Pii,  6.  —  Eckliel,  Doctriiia  numism.  vet.,  vii.  .39.  —  Pirro 
Ligorio,  Cod.  vat.,  3374,  f.  168;  and  Cod.  Torin.,  xv.  f.  100.— Fra  Giocoiido 
da  Verona,  Uffizi,  n.  202.  — Tournon,  Etudes  statist,  sur  Rome,  vol.  ii.  p.  264. 
—  Valadier  et  Visconti,  Raccolta  delle  piii  itisirjni  fabbriche  di  Roma,  tav.  ii., 
iii.  —  Antonio  Nibby,  Faro  romano,  p.  181.  —  Angelo  Pellegrini,  Svavi  di 
Roma  (in  Buonarroti,  February,  1876). — Armellini,  Chiese  di  Roma,  p.  1.57. 

We  must  now  cross  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  Sacra  Via,  and 
examine,  before  entering  the  Forum,  the  group  of  Vesta,  which 
comprises  the  Regia,  the  temple,  the  shrine,  and  the  house  of  the 


XVIT.  The  Regia  (X\T;II  in  plan).  —  The  now  vacant  sj^ace 
of  ground  between  the  Temples  of  Vesta  and  Faustina  was  occu- 
pied by  the  Regia,  the  official  residence  of  the  Pontifex  ]\Iaximus, 
and  the  centre  of  his  administration,  the  foundation  of  which  was 
attributed  to  Xuma.  It  contained  a  chapel  where  the  lances  of 
Mars  were  kept ;  another  sacred  to  Ops  C'onsiva,  which  could  be 
entered  only  liy  the  Vestals  and  by  the  •'  sacerdos  publicus ;  "  spa- 
cious archives  for  the  safe  keeping  of  the  annals,  commentaries, 
and  books  of  the  Supi'eme  Priesthood ;  and  a  meeting  hall  where 



religious  conventions  were  held  (like  that  of  the  Fratres  Arvales 
of  May  14,  14  b.  c,  for  the  cooptatio  of  Drusus  Caesar,  son  of 
Tiberius).  The  Regia  was  burnt  to  the  ground  not  less  than  four 
times :  first  in  210  b.  c.  ;  then  in  148,  when  only  the  chapel  of 
Mars  and  the  laurel-trees  shading  the  entrance  were  saved  from 
the  flames ;  and  again  in  36,  when  it  was  rebuilt  by  Doniitius 
Calvinus  in  solid  marble,  and  ornamented  with  statues  obtained 
from  Julius  Ciiesar,  much  against  his  will.  Pliny  (Xatural  His- 
tory, xxxvi.  18,  8)  says  that  two  of  the  four  statues  which  once 
had  supported  the  tent  of  Alexander  the  Great  were  placed  before 
the  Regia,  the  other  two  being  before  the  Temple  of  Mars  Ultor. 
In  1883  I  expressed  the  opinion  (Notizie  Scavi,  p.  479)  that 

Fig.  00.  —The  Regia,  as  .sketched  by  Pirro  Ligorio. 

the  graceful  little  edifice  (once  more  attacked  by  the  flames  in  the 
conflagration  of  Nero)  never  rose  from  its  ashes ;  but  after  read- 
ing the  account  of  its  discovery  and  outrageous  treatment  by  the 
deputies  of  the  Fabbrica  di  S.  Pietro  in  1543-46,  I  wish  to  correct 
this  statement.  The  illusti-ation,  which  I  have  photographed 
from  an  original  sketch  by  Ligorio,  who  was  present  at  the  di?- 

THE    TEMPLE    OF    VESTA  221 

covery,  speaks  better  than  any  other  argument.  The  design  is 
more  a  restoration  of  that  fanciful  architect  than  a  picture  of 
the  real  state  of  the  building  when  first  discovered  (August  15, 
1543  V) ;  but  many  of  the  particulars  are  genuine,  as  any  one  can 
see  by  comparing  them  with  the  existing  fragment,  reproduced  by 
Huelsen  and  Nichols,  with  Michelangelo's  reconstruction  in  the 
Sala  dei  Fasti,  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori,  and  with  Panvinio's  de- 
signs. Ligorio  labored  under  the  delusion  that  the  edifice  discov- 
ered was  a  "  Janus,"  and  so  he  gave  it  four  entrances,  wliile  in 
reality  there  were  but  two.  At  any  rate  all  those  present  at  the 
find,  Palladio,  Metello,  Panvinio,  Ligorio,  agree  that  there  was 
a  considerable  portion  of  the  Regia  standing  above  ground,  and 
that  very  many  lines  of  the  Fasti  triumphales  et  consulares  were 
found  in  situ,  engraved  on  its  marble  walls  and  pilasters ;  the  first 
between  18  and  12  before  Christ,  the  consulares  in  36.  Ligorio 
says  that  it  took  thirty  days  to  demolish  the  exquisite  ruins  down 
to  the  level  of  the  foundations,  some  of  the  blocks  being  split  for 
the  lime-kiln,  others  handed  over  to  the  stone-cutters  of  S.  Peter's. 
Cardinal  Alessandro  Farnese  came  finally  to  the  rescue  :  the  frag- 
ments of  the  Fasti  were  piously  collected  by  him,  and  removed 
to  the  Capitol,  and  the  ground  was  tunneled  in  various  directions 
in  search  of  stray  pieces.  Michelangelo  for  the  architectural  part, 
and  Gentile  Delfino  for  the  epigraphic,  were  deputed  to  arrange 
them  in  one  of  the  halls  of  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori.  Other 
fragments  have  been  discovered  since  1870. 

Literature. —  Coi-jms  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p.  41.5;  second  edition,  pp.  10-12,  pi. 
la.  —  Fea,  Frammenti  d.  Fasd.  —  Adolf  Becker,  Topographie,  p.  234. — De 
Murls,  p.  23.  —  F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  pp.  118-12.5.  —  Heinrich 
Jordan,  Furma  Urbis,  pi.  3,  n.  21.  —  Notizie  der/li  Scavi,  1882,  p.  226.  —  The  dis- 
coveries of  1886  were  illustrated  b}'  Nichols,  The  Regia  and  the  Fasti  Capito- 
lini  (in  Archaiologia,  vol.  1.,  1887,  p.  227);  by  the  same  in  Mittheil.,  1886, 
pp.  94-98;  by  Jordan,  Gli  edijizi  J'ra  il  tempio  di  Faustina,  e  V  atrio  di  Vesta 
(in  Mittheil.,  1886,  p.  99,  pis.  5-7);  and  bv  Huelsen,  Die  Regia  (in  Jahrbuch 
Arch.  Inst.,  1889,  p.  228). 

XVIII.  The  Temple  of  Vesta  (XIX  in  plan).  —  "In  prehis- 
toric times,  when  fire  could  be  obtained  only  from  the  friction 
caused  by  rubbing  together  two  sticks  of  wood  or  from  sparks  of 
flint,  every  village  kept  a  public  fire  burning  day  and  night  in  a 
central  hut  for  the  use  of  each  family.  The  duty  of  watching  the 
precious  element  was  intrusted  to  young  girls,  because  girls,  as 
a  rule,  did  not  follow  their  parents  or  brothers  to  the  pasture 
grounds,  nor  did  they  share  with  them  the  fatigues  of  hunting  or 

222  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

fishing  expeditions.  In  course  of  time  this  simple  practice  be- 
came a  kind  of  sacred  institution,  especially  at  Alba  Longa,  the 
mother  country  of  Rome ;  and  when  a  party  of  Alban  shepherds 
settled  on  the  banks  of  the  Tiber,  the  worship  of  Vesta  —  repre- 
sented by  the  j)ublic  fire  and  the  girls  attending  to  it  —  was  duly 
organized  at  the  foot  of  the  Palatine,  on  the  borders  of  the  market- 
place "  (Ancient  Rome,  p.  135). 

It  seems  that  the  original  hut  built  by  Numa  perished  in  the 
invasion  of  the  Gauls  in  390  b.  c.  The  Vestals,  on  being  warned 
of  their  approach,  concealed  the  Palladium  and  other  relics  in 
two  earthen  jars,  buried  them  near  the  house  of  the  flamen  Quiri- 
nalis  — the  place  was  henceforth  called  f/o//o/a  — and  took  refuge 
at  Caere.  A  second  fire  in  241  destroyed  the  temple.  While  the 
Vestals  tried  to  save  their  lives,  Caecilius  Metellus,  the  high  priest, 
threw  himself  into  the  flames,  and  saved  the  Palladium  at  the 
cost  of  one  eye  and  one  arm,  which  was  charred  to  the  bone.  The 
valor  of  thirteen  slaves  saved  the  temple  from  being  gutted  for 
the  third  time  in  210,  and  for  this  action  they  were  at  once  lib- 
erated. The  architecture  of  the  temple  of  those  days  can  be  seen 
in  the  coins  of  the  gens  Cassia,  dating  from  the  commencement  of 
the  seventh  century.'  The  round  structure  is  covered  by  a  conical 
roof  surmounted  by  a  statue,  and  fringed  around  with  dragons' 
heads.  Horace  describes  an  inundation  of  the  time  of  Augustus, 
by  which  the  temple  was  seriously  damaged.  Kero  restored  it 
after  his  own  fire.  Lastly,  the  terrible  conflagration  which  swept 
over  the  valley  of  the  Forum  in  191  a.  d.,  under  the  Empire  of 
Commodus,  destroyed  with  the  temple  the  house  of  the  Vestals, 
the  Temple  of  Peace,  etc.  The  Vestals  fled  to  the  Palatine, 
carrying  with  them  the  Palladium,  which  was  thus  seen  for  the 
first  time  by  profane  eyes.  The  reconstruction  by  Julia  Domna, 
the  Empress  of  Septimius  Severus,  and  the  mother  of  Caracalla, 
is  the  last  recorded  in  history.  The  "  vignettes  "  of  her  medals 
(ap.  Cohen,  Med.  imp.,  2d  ed.  n.  239)  give  an  exact  idea  of  its 
architecture  and  style ;  it  is  also  represented  on  several  bas-reliefs, 
reproduced  by  the  aiithors  and  in  the  works  quoted  at  the  foot 
of  this  section.  After  the  defeat  of  Eugenius  in  394,  Theodosius 
II.  shut  the  gates  of  the  temple  and  extinguished  forever  the 
mysterious  fire  which  had  been  kept  burning  for  over  a  thousand 

A  shapeless  mass  of  concrete  of  the  foundations  is  all  that  is 
left  of  the  famous  shrine.  The  responsibility  for  such  a  great  loss 
1  Babelon,  Monnaies  de  la  republ.  romaine,  vol.  i.  p.  331,  n.  8,  9. 

224  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

falls  not  on  the  would-be  barbarians,  but,  as  usual,  on  the  genial 
masters  of  the  Renaissance.  When  first  discovered,  at  the  time 
of  Fra  Giocondo  da  Verona  in  1489,  it  was  practically  intact,  and 
had  suffered  only  slight  damage.  The  Fabbrica  di  S.  Pietro  de- 
stroyed it  in  1.549,  removing  or  burning  into  lime  not  only  the 
marble  blocks  of  the  cella,  the  entablature,  and  the  peristyle,  but 
even  the  tufa  blocks  which  strengthened  and  surrounded  the 
concrete  of  the  foundations,  like  a  ring.  Thirty-five  pieces  only 
escaped  by  a  miracle,  and  we  found  them  scattered  over  a  large 
area  in  the  excavations  of  1877.  AMth  their  help,  and  by  com- 
parison with  the  designs  of  medals  and  bas-reliefs,  architects  and 
archaeologists  have  attempted  the  reconstruction  of  the  temple. 
The  one  I  suggest  is  represented  on  pp.  159  and  IGO  of  "  Ancient 
Rome."  Compare  it  with  Jordan's  "  Der  Tempel,"  pi.  4 ;  and 
Auer's  "  Der  Tempel,"  plates  6-8.  This  last  is  reproduced  in  the 
preceding  cut. 

Literature. —  Wolfgang:  Helbig,  Bull.  Inst.,  1878,  p.  9.  —  Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciani,  V  atrio  di  Vesta  (in  Notizie  Scavi,  December,  1883);  and  Ancient  Rome, 
chaps,  vi.  and  vii. —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Ber  Tempel  der  Vesta.  Berlin,  Weid- 
mann,  1886.  —  Hans  Auer,  Ber  Tempel  der  Vesta.  Vienna,  Tempsky,  1888. — 
Christian  Huelsen,  MittlieU.,  vol.  iv.,  1889,  p.  245.  —  J.  Henrj'  Middleton, 
The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  298.  —  H.  Thedenat,  in  Daremberg 
and  Saglio's  Bictionnaire,  p.  1285,  n.  7. 

XIX.  The  Shrine  (XX  in  plan).  —  The  ancient  practice  of 
placing  shrines  of  domestic  gods  at  the  corners  of  the  main  streets 
of  each  ward  of  the  city,  was  raised  to  the  dignity  of  a  public 
institution  by  Augustus.^  Four  hundred  and  twenty-four  of  these 
popular  chapels  were  numbered  in  Rome  under  Constantine.  The 
Christians  accepted  the  institution,  and  developed  it  to  such  an 
extent  that  not  less  than  three  thousand  two  hundred  and  forty-six 
were  registered  in  Rome  in  1853.  Although  many  inscriptions 
belonging  to  the  "  sediculae  larum  "  have  been  found  from  time  to 
time,  only  two  may  be  said  to  exist  now  :  the  shrine  of  the  Vicus 
Sobrius  near  S.  Martino  ai  Monti,  and  that  of  the  Vicus  Vestse. 
The  latter  stands  behind  the  temple  on  the  right  of  the  entrance 
door  to  the  cloisters.  The  entablature  was  supported  by  two 
columns  of  the  composite  order.  The  frieze  contains  the  follow- 
ing inscription,  in  letters  of  the  golden  age  :  sexatvs  popvlvsqve 
KOMANv(.s)  •  PECVNiA  •  PVBLicA  •  FACiENDAM  •  cvRAViT.  Under- 
neath there  was,  very  likely,  a  statue  of  Mercury,  a  socle  inscribed 

1  See  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  62  ;  and  Suetonius,  Octav.,1^,  "com- 
pitales  Lares  ornare  bis  in  anno  instituit  vernis  floribus  et  icstivis." 

V    ts 

:-       O 

226  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

DEO  •  MERCVRio  having  been  found  not  far  away.  An  inscription 
discovered  in  June,  1878,  at  S.  Paolo  fuori  le  Mura  tells  us  the 
name  and  the  history  of  this  monument.  It  says  that  in  a.  d.  223, 
Severus  Alexander  being  Emperor,  the  street  magistrates  of  the 
eighth  region  (Forum)  had  rebuilt  ^^edicvlam  •  reg  •  viii  •  vico 
VEST^.  Vesta's  Temple  is  separated  from  that  of  Castor  and 
Pollux  by  a  lane,  which  is  evidently  the  Vicus  Vestae  mentioned 

This  beautiful  shrine  could  be  reconstructed  in  its  entirety,  but 
the  attempt  has  not  yet  been  made. 

XX.  Atrium  Vest^  (House  of  the  Vestals)  (XXI  in  plan, 
and  Fig.  92). —  The  House  of  the  Vestals  is  an  oblong  brick  build- 
ing, of  the  time  of  Septimius  Severus  and  Julia  Domna,  sur- 
rounded by  streets  on  every  side  :  by  the  Sacra  Via  on  the  north, 
by  the  Vicus  Vestae  on  the  west,  by  the  Nova  Via  on  the  south, 
and  by  an  unknown  lane  on  the  east.  The  most  prominent  feature 
of  the  building  is  the  Atrium  ;  in  fact,  its  size  and  magnificence 
were  so  great  that  the  whole  building  was  named  from  it,  Atrium 
Vestse.  The  building  itself  is  115  metres  long,  53  wide  ;  the 
Atrium  67  metres  long,  24  wide.  The  surface  of  the  house  amounts 
to  6095  square  metres,  of  which  not  less  than  one  foui'th  (1608 
square  metres)  is  occupied  by  the  Atrium.  Its  architecture  can  be 
compared  with  that  of  our  mediaeval  and  Renaissance  double- 
storied  cloisters,  which,  being  the  abode  of  people  seldom  or 
never  allowed  to  go  out,  must  necessarily  be  very  airy  and  spacious 
to  give  the  inmates  the  chance  of  taking  bodily  exercise.  The 
portico  on  the  ground  floor  has,  or  rather  had,  forty-eight  columns 
of  cipollino  mai'ble,  of  the  Corinthian  order.  Of  this  stately  col- 
onnade not  a  piece  is  left  standing.  The  site  and  the  number  of 
the  shafts  are  marked  only  by  the  foundation  stones  (cuscini)  of 
travertine.  Not  a  trace  has  been  found  of  the  capitals  and  of  the 
entablature,  which  was  146  metres  long ;  and  I  do  not  know  any 
other  instance  of  such  a  wholesale  destruction  of  an  ancient  build- 
ing. The  second  or  upper  story  had  an  equal  number  of  columns, 
smaller  in  size  and  of  the  precious  breccia  corallina.  Two  whole 
columns  and  many  fragments  have  been  recovered.  They  have 
escaped  destruction  because  the  breccia  corallina  cannot  be  burnt 
into  lime. 

The  Atrium  is  surrounded  by  state  apartments  on  the  ground 
floor.  On  the  upper  it  was  surrounded  by  the  private  apartments 
of  the  Vestals.     Of  course,  we  cannot  give  their  right  name  to  the 

THE   HOUSE    OF   THE    VESTALS  227 

single  pieces,  or  state  one  by  one  their  former  use  and  place.  At 
the  east  end  of  the  cloisters  there  is  a  large  hall,  twelve  metres 
long  and  eight  metres  wide,  which  corresponds  to  the  tablinum  of  a 
Roman  house.  Its  pavement  is  laid  out  in  colored  marbles,  such 
as  giallo,  porfido,  serpentine,  etc.,  and  the  pattern  belongs  to  the 
style  brought  into  fashion  under  Septimius  Sever  us.  The  walls 
were  incrusted  also  with  rare  marbles  framed  by  a  cornice  of  rosso 
antico.  On  each  side  of  this  hall  there  are  three  smaller  rooms, 
making  a  total  of  six,  a  figure  corresponding  to  the  number  of  the 
Vestals.  Their  destination  is  doubtful ;  certainly  they  were  not 
used  as  bedrooms,  in  the  first  place  because  the  bedrooms  have 
been  traced  in  the  upper  story,  and  secondly,  because  the  damp- 
ness of  these  low  cells  is  such  that  they  were  absolutely  unfit  for 
human  habitation. 

The  position  of  the  house,  as  regards  health  and  health-giving 
sunshine,  is  most  unfavorable.  Being  built  against  the  cliff  of 
the  Palatine,  at  the  bottom  of  an  artificial  cutting,  its  ground 
floor  lies  thirty  feet  below  the  level  of  the  Nova  Via ;  this  street  is 
actually  supported  by  the  back  walls  of  the  state  apartments  on 
the  west  side  of  the  Atrium.  No  wonder  that  these  walls  should 
be  saturated  with  damp,  which  must  have  told  severely  on  the 
health  of  the  sisters.  They  did  their  best  to  fight  the  evil. 
Double  walls  were  set  up  against  the  buttress  of  the  Nova  Via, 
with  a  free  space  between  them  to  allow  of  the  circidation  of  air. 
Ventilators  and  hot-air  furnaces  are  to  be  seen  in  every  corner. 
Another  precaution  taken  by  the  Vestals  against  rheumatism  was 
the  raising  of  the  pavements  of  every  room  subject  to  damp,  and 
the  establishment  of  hot  vapor  currents  in  the  free  space  between 
the  double  floors.  This  was  done  rather  awkwardly.  Instead  of 
the  terra-cotta  cylinders  or  brick  pillars  which  were  commonly 
used  by  the  Konians  to  support  the  upper  floor  of  these  hypocausta, 
the  Vestals  of  latter  days  made  use  of  large  amphorje  sawn  across 
and  cut  into  two  portions  of  equal  length.  These  half  jars  are 
placed  in  parallel  rows  and  very  near  each  other,  and  made  to 
support  the  large  tegulce  bipedales  over  which  the  pavement  is  laid. 
Hot  air  was  forced  to  circulate  in  the  interstices  between  the  jars 
by  means  of  terra-cotta  pipes  from  a  furnace.  In  spite  of  all 
these  precautions,  the  hoiise  must  have  remained  unhealthy,  es- 
pecially from  want  of  sunshine.  Even  how  it  is  cast  into  the 
shade  of  the  surrounding  ruins  of  the  imperial  palace  at  an  early 
hour  of  the  day ;  imagine  what  must  have  happened  when  that 
palace  was  towering  in  all  its  glory  fully  150  feet  above  the  level 

228  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

of  the  Atrium.  These  unfavorable  liygieuic  conditions  allow  us 
to  exi^lain,  with  a  certain  degree  of  probability,  a  remarkable 
change  in  the  rules  of  the  order  made  towards  the  beginning  of 
the  fourth  century.  Physicians  were  not  allowed  in  former  times 
to  enter  the  Atrium.  As  soon  as  the  fii'st  symptoms  of  a  case  of 
sickness  made  their  appearance  the  patient  was  at  once  removed 
from  the  nunnery  and  put  under  the  care  of  her  parents,  or  else 
under  the  charge  of  a  distingiushed  matron.  In  the  fourth  cen- 
tury we  hear  for  the  first  time  of  an  archiater  or  physician  attached 
to  the  establishment. 

When  the  excavations  began  in  October,  1883,  we  were  in  hope 
of  discovering  some  kind  of  fasti  which  would  tell  us  the  names  of 
the  Vestal  virgins,  the  dates  of  their  cooptation  and  death,  and, 
above  all,  the  list  of  the  abbesses  of  the  monastery.  The  expecta- 
tion was  disappointed ;  and  when  we  consider  that  amongst  the 
forty  thousand  inscriptions  discovered  in  Rome  since  the  early 
Renaissance  there  is  not  a  line,  not  a  fragment,  which  can  be 
attributed  to  the  above-named  fasti,  we  may  confidently  assert 
that  they  never  existed.  It  is  difficult  to  explain  this  fact.  The 
parallel  religious  corporations  of  the  Fratres  Ai'vales,  of  the  Salii 
Palatini,  of  the  Augiu's,  took  care  that  the  fasti  of  their  order, 
year  after  year,  should  be  engraved  in  marble ;  and  these  marbles, 
more  or  less  injiu-ed  by  time,  have  come  down  to  us,  and  they  are 
considered  as  the  most  precious  documents  of  Latin  epigraphy  and 
chronology.  Perhaps  it  was  not  customary  that  female  corpora- 
tions should  have  special  annals;  perhajis  these  annals  were  only 
permitted  to  true  collegia,  and  the  Vestals,  like  the  Curiones,  were 
not  considered  as  such.  At  any  i-ate,  the  want  of  the  fasti  is 
compensated  for,  as  regards  the  Atrium,  by  the  magnificent  set  of 
pedestals,  with  statues  and  eulogistic  inscriptions,  raised  in  honor 
of  the  Vestales  maximse.  The  fashion  of  these  dedications  seems 
to  have  come  in  with  the  Empire,  and  was  kept  until  the  fall  of 
the  pagan  superstition.  The  Atrium  Vestse  must  have  contained 
more  than  one  hundred  "honorary"  pedestals,  not  because  there 
were  as  many  abbesses  during  the  last  four  centuries  of  Vesta's 
worship,  but  because  many  statues  represented  and  many  pedestals 
bore  the  name  of  the  same  lady.  The  stone-cutters  and  the  lime- 
burners  of  the  Middle  Ages  have  destroyed  more  than  four  fifths 
of  this  series.  We  possess  actually  the  originals  or  the  copies  of 
thirty-six  inscriptions  bearing  names  of  Vestales  maxinue  of  these, 
twenty-eight  were  found  in  the  Atrium  itself,  two  on  the  Palatine, 
six  in  various  other  quarters  of  the  town.     Comparing  the  infox'- 

THE   HOUSE    OF   THE    VESTALS  220 

mation  given  by  these  marbles  with  tlie  accounts  of  classical 
writers,  we  can  put  together  an  important  section  of  the  fasti 
7naximatus  (the  word  maxhiiatus  has  appeared  for  the  first  time  in 
one  of  the  new  inscriptions). 

1.  Occia.  She  presided  over  the  sisterhood  from  the  year  38 
B.  c.  to  A,  D.  19.     (Tacitus,  Ann.,  ii.  86.) 

2.  Junia  Torquata,  daughter  of  Silanus,  the  noblest  of  the  noble 
Roman  ladies ;  maxima  between  a.  d.  19  and  48. 

3.  Vibidia,  the  generous  protector  of  INIessalina  when  the  long 
story  of  her  infamies  was  disclosed  to  Claudius.  (Tacitus,  Ann., 
xi.  32.) 

4.  Cornelia  Maxima,  murdered  by  Domitiau.    (Pliny,  Ep.,  iv.  11.) 

5.  Prsetextata.  Her  name  appeared  for  the  first  time  on  a  ped- 
estal discovered  December  29,  1883 :  "  Prjetextata;  Crassi  Filise 
Virgini  Vestali  Maxima*,  C.  lulius  Creticus  a  Sacris."  Her  mo- 
ther, "  Sulpicia  Crassi  uxor,"  is  mentioned  by  Tacitus  (Hist.,  iv.  42). 

6.  Numisia  Maximilla,  a.  d.  200.  Two  pedestals  mention  her 
name  —  one  found  tliree  centuries  ago,  one  discovered  on  Decem- 
ber 29,  1883,  "Xumisia?  jNIaximillse  V.V.  Maximaj,  C.  Helvidius 
Mysticus  devotus  beneficiis  eius." 

7.  Terentia  Flavola,  A.  d.  215,  whose  name  is  engraved  on  four 
pedestals,  was  the  great-granddaughter  of  Lollianus  Avitus,  con- 
sul in  A.  D.  114 ;  the  granddaughter  of  L.  Iledius  Rufus  Lollianus 
Avitus,  consul  in  a.  d.  144 ;  the  daughter  of  Q.  Hedius  Rufus  Lolli- 
anus Gentianus,  Salius  Palatinus  and  consul  of  uncertain  date. 
She  had,  moreover,  two  brothers,  Lollianus  Plautius  Avitus,  hus- 
band of  Claudia  Sestia  Cocceia  Severiana,  and  Terentius  Gentianus, 
husband  of  Pomponia  Pietina. 

8.  Campia  Severina,  a.  d.  240. 

9.  Flavia  Mamilia,  A.  d,  242. 

10.  Flavia  Publicia,  a.  d.  247.  This  lady  was  undoubtedly  the 
most  famous  and  venerable  chief  of  the  order.  Her  eulogies  and 
her  pedestals  have  been  discovei-ed  in  vast  numbers.  Judging 
from  the  appearance  of  the  exquisite  statue  discovered,  together 
with  one  of  her  pedestals,  on  December  20,  Flavia  Publicia  was 
a  lady  of  tall,  queenly  appearance,  of  noble  demeanor,  of  a  sweet 
and  gentle,  if  not  handsome  face.  Seven  pedestals  have  been 
found,  —  one  in  1497,  one  in  1.549,  five  in  our  own  excavations. 
Of  these  recent  ones  the  first  was  dedicated  on  July  11,  247  A.  d., 
by  her  niece  ^^milia  Rogatilla,  and  by  Minucius  Honoratus,  son 
of  iEmilia ;  the  second  by  two  captains  of  the  army,  Ulpius  Yerus 
and  Aurelius  Titus;  the  third  was  dedicated  on  September  30, 

230  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

A.  D.  257,  by  a  certain  Bareius  Zoticus,  with  his  wife  Flavia 
Verecunda ;  the  fourth  by  a  M.  Aurelius  Hermes ;  the  last  by 
T.  Flavins  Ajsronius,  a  sub-iiitendant  of  the  monastery. 

11.  Coelia  Claudiuna,  a.  d.  286.  This  abbess  was  already 
known  from  five  inscriptions  discovered  at  various  times.  The 
two  others  lately  found  tell  nothing  remarkable,  except  that  she 
is  said  to  have  ruled  over  twenty  years. 

12.  Terentia  Rufilla.,  a.  d.  300. 

13.  On  November  5th,  a  pedestal  was  discovered  bearing  the 
following  inscription :  "  Ob  meritum  castitatis,  pudicitise,  atque 
in  sacris  religionib usque  doctrines  mirabilis  .  .  .  [name  erased] 
virgini  Vestali  maxima^,  Pontifices  viri  clarissimi,  pro  magistro 
Macrinio  Sossiano  viro  clarissimo,  pro  meritis."  Then  follows 
the  date  of  June  9,  a.  d.  364  :  "  dedicata  quinto  idus  lunias,  divo 
loviano  et  Varroniano  consulibus."  Now,  why  should  the  name 
of  this  highly  praised  priestess  have  been  erased?  Two  reasons 
only  can  be  given :  either  she  happened  to  forget  the  vows  of 
chastity,  or  she  was  converted  to  Christianity.  The  first  expla- 
nation does  not  seem  satisfactory,  not  only  because  she  was  most 
probably  a  mature,  if  not  an  old  woman,  when  the  crime  and 
the  memorlce.  damnaiio  took  place,  but  also  because  the  fall  of  a 
Vestal  would  certainly  have  been  noticed  and  registered  and  pro- 
claimed to  the  four  winds  by  contemporary  Christian  writers. 
Conversion  to  the  Gospel  seems  more  probable ;  one  of  these  con- 
quests of  the  new  faith  in  Vesta's  Atrium  seems  to  be  mentioned 
by  Prudentius  (Peristeph.,  hymn  2). 

14.  Coelia  Concordia,  the  last  Vesialis  maxima,  or  the  last  bixt 
one.  She  was  a  great  friend  of  the  great  champion  of  polytheism, 
Vettius  Agorius  Pmetextatus.  Some  of  her  exploits  have  been 
revealed  by  the  discovery  of  a  pedestal  in  the  house  of  Prtetextatus 
himself,  which  house  stood  where  is  now  the  Convento  dei  Liguo- 
rini,  formerly  the  Villa  Caserta,  at  the  corner  of  the  Via  Merulana 
and  the  Via  dell'  Arco  di  S.  Vito.  Ccelia  Concordia  had  raised  a 
statue  in  honor  of  Prsetextatus  in  the  Atrium  itself ;  she  received 
the  same  distinction  in  the  house  of  that  nobleman.  The  statue 
of  Prsetextatus  was  discovered  in  the  Atrium  the  last  day  of  1883. 

In  tlie  four  months  during  whicli  the  excavations  lasted,  36,000 
cubic  metres  of  earth  were  carted  away  and  the  following  objects 
discovered :  jNIarble  pedestals  with  inscriptions,  13 ;  inscriptions 
on  marble  slabs,  12;  brick-stamps,  102;  silver  coins,  835;  gold 
coin,  1 ;  pieces  of  jewelry,  2 ;  busts  and  heads,  15 ;  statues,  11 ; 
important  pieces  of  statues,  7;  columns  or  pieces  of  columns  of 
breccia  corallina,  cipollino,  and  bigio,  11. 

THE    HOUSE    OF    THE    VESTALS  231 

The  most  remarkable  find  was  that  of  a  ripostiglio,  or  hidden 
treasure  of  Anglo-Saxon  coins,  made  on  November  8,  1883,  under 
the  remains  of  a  mediaeval  house  built  within  the  northeast  corner 
of  the  Atrium.  About  a  metre  and  a  half  above  the  ancient  pave- 
ment our  men  found  a  rough  terra-cotta  jug  containing  832  silver 
coins,  one  of  gold,  and  a  piece  of  jewelry  inscribed  "  Domno 
Marino  Papa." 

The  gold  coin,  a  solidus,  shows  on  one  side  the  head  and  the 
name  of  the  Byzantine  Emperor  Theophilus  (827-84"2),  on  the 
other  side  the  busts  of  JMichael  and  Constantine  VIII.  The  piece 
proves  only  that  the  treasure  was  not  buried  before  the  first  half 
of  the  lunth  centmy,  and  proves  nothing  else,  as  Byzantine  solidi 
have  been  used  both  in  the  East  and  in  the  West  for  centuries ;  in 
fact,  a  few  of  them  were  still  current  not  many  years  ago  in  some 
Turkish  provinces.  In  the  Middle  Ages  they  were  the  standard 
international  currency;  the  Merovingian  kings  even  struck  a 
certain  number  of  these  coins  with  the  effigies  and  names  of 
.Justinus,  of  Justinian,  and  so  forth.  Of  the  832  silver  denarii, 
828  are  Anglo-Saxon,  one  from  Ratisbon,  one  from  Limoges,  two 
from  Pavia.  The  Anglo-Saxon  group  is  subdivided  as  follows  : 
Coins  with  the  legend  aelfred  rex,  3;  with  eadvveakd  rex, 
217;  with  aethelstax  uex,  393;  with  eadmvnd  rex,  195; 
with  oxLAF  (Anlaf,  Anlef)  rex  or  cvxvxc,  G;  with  sitrice 
CVNVNC,  1 ;  with  the  name  of  archbishop  plegmvnd,  4 ;  uncer- 
tain. 10 ;  total,  829.     Of  ^Ethelstan's  coins,  2  were  struck  at  Bath, 

1  at  Canterbury,  1  at  Chichester,  1  at  Dartmouth,  4  at  Derby,  20 
at  Dorchester,  6  at  Exeter,  16  at  York,  2  at  Hertford,  1  at  Lewes, 

2  at  Longport,  25  at  Leicester,  66  at  London,  1  at  ^Maldon,  14 
at  Norwich,  9  at  Oxford,  7  at  Shrewsbury,  1  at  Shaftesbury,  3  at 
Stafford,  14  at  Winchester,  13  at  Wallingford,  3  at  tolie  (?). 
The  names  of  the  monttarii  are  nearly  as  numerous  as  the  coins 
tliemselves.  The  piece  of  jewelry  is  a  kind  of  fibula  or  broocli, 
witli  silver  designs  and  letters  iidaid  on  copper.  It  is  a  unique 
piece,  not  only  as  a  work  of  art  of  a  Roman  goldsmith  of  the 
tenth  century,  but  because  fibula'  inscribed  with  the  name  of 
the  living  pope  are  not  to  be  found.  It  was  certainly  used  to 
fasten  on  the  shoulder  the  mantle  of  some  high  official  belonging 
to  the  court  of  ]Marinus  II.,  a  pontiff  otherwise  obscure,  who 
occupied  the  chair  of  S.  Peter  from  942  to  946 ;  Albericus  being 
tlien  the  Princeps  romanorum  and  Edmund  the  King  of  England. 
This  official  must  have  been  in  charge  of  the  pope's  episcopium, 
which  nestled  among  the  ruins  of   the   palace  of  Caligula  (see 

232  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

p.  155),  and  must  have  been  paid  with  "  Peter's  pence "  from 
England.  His  small  house,  destroyed  in  1884,  rested  on  the  three 
pedestals  of  Ccelia  Claudiana,  of  the  condemned  Vestal,  No.  13, 
and  of  Flavia  Publicia,  which  one  finds  on  the  right-hand  side  of 
the  entrance  (letter  A  in  plan). 

The  foundations  of  an  octagonal  shrine,  purposely  and  deliber- 
ately leveled  to  the  ground,  appear  in  the  centre  of  the  cloisters. 
This  shrine  contained  probably  the  "  sacra  fatalia,"  the  sacred 
tokens  of  the  Roman  commonwealth,  like  the  Palladium,  intrusted 
to  the  care  of  the  Vestals.  We  believe  that  the  destruction  of 
this  innermost  sanctuary  was  accomplished  by  the  Vestals  them- 
selves in  the  last  days  preceding  the  suppression  of  the  order  and 
their  banishment  from  the  cloisters,  A.  d.  394:. 

In  a  room  near  the  southeast  corner,  marked  B  in  the  plan,  is 
the  ]nill  used  by  the  Vestals  to  grind  meal  with  which  the  "  mola 
salsa,"  a  most  primitive  kind  of  cake,  was  prepared  on  February 
15  of  each  year,  during  the  celebration  of  the  Lupercalia. 

The  House  of  the  Vestals  has  lost  much  of  its  fascinating 
interest  since  the  best  works  of  art,  busts,  statues,  portraits,  and 
inscriptions,  pertaining  to  it,  have  been  removed  to  the  baths  of 

Literature. — Rodolfo  Lanciani,  JJ atria  cli  Vesta,  con  appendice  delcomm. 
de  Rossi.     Rome,  Salviucci,  1884.  —  Costantino  Maes,  Vesta  e  Vestali.     Rome, 

1883.  —  Henirich  Jordan,  Dei'  Tempel  der  Vesta  und  das  Haus  der  Vestalinnen. 
Berlin,  1884. — Hans  Auer,  Der  Tempel  derVesta  und  das  Haus  der  Vestalinnen, 
Vienna,  1888.  —  J.  Henry  Middleton,  The  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome,  vol.  i.  p. 
229. — Joachim  INIarquardt,  Stuatsverwalfrmg,  vol.  iii.  p.  32-3.  —  Bull.  Inst., 

1884,  p.  145.— J/i»Ae?7.,  1889,  p.  245;  1891,  p.  91 ;  1892,  t^.  287.  — Atti  Accad. 
archeoL,  1890,  p.  407. 


XXI.  Forum  Romanum  Magnum  (XXII  in  plan,  and  Fig.  93). 
—  We  have  now  come  to  the  most  interesting  part  of  our  walk, 
to  the  chief  attraction  of  this  attractive  district,  to  the  Forum 
Romanum  Magnum,  where  for  so  many  centuries  the  destinies  of 
the  ancient  world  were  swayed. 

At  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  Rome  the  bartering  trade 
between  the  various  tribes  settled  on  the  heights  of  the  left  bank 
of  the  Tiber  was  concentrated  in  the  hollow  ground  between  the 
Palatine,  the  Capitoline,  and  the  Quirinal.  Around  this  elemen- 
tary marketplace,  bordering  on  the  marshes  of  the  lesser  Velabrum, 
were  a  few  conical  straw  huts,  such  as  the  one  in  which  the  public 
fire  was  kept,  afterwards  the  Temple  of  Vesta.  There  were  also 
clay  pits  on  the  north  side,  from  which  the  neighborhood  took 


the  name  of  Argiletuin,  and  stone  quarries  under  the  Capitoline 
called  Lautumia%  afterwards  transformed  into  a  state  prison.  The 
market-place  was  well  supplied  with  drinking-water  from  local 
springs,  like  the  Tullianum  (which  tradition  has  transformed  into 
a  miraculous  feature  of  S.  Peter's  prison)/  and  the  spring  of 
Juturna,  described  on  p.  124. 

According  to  the  Roman  legend,  Romulus  and  Tatius,  after  the 
mediation  of  the  Sabine  women,  met  on  the  very  spot  where 
the  battle  had  been  fought,  and  made  peace  and  an  alliance.  The 
spot,  a  low,  damp,  grassy  field,  exposed  to  the  floods  of  the  river 
Spinon  (p.  29),  took  the  name  of  "  Comitium "  from  the  verb 
coiVe,  to  assemble.  It  is  possible  that,  in  consequence  of  the 
alliance,  a  road  connecting  the  Sabine  and  the  Roman  settlements 
was  made  across  these  swamps ;  it  became  afterwards  the  Sacra 
Via.  TuUus  Hostilius,  the  third  king,  built  a  stone  inclosure  on 
the  Comitium,  for  the  meeting  of  the  Senators,  named  from  him 
Curia  Ilostilia;  then  came  the  state  prison  built  by  Ancus  Mar- 
cius  in  one  of  the  quarries  (the  Tullianum).  The  Tarquins 
drained  the  land,  transformed  the  unruly  river  Spinon  into  the 
Cloaca  Maxima,  gave  the  Forum  a  regular  (trapezoidal)  shape, 
divided  the  space  around  its  borders  into  building-lots,  and  sold 
them  to  private  speculators  for  shops  and  houses,  the  fronts  of 
which  were  to  be  lined  with  porticoes. 

These  shops,  so  closely  connected  with  the  early  life  of  Rome, 
were  at  the  beginning  of  the  commonest  kind:  butchers'  stalls 
(afterwards  replaced  by  the  Basilica  Sempronia)  and  butchers' 
shops,  from  which  Virginius  took  the  knife  to  stab  his  daughter. 
Other  tabernai  were  occupied  by  schools  for  children,  where  Ap- 
pius  Claudius  first  saw  Virginia  reading.  As  the  dignity  of  the 
place  increased,  ordinary  tradesmen  disappeared  and  their  shops 
were  occupied  by  goldsmiths,  silversmiths,  money-changers,  and 
usurers.  Hence  the  name  "  taberna;  argentariae,"  applied,  as  a  gen- 
eral rule,  to  all  the  shops ;  as  a  distinctive  name,  to  those  on  the 
north  side.  On  the  occasion  of  the  triumph  of  L.  Papirius,  dic- 
tator in  308  B.  c,  the  gilt  shields  of  the  Samnites  were  distributed 
among  the  owners  of  the  argentariae  to  decorate  their  shop  fronts. 
There  were  two  rows  of  them,  on  either  of  the  longer  sides  of  the 
Forum :  one  called  the  tahernce  vetei'es  (septem  tabernce)  on  the 
shady  or  south  side ;  one  called  the  tahernce  novce  or  argentarice 

1  See  Der  mamertinische  Kerker  u.  die  romischen  Traditionen  vom  Gefdng- 
nisse  und  den  Ketten  Petri,  von  H.  Grisar,  S.  J.,  in  Zeitschrift  fur  hath. 
Theologie,  xx.  Jahrgang,  1896,  p.  102. 

of  Rome. 

B.  C. 













234  .1    WALK   THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

on  the  sunny  or  north  side.     The  same  were  designated  concisely 
with  the  formula  "  sub  veteribus,  sub  novis." 

It  does  not  come  within  the  scope  of  the  present  chapter  to 
follow  stage  by  stage  the  develojDment  of  the  market-place  into  a 
magnificent  forum  surrounded  by  stately  edifices.  The  chronology 
of  its  monumental  transformation  u^j  to  the  time  of  Augustus  may 
be  found  in  the  following  table.  Compare  the  "  Geschichte  des 
Forum  Comitium  und  der  Sacra  Via  "  in  Jordan's  "  Topographie," 
i"^,  p.  315. 

e.    B.  c. 

September  17.  —  'Eemple   of   Saturn  dedicated  by  the 

consuls  A.  Senipronius  and  M.  Minicius. 
Apparition  of  the  Dioscuri  by  the  spring  of  Juturna. 
January  27.  —  Dedication  of  the  Temple  of  the  Dioscuri. 
Temple  of  Vesta  burnt  by  the  Gauls  and  rebuilt. 
Erection  of  the  Temple  of  Concoi-d  voted  by  the  Senate. 
The  legendarj-  chasm  at  the  northwest  corner  of  the 

416  338        Rostra   decorated   with    beaks   from   the    fleet    of    the 

Chapel  of  Cn.  Flavins  on  the  Graecostasis. 
Tabula  Valeria  painted  on  the  east  side  of  the  Curia. 
First  sun-dial  erected  by  M.  Valerius  Messala. 
Columna  rostrata  of  C.  Duilius. 
Temple  of  Vesta  burnt  and  rebuilt. 
Regia  destroyed  hy  tire  and  rebuilt. 
The  first  Basilica  or  court-house,  built  by  M.  Porcius 

Cato  the  elder  (Basilica  Porcia). 
Basilica  Fulvia,  by  M.  Fulvius  Nobilior. 
Basilica  Sempronia,  by  T.  Scmpronius  Gracchus. 
Second  sun-dial,  by  L.  Marcius  Philippus. 
First  clepsydra,  by  P.  Scipio  Nasica. 
Regia  destroyed  by  fire  and  rebuilt. 
Reconstruction  of  tlie  Temple  of  Concord  by  L.  Opimius, 

voted  by  the  Senate. 
Basilica  Opimia,  by  L.  Opimius. 
Fornix  Fabianus,  by  Q.  Fabius  Allobrogicus. 
Temple    of    Castor   rel)uilt    by   L.    Ca'cilius    Metellus 

670  78        Basilica  Fulvia  (/Emilia)  restored  by  M.  jEmilius  Lepi- 

680  74        Tribunal  Aurelium,  by  L.  Aurelius  Cotta. 

It  is  evident  that  a  forum  dating  from  the  time  of  the  Kings 
must  soon  have  become  inadequate  for  its  purpose,  and  for  the 
requirements  of  an  ever-increasing  poisulation ;  its  area,  besides, 
was  so  crowded  with   statues,  tribunes,  altars,  putealia,  and  ob- 

































THE   nOMAN  FORUM  235 

stacles  of  every  description  tliat  we  wonder  how  public  meetings 
could  be  held  within  its  precincts.  In  159  b.  c.  P.  Scipio  and 
M.  Popilius,  censors,  ordered  the  removal  from  the  Forum  of  all 
statues  of  magistrates  unless  they  had  been  erected  by  decree  of 
the  S.  P.  Q.  K. ;  and  yet  we  hear,  at  the  Rostra  alone,  of  the 
statues  of  the  four  Roman  ambassadors  murdered  by  the  Fidenates 
in  438  B.  c. ;  of  the  two  Junii  Coruncanii,  murdered  by  Tenta, 
queen  of  the  Illyrians,  in  229 ;  of  Cu.  Octavius,  assassinated  at 
Laodicaea  in  162  while  on  a  mission  to  the  Syi'ian  court;  of 
Servius  Sulpicius  the  jurist,  who  died  in  the  camp  at  Mutina  in 
43 ;  of  Camillus  the  dictator,  who,  as  an  example  of  the  ancient 
simplicity  of  dress,  was  clothed  in  a  toga  without  tunic;  of  C. 
Maenius  (equestrian),  who  conquered  the  Latins  in  338  ;  of  Sulla; 
of  Pompeius  ;  of  Lepidus  ;  of  Julius  C»sar  ;  of  young  Octavianus  ; 
and  lastly,  of  the  three  Sibyls,  which  Pliny  classifies  among  the 
earliest  works  of  the  kind  in  Rome.^ 

Besides  these  obstacles,  the  Forum  and  its  vicinity  were  crowded 
by  certain  classes  of  people,  not  very  distinguished,  who  so  con- 
stantly haunted  certain  points  and  corners  of  the  place  that  they 
were  nicknamed  from  them.  Thus  we  hear  of  the  Subrostrani, 
lawyers  without  employment,  keeping  themselves  by  the  Rostra  in 
search  of  prey ;  of  the  Canalicolce,  described  by  Paul  the  Deacon  as 
"  homines  pauperes  qui  circa  canales  fori  consistebaut ;  "  and  in  a 
general  way  of  the  forenses,  so  graphically  described  by  Plautus 
(Curculio,  iv.  1). 

One  of  the  first  steps  to  refoi'ui  this  state  of  things  was  taken 
in  the  seventh  century  of  Rome  by  the  construction  of  a  fish-mar- 
ket {forum  piscatorium),  in  consequence  of  which  the  fishmongers, 
who  poisoned  the  clients  of  the  court-houses  with  the  offensive 
smell  of  their  merchandise,  were  driven  away  from  the  porticoes 
of  the  basilica?.  These  basilicpe,  —  the  Porcia,  oldest  of  all,  built 
by  the  elder  Cato  in  184  near  the  Curia;  the  Sempronia,  erected  in 
109  on  the  line  of  the  tabernre  veteres ;  the  Opimia,  in  121,  by  the 
Temple  of  Concord;  and  the  Fulvia  ^-Emilia,  179-178,  by  the  Via 
Argiletana,  —  as  theyM'^ere  surrounded  by  porticoes  accessible  both 
by  day  and  by  night,  increased  the  public  accommodation  to  some 

The  grand  era  of  transformation  begins  with  the  year  700  (54 
B.  c),  when  L.  iEmilius  Paullus  bought  ]irivate  property  on  the 
north  side  and  built  his  superb  Basilica  ^Emilia.     The  reason  for 

1  See  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  pp.  79,  8(5-89,  20-3,  2]7;  and  Tliedeiiat, 
in  Daremberg  and  Sagliu's  Diclionnairc,  ]>.  1281. 

236  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

such  a  costly  undertaking  (about  12,000,000  francs)  is  given  by 
Cicero  :  ut  forum  laxaremus,  to  enlarge  the  Forum.  The  work  of 
iEmilius  Paullus  was  continued  by  Julius  Caesar,  who  purchased 
other  private  property  and  built  an  extension  —  the  Forum  Ju- 
lium  —  at  a  cost  of  20,000,000  francs.  This  happened  between 
the  years  700  and  708  (54  and  46  b.  c).  Augustus  followed  the 
example  of  Csesar,  and,  in  continuation  of  the  two  fora,  built  a 
third  one  named  Forum  Augustum  or  Forum  Martis,  from  the 
Temple  of  Mars  the  Avenger,  which  stood  at  one  end  of  it.  Au- 
gustus himself  explains  in  his  "  Res  gestae  "  the  necessity  of  this 
work,  by  the  inadequacy  of  the  two  existing  fora  for  the  transac- 
tion of  business  and  the  administration  of  justice.  It  took  him 
forty  years  to  finish  the  structure,  from  712  to  August  1,  752  (42 
to  2  B.  c).  During  this  lapse  of  time  the  old  Forum  Romanum 
had  been,  in  its  turn,  vastly  improved,  as  is  shown  by  the  follow- 
ing summary  :  — 

Year  of  Rome.      b.  c. 

702  52  The  Curia,  the  Basilica  Porcia,  and  several  houses 

burnt  down  by  the  Clodians.  The  Temple  of 
Felicitas  built  on  the  site  of  the  Curia  in  705. 
Substituted  once  more  by  the  Curia  Julia  in  710. 
Dedicated  by  Augustus  in  725. 

708  46  First  Basilica  Julia  dedicated  by  Julius  Ciesar  ;  Sub 

Veteribus  rebuilt  and  enlarged  by  Augustus  in 

708  46  Lacus  Servilius  embellished  by  Agrippa. 

710  44  The  Rostra  Julia  built  at  the  other  (ea-st)  end  of  the 


712  42  Temple  of  Saturn  rebuilt  by  L.  Munatius  Plancus. 

718  36  The   Regia   rebuilt  by  Domitius    Calvinus.     Fasti 

consulares  engraved  the  same  yeai',  fasti  trium- 
phales  between  736  and  742. 

725  29  August   18.  —  Temple  of  Ca-sar  dedicated  by  Au- 

gustus, and  triumphal  arch  of  Augustus  dedi- 
cated near  the  temple  bj'  the  S.  P.  Q.  R. 

745  9  Altar    of   Vulcan  dedicated   by  Augustus   on  the 


747  7  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux  restored  by  Tiberius. 

We  can  add  to  the  list  the  restoration  of  the  Temple  of  Con- 
cordia by  Tiberius  in  763  (10  A.  d.)  ;  that  of  the  state  prison  by  C. 
Vibius  and  M.  Cocceius  about  the  same  date  ;  the  erection  of  an 
altar  to  Ops  by  the  Temple  of  Saturn,  August  10,  760  (a.  d.  7) ; 
and  that  of  a  triumphal  arch  of  Tiberius  in  769  (a.  d.  16). 

From  the  age  of  Tiberius  to  that  of  Constantine  the  history  of 


the  Forum  is  represented  by  four  great  fires  followed  by  three 
great  restorations,  in  the  course  of  which  the  space  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  crowds  is  vastly  increased,  new  buildings  are 
added,  new  art  collections  formed,  etc.  The  first  is  the  fire  of 
Nero,  A.  D.  65,  which  lasted  six  days  and  seven  nights,  destroyed 
three  regions  of  the  city,  and  damaged  seven  more.  The  Regia, 
the  temples  of  Vesta  and  of  Jupiter  Stator,  the  Curia,  the  Graeco- 
stasis,  the  Temple  of  Janus,  and  the  region  of  the  Argiletum  as 
far  as  the  Carinse,  were  devastated  by  the  flames.  The  second  is 
the  tire  of  Titus,  a.  d.  80. 

Vespasian  and  Domitian  repaired  the  damages  of  both,  and  in 
doing  this  they  added  two  fora  to  the  three  already  existing,  the 
Forum  Pacis  and  the  Forum  Transitorium. 

Vespasian  began  by  clearing  and  rejsairing  the  streets  "  deformes 
veteribus  incendiis  atque  minis,"  ^  and  the  temples,  for  which  he 
was  rewarded  with  the  title  of  "  Restitutor  iEdium  Sacrarum."  ^ 
Then  he  took  up  a  large  section  of  the  burnt  land  between  the 
Sacra  Via  and  the  Carina,  and  erected  on  it  a  splendid  temple  to 
Peace,  surrounded  by  a  large  open  space,  which  must  have  served, 
like  the  fora  of  Julius  and  Augustus,  to  relieve  the  Forum  Ro- 
manum.  He  also  rebuilt  the  temples  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus  and 
of  Claudius  on  the  Coelian  hill,  and  began  the  construction  of  the 

In  a  short  reign  of  two  years  Titus  (a.  d.  79-81)  could  do  little 
more  than  complete  the  buildings  which  his  father  had  left  unfin- 
ished, like  the  amphitheatre,  which  he  dedicated  in  the  year  80. 
At  the  same  time  another  frightful  conflagration,  which  raged 
for  three  days  and  three  nights,  stopped  all  work.  The  fire  of 
Titus  was  particularly  destructive  in  the  region  of  the  Circus 
Flaminius,  lying  under  the  Capitoline  hill,  as  well  as  on  the  hill 

Domitian,  youngest  son  of  Vespasian,  rebuilt  a  large  area  on  the 
north  and  west  sides  of  the  Forum,  under  a  new  piano  regolatore, 
the  orientation  of  which  is  parallel  with  the  Via  Argiletana  (and  the 
fora  of  Augustus,  of  Csesar,  and  of  Peace),  not  with  the  Sacra  Via. 
The  copious  list  of  his  buildings  comprises  the  transformation  of 
the  Via  Argiletana  into  the  Forum  Transitorium  ;  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  the  Temple  of  Janus,  of  the  Curia  Julia,  of  the  Grseco- 
stasis,  of  the  Regia  and  the  House  of  the  Vestals,^  of  the  Meta 

1  Suetonius,  Vesjias.,  8  ;  and  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  931. 

2  Ihkl.,  n.  9.34. 

8  Thedenat,  in  Daremberg  and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1290,  n.  12-14. 

238  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

Sudans ;  the  construction  of  the  horrea  piperataria,  of  the  Temple 
of  Vespasian  and  Titus  on  the  Clivus  Capitolinus,  of  the  Ai'ch 
of  Titus  on  tlie  Summa  Sacra  Via ;  and  the  completion  of  the 
amphitheatre.  In  memory  of  these  architectural  exploits,  an 
equestrian  statue  was  raised  to  him  in  the  middle  of  the  Forum, 
the  description  of  which  by  Statins  (Silv.,  i.  i)  is  a  fundamental 
text  for  the  topography  of  this  classic  district. 

Shortly  before  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Commodus,  a.  d.  191, 
another  fire,  which  lasted  several  days,  swept  over  the  region  of 
the  Sacra  Via.  It  began  in  a  house  near  the  Temple  of  Peace, 
after  a  slight  shock  of  earthquake.  The  temple  was  leveled  to 
the  ground ;  hence  the  fire  spread  to  the  spice-warehouses  of  Do- 
mitian,  and  from  them,  over  the  Sacra  Via  and  the  Atrium  and 
Temple  of  Vesta,  to  tlie  Palace  of  the  Cjesars,  a  great  part  of  which 
was  desti'oyed,  together  with  the  archives  of  the  Empire.  "  It  was 
on  this  occasion  that  Galen's  shop  on  the  Sacra  Via  was  burnt 
down,  when,  as  he  tells  us  himself,  he  lost  some  of  his  works  of 
which  there  were  no  other  copies  in  I\ome.  The  fire  was  extin- 
guished at  last  by  a  heavy  fall  of  rain."  ^ 

The  damages  were  repaired  by  Septimius  Severus,  by  his  Em- 
press, Julia  Domna,  and  by  his  son,  Caracalla,  with  the  adoption 
of  a  new  piano  regolatore,  in  consequence  of  which  the  orientation 
of  edifices  on  the  Clivus  Sacer  was  shifted  by  33°.  This  change 
appears  most  evident  in  the  map  of  the  Clivus  Sacer  (p.  207,  Fig. 
82),  in  which  the  ruins  anterior  to  the  fire  of  191  are  marked  in 
black,  those  from  191  downwards  in  a  lighter  tint.  It  is  necessary 
to  remind  the  reader  that  the  excavations  of  the  Forum  and  of  the 
Palatine  have  nowhere  been  carried  to  the  proper  depth.  We  have 
satisfied  ourselves  with  laying  bare  the  remains  of  the  late  Empire, 
without  taking  care  to  explore  the  earlier  and  deeper  strata.  The 
foundations  of  the  triumphal  arch  of  Augustus  were  discovered  in 
1888  hardly  ten  inches  below  the  level  at  which  the  excavations  of 
1872  had  stopped.  The  water-tank  of  Mykenean  shape  discovered 
on  the  Palatine  while  this  book  was  in  the  press  (August,  1896)  had 
actually  been  seen  in  1876,  but  not  excavated  because  it  lay  lower 
than  the  surrounding  ruins.  We  are  still  discussing  the  exact 
location  of  the  Arch  of  Fabius,  when  it  could  be  ascertained  de 
facto  by  scraping  away  a  few  inches  of  ground. 

Severus  and  Caracalla  repaired  or  rebuilt  a  fundamentis  the 
Temple  of  Vesta,  the  House  of  the  Vestals,  the  Templum  Sacrse 

1  Thomas  Dyer,  A  History  of  the  Cily  of  Rome,  ed.  1865,  p.  203. 

THE   ROM  AX   FORUM  239 

Urbis,  that  of  Vespasian,  the  Porticus  ^largaritaria,  and  the  front 
of  the  palace  on  the  Xova  Via.  Their  names  are  commemorated 
forever  in  the  F'oruui,  in  the  triumphal  arch  erected  in  203  on  the 
border-line  of  the  Comitium. 

We  have  no  definite  account  of  the  fire  of  283  under  Carinus. 
Judging  from  the  works  of  repair  which  it  necessitated,  it  must 
have  raged  from  the  foot  of  the  Capitoline  to  the  top  of  the 
Sacra  Via,  from  the  Vicus  Jugarius  to  the  Temple  of  Venus  and 

Diocletian  repaii'ed  the  Basilica  Julia,  the  Grjecostasis  (?),  and 
the  Forum  Julium,  and  rebuilt  the  Senate-house  from  its  founda- 
tions. Maxentius  repaired  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome,  and 
built  the  heroon  of  his  son  Romidus,  and  the  great  basilica  after- 
wards named  from  Constantiue.  Tlie  monumental  columns  which 
stand  on  the  edge  of  tlie  Forum,  opposite  the  Basilica  Julia,  date 
also  from  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century. 

The  first  incident  in  the  history  of  the  destruction  of  the  Forum 
is  the  abolition  of  pagan  worship.  In  383  Gratianus  did  away  with 
the  privileges  of  temjiles  and  j^riests,  and  confiscated  their  revenues. 
In  391  Valentinian  and  Theodosius  prohibited  sacrifices,  even  if 
strictly  domestic  and  private.  This  brought  the  pagan  faction  to 
open  rebellion,  as  related  at  lengtli  in  "  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  173. 
After  the  defeat  of  the  rebel  leader  Eugenius,  which  took  place  on 
September  6,  391,  temples  were  closed  forever ;  but  this  measure 
contributed,  for  the  time  being,  to  the  embellishment  more  than 
to  the  spoliation  of  the  Forum  and  its  surroundings,  because  the 
beautiful  statues  of  the  gods,  removed  from  tlieir  altars,  were  set 
up  again,  as  mere  works  of  Greek  art,  in  public  places  like  law- 
courts,  fora,  baths,  main  thoroughfares,  etc.  Information  on  this 
point  is  supplied  by  — 

G.  B.  de  Rossi,  Bullettino  di  arch,  rrisf.,  ISO.'i,  p.  5  :  and  Bull,  della  comm. 
arch,  com.,  1874,  p.  174. —  Corpus  Iiucr.  Lat.,  vol.  vi.  p.  -356,  n.  1651-72. — 
Notizie  deyli  Scavi,  1895,  p.  459. 

The  Forum  was  tolerably  well  jDreserved  at  the  beginning  of  the 
sixth  century.  In  500  King  Theodoric  addi'essed  the  people  from 
the  Rostra,  promising  to  maintain  the  pri\nleges  granted  by  his 
predecessors,  and  the  words  of  his  promise  were  engraved  on  a 
bronze  tablet,  hung  probably  in  front  of  the  Senate-house.  The 
Anonym  us  of  Valesius,i  in  mentioning  these  events,  gives  to  this 
corner  of  the  old  Forum  the  name  ad  Palmam,  about  which  have 
written  — 

240  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

H.  Jordan,  Tojwgraphie,  vol.  i"-^,  p.  259,  n.  01.  —  Ferdinand  Gregorovius, 
Geschichte,  vol.  i.  p.  276.  —  G.  B.  de  Rossi,  Bull,  com.,  1887,  p.  64  ;  1889,  p. 

The  former  name  of  the  corner  was  in  trlbus  fails,  or  tria  fata, 
from  the  statues  of  the  three  Sibyls  mentioned  by  Pliny  (xxxiv.  11) 
iuxta  Rostra,  and  considered  to  rank  among  the  earliest  works  of 
the  kind  in  Rome.  The  new  denomination  ad  Palmam  originated 
from  a  statue  of  Claudius  Gothicus,  wearing  the  palm  of  victory 
(statua  Palmata),  which  stood  near  the  Arch  of  Sever  us.  It  soon 
extended  to  the  whole  neighborhood.  The  promulgation  of  the 
Codex  Theodosianus  is  said  to  have  taken  place  in  438,  in  the  house 
of  Anicius  Glabrio  Faustus,  qum  est  ad  Palmam,  viz.,  near  the 
Senate-house.  The  same  house  is  called  domus  palmata  in  a 
letter  of  King  Theodoric.^  The  meeting  of  a  committee  of 
bishops  with  a  committee  of  senators,  which  took  place  here  in 
502  to  discuss  the  schism  of  Lawrence,  is  called  palmaris,  for  the 
same  reason. 

The  first  solemn  transformation  of  an  historical  building  near 
the  Forum  into  a  Christian  place  of  worship  took  place  about  526, 
when  Pope  Felix  IV.  dedicated  to  SS.  Cosmas  and  Damianus  the 
Templum  Sacrse  Urbis,  or  Record  Office.  In  630  the  Senate-house 
was  dedicated  to  S.  Hadrian  by  Honorius  I. ;  in  731  Gregory  III. 
rebuilt  the  oratory  of  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus  by  the  Temple  of 
Concord  and  the  chapel  of  the  Mamertine  Prison ;  in  760  Paul  I. 
rebuilt  the  church  of  S.  Maria  Antiqua  in  the  inner  hall  of  the 
Augusteum,  and  raised  a  new  one  to  S.  Peter  in  the  vestibule  of 
the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome  (transformed  in  850  by  Leo  TV. 
into  that  of  S.  Maria  Nova).  The  Temple  of  Antoninus  likewise 
was  placed  under  the  patronage  of  S.  Lawrence,  that  of  Janus 
under  that  of  S.  Dionysius,  the  offices  of  the  Senate  under  that  of 
S.  Martina,  the  Basilica  Julia  under  that  of  S.  Maria  de  Foro,  the 
^rarium  Saturni  under  that  of  the  Saviour.  The  Heroon  of 
Romulus,  son  of  Maxentius,  became  the  vestibule  of  SS.  Cosmas 
and  Damianus ;  the  so-called  Baths  of  Heliogabalus  on  the  Sacra 
Via  became  the  church  and  convent  of  S.  Csesarius  in  Palatio; 
the  Basilica  of  Constantine  was  christianized  under  a  name  un- 
known to  us.     (See  Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  162.) 

The  buildings  mentioned  by  Procopius,  about  537,  are,  besides 
the  Forum  itself,  the  Senate-house,  the  Temple  of  Janus,  etc. 
He  also  states  that  many  statues  by  Pheidias  and  Lysippos  could 

1  Quoted  by  Nibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  58. 

2  Cassiodorus,  Var.,  iv.  30. 


still  be  seen  in  Rome,  after  it  had  been  so  often  sacked.  In  546 
the  barbarians  of  Totila  looted  the  city  once  more ;  still  the 
Forum,  free  of  ruins,  continued  to  be  used  as  the  meeting-place  of 
the  remaining  population.  In  608  the  last  "  honorary  "  monu- 
ment, the  column  of  Phocas,  was  erected  in  the  middle  of  it,  with 
marbles  taken  from  some  neighboring  edifice.  A  few  years  later 
Pope  Honorius  I.  (625-640)  stripped  the  roof  of  the  Temple  of 
Venus  and  Rome  of  its  bronze  tiles,  which  could  not  but  hasten 
the  destruction  of  that  glorious  building.  In  663  a  Christian  em- 
peror, Constans  II.,  held  the  starving  and  ruined  city  to  ransom 
for  twelve  days,  inflicting  upon  it  more  damage  than  it  had  suf- 
fered at  the  hands  of  the  Goths  and  Vandals.  In  768  Stephen  III. 
was  elected  pope  in  a  popular  meeting,  held  in  tribus  fails  by  the 

If  the  so-called  "  Itinerary  of  Einsiedlen  "  dates  really  from  the 
time  of  Charlemagne,  it  gives  us  a  very  detailed  account  of  the 
state  of  the  Forum  at  the  beginning  of  the  ninth  century.  The 
monuments  registered  in  this  document  are :  the  arches  of  Severus, 
of  Titus,  and  of  Constantine ;  the  umbilicus  RomjB,  a  "  pendant  " 
to  the  golden  milestone ;  the  equestrian  statue  of  Constantine ;  the 
Curia  (S.  Adriano)  ;  the  Augusteum  (S.  M.  Antiqua)  ;  the  Tem- 
jilum  Sacrte  Urbis  (SS.  Cosmas  and  Damianus) ;  the  Temple  of 
Venus  and  Rome  (Palatium  Traiani) ;  and  the  Meta  Sudans. 
This  is  the  last  evidence  we  possess  of  the  Forum  retaining  its 
original  level. 

An  examination  of  the  state  of  its  pavement  shows  that  in 
former  times  carriages  could  not  cross  it,  on  account  of  police 
regulations  and  of  the  steps  (and  occasional  palisades)  by  which 
the  travertine  floor  was  surrounded.  However,  all  obstacles  were 
removed  after  the  fall  of  the  Empire.  Vehicles  were  then  allowed 
to  cross  the  Forum  diagonally  from  the  Argiletum  (by  S.  Adriano) 
to  the  Vicus  Tuscus  (by  S.  Teodoro)  and  vice  versa,  coming  in  and 
out  between  the  fii'st  and  second  pedestals  of  the  "  honorary " 
columns  on  the  Sacra  Via,  where  the  pavement  is  deeply  furrowed 
by  the  friction  of  wheels.  A  curbstone,  made  of  a  broken  column 
of  African  marble,  is  set  up  at  the  corner  of  the  first  pedestal  at 
the  turn  of  the  Sacra  Via. 

What  happened  to  the  Forum  from  the  ninth  to  the  fourteenth 
century  it  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  say.  It  is  unnecessary  to 
remind  the  student  how  negligently  excavations  were  made  up 
to  a  recent  date.  Their  purpose  wa^  to  reach  and  lay  bare  the 
classic  remains  of  the  Empire,  and  if  mediaeval  or  decadence  monu- 

242  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACEA    VIA 

ments  barred  the  way,  they  were  mercilessly  sacrificed.  We  have 
careful  descriptions  of  the  objects  discovered  in  these  excavations, 
—  inscriptions,  pedestals,  statues,  bas-reliefs,  columns,  etc.,  —  but 
not  a  word  is  said  about  the  way  they  were  lying  in  their  bed 
of  ruins,  at  what  depth,  whether  in  situ  or  overthrown,  whether 
belonging  to  the  place  of  discovery  or  brought  from  some  distance 
to  be  used  as  building-materials,  etc.  The  archaeologists  and  the 
excavators  of  the  Napoleonic  period,  Fea,  Nibby,  and  Amati, 
were  far  more  careful  in  noting  these  particulars,  the  only  means 
we  have  of  I'econstructing  the  history  of  the  decline  and  fall  of 
the  city. 

Take  the  Basilica  Julia,  as  an  illustration :  what  is  left  of 
the  noble  building  to  tell  the  tale  of  its  downfall?  The  steps 
leading  to  it  are  modern  for  the  greater  jaart,  and  so  are  the 
pavement,  the  pilasters  of  the  nave  and  aisles,  the  brick  arches 
towards  the  Vicus  Jugarius,  the  marble  pillars  of  the  Doric  order 
on  the  Sacra  Via,  tlie  opening  of  tlie  Cloaca  Maxima,  etc.  Even 
the  fragments  ari'anged  on  the  pilasters  are  not  all  found  on 
the  spot.  But  we  do  not  complain  of  restorations  so  much  as  of 
destructions.  I  have  just  said  that  part  of  the  Basilica  was  dedi- 
cated to  S.  Maria  de  Foro ;  the  elegant  little  church  was  found 
almost  intact  in  1880  in  the  northern  aisle  on  the  Vicus  Jugarius, 
with  its  double  row  of  columns,  apse,  presbyterium,  marble  tran- 
sennse,  fresco  paintings,  main  and  side  doors,  etc.  The  only  trace 
left  standing  by  accident  is  one  of  the  columns  of  the  presby- 
terium. The  remaining  portion  of  the  Basilica  had  been  taken 
possession  of  by  the  Koman  marmorarii  of  the  eleventh  century, 
who  prepared  there  the  materia  jn-ima  for  their  cosmatesque  clois- 
ters, ambones,  pavements,  etc.  They  had  provided  themselves 
with  booths  and  workshops  by  closing  with  mud  walls  the  spaces 
between  the  pilasters  of  the  western  aisles.  There  were  about 
twenty  such  shops.  The  great  nave  was  covered  with  a  layer  of 
chips  and  fragments  of  historical  marbles,  destined  to  feed  the 
lime-kilns,  two  of  which  were  discovered  full  of  half-charred  blocks. 
The  east  aisles  towards  the  Sacra  Via  were  foimd  unencumbered 
by  mediaeval  partition  w^alls,  and  we  know  the  reason  why.  They 
were  used  as  rope-walks,  from  which  the  place  derived  its  name 
of  Cannaparia.  The  upper  strata  of  rubbish  was  composed  inostly 
of  human  bones ;  because,  after  the  last  devastations  of  Cardi- 
nal di  Corneto,  the  site  had  been  turned  into  a  burial-ground  for 
the  Ospedale  della  Consolazione.  The  chain  of  historical  events 
which  made  the  building  pass  from  the  hand  of  the  Roman  magis- 

THE   ROMAN   FORUM  2-io 

tra+es  into  that  of  the  priests  of  S.  Maria  de  Foro,  and  then  of 
ropemakers,  of  luarniorarii,  of  lime-burners,  of  the  guardians 
of  the  Ospedale  delta  Consolazione,  was  thus  illustrated  by  actual 
remains.  They  have  all  been  sacrificed  to  the  desire  of  bringing 
into  evidence  one  period  only  in  the  history  of  the  building,  the 
classic.  Another  subject  of  discussion  about  this  place  was  the 
roof.  Was  the  Basilica  vaulted  over,  like  that  of  Constantine,  or 
roofed  with  tiles  supported  by  a  wooden  framework  ?  The  answer 
was  given  materially,  by  the  huge  blocks  of  the  vault  with  panels 
and  lacunaria  in  stucco,  which  lay  scattered  on  the  floor  of  the 
aisles.  They  were  destroyed  for  fear  that  they  would  obstruct  the 

The  Forum  has  had  the  same  experience.  The  southeast  side 
of  it,  facing  the  Temple  of  Caesar,  was  found  in  1872  closed  by  a 
line  of  shops  of  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century,  and  of  the 
utmost  importance  for  the  history  of  the  place.  They  were  mis- 
taken for  a  mediajval  fortification  (see  Bull.  Inst.,  1872,  pp.  234,  235) 
and  destroyed.  The  same  mistake  was  made  with  regard  to  the 
walls  winch  supported  tlae  platform  of  the  Rostra.  The  pedestal 
of  an  equestrian  statue  in  the  middle  of  tlie  Forum  —  wrongly 
attributed  to  Domitian  —  was  likewise  dismantled  for  the  sake  of 
some  blocks  of  giallo  antico  used  in  its  masonry.  If  such  errors 
were  committed  in  so  recent  an  age,  it  is  easy  to  understand  what 
must  have  happened  in  centuries  gone  by,  and  what  opportunities 
of  reconstructing  the  Forum  have  been  lost. 

The  accumulation  of  soil  began,  as  far  as  W'e  can  judge,  after  the 
visit  of  Charlemagne  (800).  When  an  officer  of  Pope  ]\Iarinus  II. 
built  in  916  a  small  house  within  the  cloisters  of  the  Vestals,  there 
were  already  five  feet  of  rubbish  above  the  old  pavement.  After 
tlie  fire  of  Robert  Guiscard  in  1081,  the  Forum  and  its  surround- 
ings disapi^eared  altogether  from  the  sight,  and  almost  from  the 
memory,  of  tlie  living.  The  Frangipani  and  other  turbulent  barons 
occupied  the  ruins  of  temples  and  arclies,  ci'owning  and  surround- 
ing them  with  battlemented  towers,  many  of  which  were  in  their 
turn  leveled  to  the  ground  in  1221, 1257,  and  1536.  See,  also,  upon 
this  point  — 

Ferdinand  rircgorovius,  Geschichte,  iv.  :J70:  v.  .31fi.  —  Heiurich  .Jordan, 
Topographie,  ii.  480;  and  Ephemeris  epigr.,  1876,  p.  2-38. 

The  Forum  was  then  turned  into  a  vegetable  garden.  In  the 
inventory  of  the  possessions  of  the  Lateran  basilica,  -viTitten  by 
Nicolo  Frangipani  about  1300,  we  find  mentioned :  "  Two  small 
houses  near  the  image  of  Phocas  (face  magina),  with  their  orchards ; 

244  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

two  orchards  near  the  arch  by  the  image  of  Phocas ;  others  near 
the  church  of  SS.  Cosma  e  Damiano  ;  one  near  S.  Adriano,  where 
stand  the  four  columns,"  etc.  The  "  Res  gestae  "  of  Innocent  III. 
mention,  vol.  ii.  p.  102,  an  orchard  behind  the  church  of  SS.  Sergio 
e  Bacco,  and  another  "  among  the  columns  "  in  the  direction  of 
the  Mamertine  prison.  The  ground  was  still  cultivated  in  the 
middle  of  the  sixteenth  -century,  when  we  hear  of  the  inscription 
of  Nsevius  Surdinus  found  "  in  the  gardens  of  the  columna  Maenia," 
viz.,  of  Phocas ;  and  of  the  pedestal  (Corpus,  1458,  o)  found  "  in 
the  gardens  by  the  three  columns,"  viz.,  of  Castor  and  Pollux.  The 
area  of  the  House  of  the  Vestals  was  occupied  by  a  harundinetum, 
or  bamboo  shrubbery. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  earth  and  rubbish  fi-om  the  foundations 
of  public  and  private  buildings  were  regularly  thrown  into  the 
area  of  the  Porum,  from  the  time  of  Eugenius  IV.  (1431-47),  but 
no  documents  have  been  produced  to  prove  this.  I  have  found 
one  —  the  first  within  my  knowledge  —  in  the  account-books  of 
Pope  Paul  II.  (1464-71).  It  appears  from  them  that  the  earth 
and  rubbish  excavated  from  the  foundations  of  the  Palazzo  di 
Venezia  were  regularly  thrown  out  "  ad  tres  coluninas,"  viz.,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux.  Considering 
the  state  of  the  city  in  the  fifteenth  century,  the  want  of  police 
regulations,  and  the  freedom  of  building,  destroying,  and  exca- 
vating which  every  one  enjoyed,  it  is  no  wonder  that  rubbish  was 
thrown  out  in  the  nearest  convenient  place,  and  no  place  was  more 
convenient  than  the  hollow  of  the  Forum.  I  have  collected  many 
data  about  the  periodical  increase  of  its  level ;  but  two  instances 
will  give  the  reader  an  idea  of  them.  It  appears  that,  after  the 
obstruction  of  the  Cloaca  Maxima,^  the  only  outlet  for  rain  and 
spring  water  in  the  district  of  the  fora  was  a  channel  or  furrow 
cut  by  the  rushing  stream  through  the  bed  of  rubbish,  on  the  line 
of  the  Via  di  S.  Teodoro,  passing  right  in  front  of  this  church. 
Communication  between  the  banks  of  this  ditch  was  assured  by 
means  of  a  bridge,  called  il  ponticello.  Albertini  speaks  of  a  dis- 
covery made  about  1.510  ad  ponticulum,  between  S.  M.  Liberatrice 
and  S.  Teodoro.  Martin  Heemskerk  made  a  sketch  of  the  bridge 
in  15.34.2  -pi^g  if^gj;  mention  of  it  occurs  in  1549  (Corpus,  vi.  804) 
apropos  of  the  discovery  of  the  Vortumnus  prope  ponticulum  ante 

1  The  Forum  of  Augustus  could  not  have  been  turned  into  a  marsh  —  il 
Pantano  —  unless  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  which  runs  under  it  and  drains  it,  had 
ceased  its  functions. 

2  See  Mittheilungen,  1894,  p.  10,  n.  1. 


mdificium  quadralum,  "  near  the  ponticello  in  front  of  the  Temple 
of  Augustus."  Bridge  and  ditch  had  disajjpeared  under  the  ever 
increasing  deposits  of  rubbish  in  1593,  when  Cardinal  Alessandro 
Farnese  made  a  present  of  the  ground  to  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  for  the 
erection  of  a  fountain  and  of  a  watering-trough  for  cattle.  We 
have  the  evidence  of  these  facts  to  the  present  day  in  the  church 
of  S.  Teodoro,  built  in  the  sixth  (?)  century  at  the  level  of  the 
Vicus  Tuscus ;  and  rebuilt  in  1450  by  Pope  Nicholas  Y.  ten  or 
twelve  feet  higher.  In  the  vignette  of  Martin  Heemskerk,  just 
mentioned,  the  threshold  of  the  church  appears  still  above  the 
street  (1534).  In  1674  it  was  considerably  below  it.  Finally, 
to  save  the  building  from  filtering  waters  and  from  the  pressure  of 
earth,  Pope  Clement  XI.  was  compelled  to  cut  a  ditch  round  and 
to  open  a  court  before  it,  to  which  we  now  descend  by  a  flight  of 

Such  has  been  the  fate  of  all  ancient  churches  in  this  region. 
Built  originally  ten  or  twelve  steps  higher  than  the  Forum,  by  the 
end  of  the  fifteenth  ceiitury  they  had  sunk  deep  in  the  ground, 
and  many  were  deserted  by  their  attendants.  The  third  vignette 
of  Etienne  Duperac  shows  people  descending  to  the  Chiu-ch  of  S. 
Adriano,  the  ground  being  almost  level  with  the  architrave  of  the 
door.  A  strong  remedy  alone  could  save  the  buildings  from  de- 
struction, and  that  of  raising  them  to  the  level  of  the  new  city  was 
decided  upon.  The  thing  was  done,  but  in  a  reckless  way,  so  that 
the  present  chiu'ches  have  nothing  but  their  name  in  common 
with  their  predecessors.  Those  who  know  what  the  word  "  restora- 
tion "  means  with  reference  to  the  seicento  will  understand  what 
those  venerable  buildings  must  have  gone  through  at  the  hands  of 
their  restorers. 

The  second  instance  I  propose  to  quote  is  this.  The  greatest 
centre  of  traffic  in  ancient  times  was  the  Argiletum,  a  thoroughfare 
which  ran  along  tiie  bottom  of  the  valley  between  the  Quirinal, 
Viminal,  and  Esquiline,  and  entered  the  Foi'um  between  the  Curia 
and  the  Basilica  ^Emilia.^  It  retained  its  importance  throughout 
the  centuries  until  Cardinal  Michele  Bonelli  cut  through  the  Curia 
the  street  which  bears  his  name  (Via  Bonella),  and  led  the  traffic 
into  a  new  thoroughfare,  better  leveled,  paved,  and  drained.  A 
search  made  in  1809  at  the  point  where  the  Ai-giletum  fell  into  the 
Comitium  showed  the  existence  of  four  pavements,  one  above  the 
other,  viz.,  the  stone  floor  of  the  Comitium  ;  another,  9  feet  higher, 

1  The  lower  section  of  the  Argiletum  was  transformed  bj'  Domitian  into  the 
Forum  Trausitorium. 

246  A     WALK    THROUGH    THE    SACHA    VIA 

dating  probably  from  tlie  time  of  llobert  Gui.scard  (1084)  ;  a  third, 
7  feet  higher  still,  with  medireval  walls  on  each  side  and  a  curb- 
stone at  the  corner  made  out  of  a  broken  column  ;  the  fourth  and 
last  pavement,  at  the  present  level,  dates  from  the  time  of  Paul 
III.,  who,  on  preparing  the  ground  for  the  triumphal  entry  of 
Charles  V.  (1536),  did  not  remove  the  materials  of  the  several 
churches,  houses,  and  towers  demolished  for  the  occasion,  but 
leveled  them  on  the  spot.  In  the  excavations  made  by  Mbby 
between  1827  and  1834  many  coins  of  Paul  III.  were  discovered 
at  a  considerable  deptli  on  the  line  of  the  Sacra  Via. 

I  have  mentioned  above  the  fountain  and  water-trough  estab- 
lished by  the  8.  P.  Q.  R.  about  1593,  near  the  three  columns  of 
Castor  and  Pollux,  on  a  piece  of  ground  granted  by  Cardinal  Ales- 
sandro  Farnese.  The  fountain  consisted  of  a  large  granite  basin, 
23  metres  in  circumference,  placed  on  a  high  pedestal  of  travertine. 
The  basin  had  been  discovered  oj^posite  the  Mamertine  prison, 
together  with  the  Marforio,  in  the  fifteenth  century.  AVhen  the 
architect  Antinori  suggested  to  Pius  VII.,  in  1816,  the  removal  of 
the  basin  to  the  Piazza  del  Quirinale  (where  it  was  actually  placed 
at  the  foot  of  the  obelisk  two  years  later),  the  basin  was  sunk  in 
the  earth,  so  that  carters  used  to  drive  their  teams  right  across  it, 
to  refresh  them  in  the  heat  of  the  summer.  I  have  myself  seen  a 
portion  of  tlie  area  of  the  Forum  increase  by  two  metres  at  least 
in  1868,  when  Baron  Visconti,  then  engaged  in  discovering  the 
site  of  the  Porta  Romanula,  deposited  the  earth  on  the  site  of  the 
House  of  the  Vestals,  instead  of  carting  it  away. 

As  regards  the  search  for  antiquities,  we  can  safely  say  that, 
from  the  time  of  Urban  V.  (1362-70)  to  the  end  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, every  year  is  marked  by  a  plunder  of  some  kind  or  other,  the 
worst  deeds  of  destruction  being  connected  witli  the  golden  age 
of  the  cinquecento.  The  history  of  these  excavations  has  not  been 
written  yet.  Materials  for  such  a  history,  however,  have  been 
collected  by  — 

Heinricli  Jordan,  SyUoge  inscripf.  fori  romani  (in  Ephem.  epigr.,  "1876,  pp. 
238-248).  —  Charles  Biinsen,  Le  forum  romanum,  1835,  pp.  4-6.  —  A.  Zahn, 
BuUeUino  Instituto,  1867,  p.  189.  — Eugene  Miintz,  Les  arts  a  la  cour  des 
Pnpes,  vols,  i.-iii.;  and  Revue  archcoL,  1876,  p.  158.  —  Orazio  Marucchi,  Bes- 
r.rizione  del  foro  romano.     Rome,  Befani,  1883. 

But  they  hardly  cover  one  tenth  of  the  ground.  Students  will  find 
a  complete  chronology  of  the  facts  in  the  "  Storia  degli  Scavi  di 
Roma,"  which  I  hope  soon  to  publish  as  a  companion  text  to  the 
"  Forma  Urbis." 

THE    ROMAN   FORUM  247 

The  oldest  official  record  dates  from  the  year  1364,  when  Urban 
V.  granted  the  materials  of  the  Temple  of  Antoninus  and  Faustina 
to  the  rebuilders  of  the  Lateran,  provided  they  would  not  touch 
the  chapel  of  S.  Lorenzo  in  Mu-anda,  which  had  been  set  up  in  the 
portico.  As  an  account  of  excavations  is  appended  to  the  descrip- 
tion of  each  building,  I  need  not  enter  into  many  particulars.  In 
general,  however,  let  us  distinguish  three  periods.  In  the  first, 
from  Urban  V.  to  July  22,  1540,  the  popes  grant  to  building  con- 
tractors or  lime-burners  the  destruction  of  such  and  siich  a  monu- 
ment, one  third  of  the  profits  being  reserved  for  the  Apostolic 
Chamber.  Thus  in  1431-62  the  great  travertine  wall  separating 
the  Senate-house  from  the  Forum  of  Caesar  was  legally  destroyed 
by  jiermissiou  of  Eugenius  lY.  and  of  his  successors ;  in  1461-62 
the  same  fate  befell  the  Tempi uni  Sacrfp  Urbis  or  Record  Otfice ; 
in  14.50  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome ;  in  1499  the  House  of  the 
Vestals,  etc.  If  the  government  treated  the  antique  remains  in 
this  fashion  they  could  certainly  not  expect  mere}'  from  private 
hands.  In  reading  the  contracts  signed  between  the  owners  of 
ruins  and  their  excavators,  one  is  reminded  of  the  expression  of 
PiiTO  Ligorio,  that  "  ruins  were  sold  like  oxen  for  the  meat-mar- 
ket." What  I  may  call  "  excavation  fever  "  had  seized  every  class 
of  citizens,  from  the  cardinals  and  noblemen,  who  wanted  to  link 
their  name  to  a  museum  or  a  villa,  to  the  poor  w'idow,  who  sought 
to  relieve  her  miseries  by  some  unexpected  find.  Excavations 
may  be  called  the  ''  lotto  "  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

Sentence  of  death  on  the  monuments  of  the  Forum  and  of  the 
Sacra  A"ia  was  passed  on  July  22,  1540.  By  a  brief  of  Paul  III. 
(Farnese)  '  the  privilege  of  excavating  or  giving  permission  to  ex- 
cavate is  taken  away  from  the  Capitoline  or  Apostolic  chambers, 
from  the  "magistrates  of  streets,"  from  ecclesiastical  dignitaries, 
etc.,  and  given  exclusively  to  the  "  deputies  "  for  the  Fabbrica  di 
S.  Pietro.  The  pope  gives  them  full  liberty  to  search  for  ancient 
marbles  wherever  they  please  within  and  outside  the  walls,  to 
remove  them  from  antique  buildings,  to  pull  these  buildings  to 
pieces  if  necessary;  he  orders  that  no  marbles  can  be  sold  by 
private  owners  without  the  consent  of  the  Fabbrica,  under  the 
penalty  of  excommunication  lakf  sententice,  of  the  wTath  of  the 
pope,  and  of  a  fine  of  1000  ducats.  No  pen  can  describe  the 
ravages  committed  by  the  Fabbrica  in  the  course  of  the  last  sixty 

1  Published  by  Miintz,  Revue  nrcheol.,  mai,  1884,  from  the  original  of  the 
Vatican  archives.  The  importance  of  the  docmnent  has  not  yet  been  fully 
appreciated  by  archaeologists. 

248  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

years  of  the  sixteenth  century.  The  excesses  roused  the  execra- 
tion of  the  citizens,  but  to  no  purpose ;  on  May  17,  1580,  the  con- 
servatori  made  an  indignant  protest  to  the  town  council,  when  a 
portion  of  the  Palace  of  the  Caesars  had  fallen,  in  consequence  of 
its  having  been  undermined  by  the  searchers  for  marble.  A  depu- 
tation was  sent  to  Gregory  XIII.  to  ask  for  the  revocation  of  all 
licenses  ("  ad  perquu*endos  lapides  etiam  pro  usu  fabricse  Principis 
apostolorum").  We  may  imagine  what  answer  was  given  to  the 
protests  of  the  city  when  we  learn  that  by  a  brief  of  Clement 
VIII.,  dated  July  23,  1598,  the  archaeological  jurisdiction  of  the 
Fabbrica  was  extended  over  tlie  remains  of  Ostia  and  Porto ! 
The  Forum  Romanum  was  swept  by  a  band  of  devastators  from 
1540  to  1549 ;  they  began  by  removing  the  marble  steps  and  the 
marble  coating  of  Faixstina's  Temple  (1540),  then  they  attacked 
what  was  left  standing  of  the  Arch  of  Fabius  (1540).  Between 
1546  and  1547  the  Temple  of  Julius  C»sar,  the  Regia,  with  the 
Fasti  Consulares  et  Triumphales,  fell  under  their  hammer.  The 
steps  and  foundations  of  the  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux  were 
next  burnt  into  lime  or  given  up  to  the  stone-cutters,  together 
with  the  Arch  of  Augustus.  The  Temple  of  Vesta,  the  Augus- 
taeum,  and  the  shrine  of  Vortumnus,  at  the  corner  of  the  Vicus 
Tuscus,  met  with  the  same  fate  in  1549. 

The  chronology  of  subsequent  excavations  is  given  by  Charles 
Bunsen,  "Le  forum  ronumum  explique  selon  I'etat  des  fouilles," 
Rome,  avril  21,  1835,  p.  4 ;  Antonio  Nibby,  •'  Roma  antica,"  vol. 
ii.  p.  178 ;  Pleinrich  Jordan,  "  Topographie,"  vol.  i^,  p.  154,  n.  1 ; 
and  "  Sylloge  inscript.  fori  Romani  "  (in  Ephem.  epigr.,  1876,  p. 
244)  ;  Orazio  Marucchi,  "  Descrizione  del  foro  romano,"  Rome, 
Befani,  1883,  ch.  ii.  p.  9 ;  but  their  accounts  are  only  summary 
sketches.  A  great  many  unknown  documents  will  be  published 
in  volumes  iii.  and  iv.  of  "  Storia  degli  Scavi  di  Roma,"  the  pub- 
lication of  which  has  been  announced  above. 

Froln  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  downwards  the  more 
noticeable  events  are,  first  of  all,  the  raising  of  christianized  pagan 
edifices  to  the  level  of  the  modern  city,  by  which  they  suffered 
great  damage.  Urban  VIII.  is  responsible  for  the  modernization 
of  the  Heroon  Romuli,  of  the  Templum  Sacrae  Urbis  (SS.  Cosma 
e  Damiano),  of  the  Secretarium  Senatus  (S.  Martina),  and  of 
the  Senate-house  (S.  Adriano)  ;  Paul  V.  and  the  architect  Carlo 
Lombardo  for  that  of  S.  Maria  Nova  in  1615;  the  corporation 
of  apothecaries  and  their  architect  Torriani  for  that  of  S.  Lorenzo 
in  Miranda  (Temple  of  Antoninus  and  Faustina)  in  1602 ;  Cardi- 

THE    ROMAN    FORUM  249 

nal  Marcello  Laute  and  his  architect  Onorio  Longhi  for  that  of 
S.  Maria  Antiqua  (S.  M.  Liberatrice)  in  1617 ;  the  trustees  of  the 
Ospedale  della  Consohizioiie  for  that  of  S.  Maria  in  Cannapara 
(S.  M.  delle  Grazie)  in  1609. 

Under  Alexander  VII.  (1655-67)  Leonardo  Agostini  excavated 
and  destroyed  the  greater  part  of  the  Portions  Margaritaria.  In 
1742  a  trencli  ten  metres  deep  was  cut  across  the  Forum  to  put 
in  order  the  Cloaca  Maxima,  which  had  become  choked.  The 
Chevalier  Fredenheim  excavated  the  Basilica  Julia  between  No- 
vember, 1788,  and  March,  1789. 

The  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  marks  also  the  end  of  the 
era  of  destruction  in  the  valley  of  the  Forum.  Pius  VII.,  whose 
memory  is  dear  to  all  lovers  of  art  and  antiquities,  seconded  by 
Carlo  Fea,  his  "commissario  per  le  antichita,"  determined  that 
the  historical  monuments  from  the  Capitol  to  the  Coliseum  should 
be  laid  bare  and  their  foundations  strengthened  if  necessary.  His 
work,  interrupted  by  the  French  invasion  of  1809,  was  continued 
by  Comte  Toiu'uon,  the  prefet  of  the  Departement  du  Tibre. 
Leo  XII.  began  in  1827,  and  Gregory  XVI.  completed  in  18.35, 
another  section  of  excavations  from  the  Basilica  Julia  to  the 
Clivus  Capitolinus.  The  Republicans  of  1848—49  extended  the 
belt  of  discoveries  along  the  north  side  of  the  Basilica  Julia,  and 
Pius  IX.  completed  their  work  between  1851  and  1852. 

The  Italian  government  undertook  the  general  excavation  of 
the  ground  crossed  by  the  Sacra  Via  from  one  end  to  the  other  a 
few  weeks  after  Rome  was  made  the  capital  of  the  united  king- 
dom. Thirteen  years'  untii-ing  labor  and  a  sum  of  2,000,000  lire 
were  required  to  accomplish  the  task.  The  progress  of  the  works 
can  be  followed  by  referring  to  the  dates  appended  :  — 

1870.  December;  1871,  November.  —  Basilica  Julia. 

1871.  —  Streets  adjoining  the  Temple  of  Castores,  steps  of  temple,  monumen- 

tal columns  on  the  south  side  of  the  Forum,  Cloaca  Maxima. 

1872.  —  Space  between  temples  of  Castores  and  of  Divus  Julius,  Rostra  Julia, 

shops  on  the  east  side  of  the  Forum  (destroyed  in  1874). 

1873.  —  Area  of  the  Forum,  sculptured  plutei,  pedestal  of  Caballus  Constan- 

tini.  Temple  of  Vesta. 

1874.  —  The  neighborhood  of  Temple  of  Julius,  site  of  Regia. 
187f>. —  Steps  of  Temple  of  Antoninus,  and  neighborhood. 

1877-1879.  —  The  Clivus  Sacer  from  the  Heroon  Romuli  to  the  Arch  of  Titus, 
Basilica  Xova,  Arco  di  Latrone,  front  of  Porticus  Margaritaria,  etc. 

1882.  —  The  Sacra  Via  by  the  Arch  of  Fabius,  Arch  of  Fabius,  shops  of  the 
House  of  Vestals,  shrine  of  the  Vicus  Vestae. 

1883-1884.  —  House  of  Vestals,  Nova  Via. 

250  A     WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

We  shall  first  study  the  area  of  the  Forum,  and  the  various 
monuments  which  it  contains ;  then  the  edifices  on  the  north  side 
(Senate-house,  Temple  of  Janus,  Basilica  iEmilia) ;  those  of  the 
east  side  (Temple  of  Julius  Cfesar,  Ai-ch  of  Augustus,  Temple  of 
Castores) ;  those  of  the  south  side  (Basilica  Julia  between  the 
Vicus  Tuscus  and  the  Vicus  Jugarius) ;  and  lastly,  those  of  the 
west  side  (Temple  of  Saturn,  Rostra,  Arch  of  Severus,  Tullianum) 
and  of  the  Clivus  Capitolinus  (Tenrple  of  Concord  and  of  Ves- 
pasian, Porticus  Deorum  Consentium,  Tabularium,  Capitolium, 

The  bibliography  of  the  Forum  is  particularly  rich.  There  is 
no  book  connected  with  Roman  archaeology  without  a  reference  to 
it.  The  works  must  be  divided  into  three  classes  :  (a)  accounts  of 
discoveries  of  single  buildings,  sculptixre,  inscriptions,  etc.,  with 
no  attempt  at  a  general  reconstruction  of  the  Forum  ;  (b)  attempts 
at  a  general  i-econstruction  of  the  Forum  before  the  final  excava- 
tions of  1870-84 ;  (c)  works  published  after  the  excavations  of 

In  the  first  class  we  find  a  precious  source  of  information.  The 
series  begins  with  an  "  Expose  d'une  decouverte  de  m.  le  chev. 
Fredenheim  faite  au  Forum  romanum  en  Janvier,  1779,"  published 
by  Oberlin  at  Strassbourg  in  1706,  and  ends  with  Pietro  Pericoli's 
"  Storia  delF  Ospedale  della  Consolazione  di  Roma,"  1879,  where 
the  histoiy  of  the  destruction  of  the  Basilica  Julia  is  I'elated  from 
unedited  documents.  Works  of  this  class  will  be  quoted  in  con- 
nection with  the  single  discoveries  or  monuments  which  they  throw 
light  upon. 

The  second  class  has  lost  much  of  its  importance,  its  elements 
being  necessarily  rather  speculative  than  founded  on  fact ;  yet 
students  will  find  in  works  of  this  kind  wonderful  erudition,  and 
copious  references  to  classic  texts.     Consult,  among  others  — 

Antonio  Nibby,  Bel  foro  roviano,  della  via  sacra,  etc.,  Rome,  1819;  and 
Roma  nelV  anno  1838,  part  i.  vol.  ii.  p.  277.  —  Stefano  Piale,  Del  foro  romano, 
ma  posizione  e  f/randezza,  Rome,  1818  (18.32);  Delia  basilica  Giulia,  1824  (1833); 
Dei  tempi  di  Giano,  etc.,  1819  (1833).  — Auguste  Caristie,  Plan  et  coupe  d'une 
partie  du  forum  remain.  Paris,  1829,  fol.  —  Luigi  Canina,  Descrizione  storica 
del  foro  romano  e  sue  adiacenze.  Rome,  1834.  —  Charles  Bunsen,  Les  forums 
de  Rome  restaures  et  eapliques.  Rome,  1837;  and  Beschreihung  d.  St.  Rom, 
vol.  iii.  B.  —  Ravioli  and  Montiroli,  Ilforo  romano.  Rome,  1852.  —  Emil  Braiin, 
Das  Forum  (in  Philologus,  suppl.  ii.,  1862,  p.  381,  6-^.).  —  Etfisio  Tocco,  Ripri- 
stinazione  del  foro  romano.     Rome,  1858. 

The  excavations  of  1870-84  have  called  forth  a  number  of 
works.     Leaving  aside  those  that  refer  to  single  discoveries  or  to 



single  monuments,  mention  of  which  will  be  found  in  the  proper 
place,  the  few  of  a  general  character  are  — 

Heinrich  Jordan,  Capitol,  Forum,  und  Sacra  Via,  Berlin,  Weidmann,  1881 ; 
Die  uberreste  des  Forum  (in  Topographie,  vol.  i'-^,  p.  154) ;  and  Sylloge  inscript. 
fori  romani  (in  Ephem.  epigraph.,  vol.  iii.,  1876,  p.  237).  —  Edoardo  Brizio, 
Relazione  .  .  .  stille  scoperte  archeolor/iche  dtlln  citta  .  .  .  di  Roma,  1873. — 
Ferdinand  Dutert,  Le  forum  romnin  tt  les  forums  dt  Jules  Cesar,  etc.  Paris, 
1876.  —  John  H.  Parker,  The  Roman  Forum  (in  Archseology  of  Rome,  vol.  ii. 
1876).  —  Francis  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum.  London,  1877.  —  Orazio 
Marucchi,  Descrizione  delforo  romano  e  guida  per  la  risita  dei  suoi  monumenti. 
Rome,  1883.  French  edition.  —  John  H.  Middleton,  The  Forum  Romanum, 
and  its  Adjacent  Biiildinys  (in  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome,  vol.  i.  chap.  vi.  p. 
231).    London,  1892.  —  Levy  and  Luckenbach,  Forum  romanum.    Munich,  1895. 

tm  mm 

«*-,•-©-■&-*_♦     6 

•     ©llilLilMimsiiCli^  BASILICA.     IVLIA 

Fig.  93.  — Map  of  Forum  and  of  Basilica  Julia, 

XXII.  Area  of  the  Forum. —  The  Forum  is  not  rectangular, 
as  prescribed  by  A'itruvius  (v.  1),  but  in  the  form  of  a  trapezoid. 
Before  the  construction  of  the  Temple  of  Csesar,  on  the  site  where 
his  body  had  been  cremated,  it  was  160  metres  long.     After  the 

252  A    WALK    THROVGII   THE   SACRA    VIA 

temi^le  was  built,  its  area  was  severed  from  that  of  the  Forum,  and 
the  Sacra  Via  made  to  pass  between  them ;  by  which  measure  the 
Forum  was  reduced  to  a  length  of  102  metres.  The  breadth  varies 
from  a  maximum  of  45  metres  on  the  west  side  to  a  minimum  of 
36  metres  at  the  east  end.^  It  is  surrounded  by  streets  on  three 
sides  :  by  the  Street  ad  Janum  on  the  north,  by  the  Sacra  Via  on 
the  east  and  south,  while  the  Area  Concordise  and  the  winding 
Clivus  Capitolinus  constitute  its  western  boundary  line. 

The  Sacra  Via  has  been  already  described  in  the  opening  section 
of  this  Book.  The  Street  ad  Janum  took  its  name  from  the  temple 
of  that  god  which  stood  at  the  entrance  to  the  Via  Argiletana, 
between  the  Senate-house  and  the  Basilica  Fulvia-^milia.  It  ex- 
tended from  the  Comitium  to  the  Temple  of  Antoninus,  limiting 
the  area  of  the  Forum  on  the  north  side.  At  the  beginning  of 
the  seventh  century  of  Rome  it  became  the  rendezvous  of  brokers, 
money-changers,  bankers,  and  usurers,  who  could  find  shelter  from 
rain  or  sun  under  the  porticoes  of  the  basilica.  Cicero  and  Horace 
describe  the  centre  of  the  street  —  ad  Janum  medium  —  as  the 
Bourse  or  Exchange  of  ancient  Rome.  Modern  writers,  forgetting 
that  the  adjectives  "  summus,  medius,  imus,"  applied  to  a  slightly 
inclined  road,  mean  its  highest,  middle,  and  lowest  point,  have 
imagined  the  existence  on  this  road  of  three  "jani"  or  four-faced 
archways,  and  have  even  produced  drawings  of  them.  Bentley  on 
Horace  (Epist.,  i.  1,  54)  is  the  first  to  have  found  and  suggested 
the  true  meaning  of  those  adjectives. 

Literature.  —  F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  240. —  H.  Jordan, 
Una  rettijicazione  alia  jnanta  del  for o  (in  Bull.  Inst.,  1881,  p.  10.3).  —  Rodolfo 
Lanciana,  La  cloaca  maxima  (in  Bull,  com.,  1890,  p.  98). 

The  Forum  is  paved  negligently  with  slabs  of  travertine  wliich 
must  date  from  the  time  of  Diocletian,  who  repaired  the  ravages 
of  the  fire  of  Carinus.  The  pavement  was  edged  with  a  raised 
border  also  of  travertine,  which,  being  only  0.72  metre  wide,  cannot 
be  called  sidewalk,  semita,  but  simplv  margo.  or  border.  Its  most 
noticeable  feature  consists  of  a  series  of  square  holes,  which  line 
the  edge  (letter  A)  and  look  like  the  sockets  in  front  of  our  palaces 
and  public  buildings  which  held  the  fiaccole  on  the  occasion  of 
festivities.  Such  holes  are  also  to  be  found  at  Pompeii  in  the  street 
which  runs  along  the  so-called  "  Scuola  al  foro."  Schoene  thinks 
they  may  have  served  to  hold  a  wooden  fence,  to  direct  and  contain 

1  According  to  Varro  the  Forum  originally  measured  septem  jugera'= 
17,539.20  square  metres  ;  its  actual  surface  does  not  exceed  41.31  square 



the  crowd  in  election  days  ;  but  such  cannot  have  been  their  pur- 
pose in  Rome,  because  they  are  to  be  found  also  in  front  of  the 
temples  of  -Julius  Cfesar  and  of  Castor  and  Pollux.     It  is  more 

Raised  border  (margo) 

Pauement  of 
-045 V    Sacra   Via 

Fig.  94.  —  The  Margo  of  the  Forum. 

probable  that  the  poles  around  our  Forum  and  its  neighboring 
temples  were  used  to  support  awnings  during  the  summer  months. 
The  situation  of  the  Forum  is  such  that,  while  it  is  exposed  to  the 
full  violence  of  the  rays  of  the  sun,  the  Capitoline  and  the  Quirinal 
shelter  it  from  the  north,  and  shut  off  refreshing  breezes.  In 
summer  the  temperature  is  often  above  100°  in  the  shade.  To 
save  the  citizens  from  sunstroke,  and  to  make  it  possible  for  judges 
and  advocates  to  discuss  their  cases,  and  for  orators  to  address 
their  audience,  the  velaria  were  brought  into  use  towards  the  end 
of  the  Republican  period.  The  merit  of  the  invention  seems  to 
belong  to  Julius  Cjesar,  who  "totum  forum  romanum  intexit, 
viamque  sacram."  INIarcellus,  the  nephew  of  Augu.stus,  while  aedile 
in  23  B.  c,  "  veils  forum  inumbravit,  ut  salubrius  litigantes  con- 
sisterent."  ^  The  same  thing  occurred  in  a.  d.  39,  as  related  by 
Dion  Cassius  (lix.  23).  At  all  events,  we  must  not  picture  the 
Forum  to  ourselves  as  being  always  a  grave  and  solemn  place,  only 
fit  for  legal  discussions,  for  criminal  prosecutions,  popular  indigna- 
tion meetings,  and  so  forth.  The  Forum  could  be  also  a  gay  and 
festive  place.  Religieus  ceremonies  and  pageants  occasionallj^  took 
place  in  it ;  sacrifices  were  offered  on  temporary  altars ;  statues  of 
gods  moved  round  in  processions  among  the  smoke  of  incense  and 
the  singing  of  hymns ;  military  reviews,  hunting-scenes,  gladiatorial 
fights,  and  games  of  every  description  were  scenes  in  the  drama  of 
this  great  stage.  Thousands  of  citizens  would  sometimes  sit  down 
in  it  at  political  or  funeral  banquets.  Works  of  art  and  curiosities 
were  also  exhibited  in  the  Forum.  L.  Hostilius  Mancinus,  for 
instance,  the  first  Roman  who  entered  Carthage,  had  a  grand 
panorama  of  the  siege  and  capture  of  the  Punic  capital  set  up  here, 
while  he  would  describe  viva  voce  to  the  crowd  the  details  of  the 
1  Pliny,  Hist.  Nat.,  xv.  20  ;  xix.  6. 

254  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

assault.  Famous  pictures  and  bronze  or  marble  statues  brought 
over  from  Greece  were  also  shown  to  the  multitudes  ;  and  such 
wonders  of  nature  as  the  serpent  fifty  cubits  long,  described 
by  Suetonius  (Aug.,  43).  On  the  occasion  of  triumphs  or  proces- 
sions, private  citizens  would  lend  their  ai'tistic  treasures  and  dra- 
peries and  carj)ets  for  the  decoration  of  the  Sacra  Via.  At  night 
the  Forum  was  brilliantly  illuminated. 

Literature.  —  Th(5denat,  in  Daremberg  and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1280. 
—  F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  pp.  85-93. 

The  area  of  the  Forum  was  encumbered  with  monuments  of 
various  kinds.  Leaving  aside  those  of  early  Republican  times, 
which  disappeared  under  the  Empire  (the  columna  Mcenia,  the  pila 
Horcitla,  the  Venun  Claarina,  etc.),  I  shall  only  mention  the  few 
the  remains  of  which  have  been  or  can  still  be  traced  in  our  days. 

XXIII.  Columna  Rostrata,  or  Columna  Duilia,  a  marble  pillar 
ornamented  with  beaks  of  war-ships,  erected  in  memory  of  the 
naval  victory  gained  by  C.  Duilius  over  the  Carthaginians  in  260 
B.  c.  A  fragment  of  its  inscription  was  discovered  in  July,  1565, 
between  the  Arch  of  Severus  and  the  Column  of  Phocas,  and  re- 
moved to  the  vestibule  of  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservator!,  where  it  is 
to  be  seen  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs,  under  a  more  or  less  fanciful 
model  of  the  column.  The  inscription,  although  dating  from  the 
time  of  Claudius,  is  not  a  copy  of  the  original  one.  It  is  prolix, 
slightly  incorrect,  and  seems  to  have  been  made  up  by  a  gram- 
marian from  passages  of  early  annalists.  (See  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol. 
i.  pp.  37-40.) 

XXIV.  The  Sculptured  Plutei.  —  Between  the  Column  of 
Phocas  and  the  Street  of  Janus,  one  of  the  most  interesting  monu- 
ments was  brought  to  light  in  September,  1872.  It  consists  of  two 
screens  or  plutei  of  white  marble,  with  bas-reliefs  on  either  side, 
surmounted  with  a  richly  carved  cornice.  Each  screen,  composed 
of  several  pieces  of  marble  (a  few  missing),  stands  on  a  foundation 
of  travertine,  and  a  plinth  of  marble,  which  is  a  modern  and  doubt- 
ful addition.  The  exact  state  in  which  the  bas-reliefs  were  found 
in  September,  1872,  is  shown  in  the  following  cut  (Fig.  95).  The 
inside  panels  represent  the  three  animals  sacrificed  in  the  great 
lustral  ceremony  of  the  suoi^etaurilia  —  the  sow,  the  ram,  and  the 
bull  —  all  adorned  with  ribbons,  and  all  moving  in  the  direction  of 
the  Basilica  Julia.     The  outer  reliefs  represent  historical  scenes, 



with  a  view  of  the  Forum  itself  on  the  background.     Their  mean- 
ing has  given  rise  to  much  controversy.     Consult  — 

Wilhelm  Henzen,  Rilievi  cU  inarmo  scoptrti  nel  J",  r.  (in  Bull.  Inst.,  1872, 
p.  273).  — Edoardo  Brizio,  in  Annal.  Inst.,  1872,  p.  309,  pi.  47.  —  Camillo 
Ravioli,  II  soggetto  esposto  nei  bassorilievi  del  J",  r.  (in  Corrispondenza  scien- 
tilica,  1872,  anno  25,  n.  14,  15). —  C.  Ludovico  Visconti,  Beux  actesde  Domitien 
en  qualite  de  censeur,  etc.  Rome,  1873.  —  F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum, 
pp.  60-68.  —  .1.  H.  Parker,  The  Forum  (in  Archeology  of  Rome,  vol.  ii.  pi. 
13).  —  Orazio  Marucchi,  Importanza  topografica  del  bassorilieiil  delf.r.  (in  Gli 
studi  in  Italia,  1880,  i.  p.  678);  and  Bull.  Inst.,  1881,  pp.  11,  33.  —  Heinrieh 
Jordan,  Topographie,  i^,  p.  220.  —  Luigi  Cantarelli,  Osservazioni  sitlla  scene  net 
bassorilievi  del/,  r.  (in  Bull,  com.,  1889,  p.  99). 

It  seems  almost  certain  that  the  scene  facing  the  Capitol 
alludes  to  the  provision  made  by  Trajan  for  the  education  and 
maintenance  of  children  of  poor  or  deceased  citizens  ("  pueri  et 
puellse  alimentarii ").  The  J^niperor  is  seated  on  a  suggestum 
addressing  a  female  figure,  a  personification  of  Italy,  who  carries 
an  infant  on  the  left  arm,  while  another  child  probably  stood  on 
her  right.     On  the  opposite  side  of  the  same  picture  the  Empei-or 

Fig.  95.  — The  Fragments  of  the  Marble  Plutei,  discovered  in  September,  1872. 

is  represented  addressing  the  crowd  from  the  Rostra.  The  second 
bas-relief,  facing  the  south,  represents  the  burning  of  the  registers 
in  which  the  sums  due  to  the  Fiscus  by  negligent  tax-payers  -were 
recorded.     This  act  of  generosity  of  Trajan  is  praised  by  Ausonius. 



The  importance,  however,  of  these  panels  rests  in  the  view  of  the 
background,  which  represents  the  scene  that  was  in  reality  before 
the  spectator,  the  Forum  and  its  surroundings. 

The  view  begins  on  the  left  with  the  Rostra  Julia,  from  which 
the  Emperor  is  addressing  the  crowd ;  behind  him  we  see  (a)  the 
Arch  of  Augustus,  (h)  the  Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux,  (c)  the 



opening  of  the  Viciis  Tuscus,  {<!)  the  Basilica  Julia.  The  design 
of  the  latter  is  continued  on  the  second  bas-relief  facing  the  Capi- 
tol. Next  comes  (e)  the  Temple  of  Saturn,  (y')  a  fragment  of  tlie 
Tabularium  (?),  {g)  the  Temple  of  Vespasian,  (Ji)  the  Rostra 
Vetera,  represented  in  a  conventional  form.  The  statue  of  Mar- 
syas  and  the  Ficus  Ruminalis,  which  appear  in  both  panels,  sym- 
bolize the  Forum  and  the  Comitium.  (See  Jordan's  Marsyas  auf 
den  Forum.     Berlin,  1883.) 

Opinions  differ  very  much  as  to  what  purpose  —  beyond  a  com- 
memorative object  —  these  two  screens  served.     Nichols  suggests 

Fig.  97.  —The  Rostra  as  represented  in  a  Bas-relief  of  the  Arch  of  Constantine. 

that  they  "formed  a  sort  of  an  avenue  leading  to  an  altar  and 
statue  of  the  Emjieror,  in  whose  honor  the  monument  may  have 
been  erected  after  his  deification."  Middleton  supposes  "  that  they 
formed  a  sort  of  gangway  through  which  voters  had  to  pass  to 
reach  the  ballot-boxes  on  the  Comitium,  in  order  to  facilitate  the 
onward  movement  of  the  crowd  of  citizens  in  an  orderly  stream." 
Tt  is  almost  certain,  however,  that  the  plutei  are  not  in  their 
original  place ;  so  that  all  speculation  about  their  scope  is  useless. 
They  must  have  been  placed  on  their  rough  travertine  socles  by 
Diocletian  in  his  restoration  of  the  Forum  after  the  fire  of  Carinus. 

258  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

Thedenat  seems  to  attribute  them  to  the  Rostra  Vetera  (Diction- 
naire,  p.  1305). 

XXV.  Monumental  Columns  on  the  Sacra  Via.  —  Near 
and  along  the  margo  which  limits  the  j)avement  of  the  Forum 
on  the  south  side  stand  eight  square  pedestals  of  monumental 
columns,  the  shafts  of  which,  varying  in  size  and  quality,  are  lying 
close  by.  The  first  column  near  the  southeast  corner  was  covered 
with  ornaments  of  gilt  bronze,  as  shown  by  the  holes  of  the  clamps 
to  which  they  were  riveted.  Other  shafts  are  of  gray  or  red  gran- 
ite, and  one  is  of  white  marble.  Professor  Jordan  has  been  able  to 
date  the  erection  of  these  pillars  by  means  of  brick-stamps  which 
can  still  be  seen  at  the  foot  of  the  fii'st  and  third  pedestals : 
they  belong  to  the  age  of  Constantine.  Five  pillars  of  this  kind 
are  represented  in  a  bas-relief  of  the  triumj)hal  arch  of  that  Em- 
peror, the  background  of  which  is  almost  as  interesting  for  the 
topography  of  the  Forum  as  that  of  the  plutei  described  abo\'e. 
The  first  building  on  the  left  is  the  Basilica  Julia ;  the  second  is 
the  Arch  of  Tiberius  (?) ;  then  come  five  monumental  columns, 
supporting  statues,  and  last  of  all  the  Arch  of  Severus.  The 
Emperor  is  delivering  a  speech  from  the  Rostra  Vetera.  If  these 
columns  were  raised  on  their  pedestals  the  picturesqueness  and 
interest  of  the  Forum  would  be  greatly  enhanced. 

Literature.  —  Carlo  Fea,  Varietadi  Notizie,  p.  71.  —  Francesco  Ficoroni, 
Memorie,  n.  80.  —  Heiurich  .lordau,  Bull.  Inst.,  1881,  p.  lOG;  Ann.  Inst.,  1883, 
p.  49;  and  Ephemeris  ejjigraphica,  p.  259.  —  Otto  Richter,  Die  romische  Red- 
nerbiihnt  (in  .Jahrbueh,  1889,  pp.  8-14). 

XXVI.  The  Caballus  Constantini  (Equestrian  Statue  of 
Constantine).  —  In  1873  an  official  announcement  was  given  to 
the  archaeological  world  of  the  discovery  of  the  "pedestal  of 
Domitian's  equestrian  statue  "  in  the  middle  of  the  Forum.  (See 
Pietro  Rosa,  Relazione,  p.  71.)  They  did  not  hesitate  to  identify 
as  a  famous  work  of  art  of  the  golden  age  a  rough  and  ugly  bit  of 
masonry,  resting,  without  foundations,  on  the  travertine  pavement 
of  the  time  of  Diocletian ;  they  did  not  recollect  that  the  eques- 
trian statue  cannot  have  survived  the  "  memorise  damnatio "  of 
Domitian ;  that  it  must  have  perished  the  very  day  of  his  death  ; 
and  that,  if  it  had  not  been  described  accidentally  by  a  contem- 
porary poet  (Statins,  Silv.,  1).  no  one  would  ever  have  had  a  sus- 
picion of  its  existence.  The  pedestal  belongs  very  likely  to  the 
Caballus  Constantini,  mention  of  which  occui's  in  documents  of 
the   seventh    and   eightli    centuries.     The    equestrian    group   was 


raised  in  334,  and  its  commemorative  inscription  is  given  by  the 
"  Corpus,"  vol.  vi.  n.  1141. 

Beferences.  —  Carlo  Fea,  in  Winckelmann's  Htoriii  dcW  arte,  vol.  iii.  p. 
410.  —  Charles  Bunsen,  Forum,  \).  15.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Ephe7n.  epiyr.,  vol. 
lii.  p.  256.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Inscript.  christ.,  vol.  ii.  5.  —  Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciaui,  Itinerar.  Einsiedltn,  p.  20. 

XXVII.  Unknown  Building  on  the  east  side,  opposite  the 
Temple  of  Julius.  —  Three  buildings  of  the  late  J]mpire,  not  later 
at  all  events  than  the  end  of  the  sixth  century,  were  raslily  de- 
stroyed in  1872-74,  under  the  pretext  that  they  did  not  belong  to 
the  classic  age.  Jordan  has  described  them  carefully,  p.  252  of 
vol.  iii.  of  the  "  Ephemeris  epigraphica,"  and  considers  their  dis- 
appearance as  a  "  maximum  detrimentum  "  to  the  study  of  the 
P"'orum.  The  first  stood  near  the  marble  plutei,  the  second  near 
the  Column  of  Phocas,  the  third  extended  over  the  whole  east  side 
of  the  Forum,  from  the  Vicus  Tuscus  to  the  Street  ad  Janum,  and 
consisted  of  five  large  rooms,  handsomely  decorated  with  marble 
cornices,  pieces  of  which  are  still  left  in  situ.  Rather  than  shops 
I  would  consider  them  used  for  a  public  office  like  that  of  the 
"scribfe  sedilium  curulium  "  at  the  opposite  end  of  the  Forum. 
An  inscription  discovered  here  on  May  13,  1872,  engraved  on  an 
architrave  3.44  metres  long,  relates  how  Lucius  Valerius  Septi- 
mius  Bassus,  pi'efect  of  the  city  between  379  and  383,  had  dedi- 
cated the  structure  to  which  the  architrave  belongs,  in  honor  of 
Gratianus,  Valentinian,  and  Theodosius.  Perhaps  this  is  the  date 
of  the  building  destroyed  by  Rosa. 

XXVIII.  Monuments  of  the  Gothic  and  Gildonic  Wars. 

—  On  the  Street  ad  Janum,  opposite  the  Senate-house,  stands  an 
historical  monument,  relating  to  the  Gothic  wars  of  the  beginning 
of  the  fifth  century.  The  inscription,  fifteen  lines  long,  praises 
the  fidelity  and  valor  shown  by  the  army  of  Arcadius,  Ilonorius, 
and  Theodosius,  in  the  mighty  struggle  which  ended  with  the 
defeat  of  Radagaisus  in  405.  The  victory  is  attributed  to  Stilicho, 
the  Roman  leader  :  "  confectum  gothicum  bellum  .  .  .  consiliis 
et  fortitudine  magistri  utriusque  militife  Flavii  Stilichonis."  The 
memorial  set  up  by  decree  of  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  under  the  care  of 
Pisidius  Romulus,  prefect  of  the  city  in  405,  is  the  meanest  and 
poorest  in  the  whole  Forum,  and  shows  how  low  Roman  pride, 
taste,  and  finance  had  fallen  in  those  days.  It  is  made  of  two 
blocks  —  one  of  travei'tine,  which   forms   the   base,  and   one   of 

260  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

marble  above  it.  This  last  had  been  already  used  as  a  pedestal  to 
an  equestrian  statue  of  bronze ;  the  statue  was  knocked  off,  the 
pedestal  set  negligently  upright  on  one  of  the  ends,  its  cracks  re- 
adjusted with  iron  clamps,  and  the  new  inscription  written  across 
the  old  one  after  the  latter  had  been  obliterated  with  care. 

The  details  of  the  struggles  which  mark  this  period  of  the  agony 
of  the  Western  Empire  are  copiously  described  by  the  monuments 
found  or  existing  in  this  corner  of  the  Forum.  In  August,  1539, 
two  pedestals  were  found  between  the  Arch  of  Severus  and  the 
church  of  SS.  Sergio  e  Bacco :  one  recording  the  African  ex- 
ploits of  Stilicho,  the  other  set  up  by  the  same  Pisidius  Romulus 
"  pro  singulari  eius  (Stilichonis)  amore  atque  providentia."  The 
first  was  removed  to  the  Palazzo  Capranica  alia  Valle,  the  second 
to  the  Villa  Medici.  In  1519-65,  a  few  feet  from  the  monument 
of  405,  Cardinal  Fai'nese  found  the  base  of  an  equestrian  group 
raised  to  Arcadius  and  Honorius,  in  commemoration  of  their  vic- 
tory over  Count  Gildo,  the  African  rebel  of  398.  The  inscribed 
slabs  of  this  monument  are  still  lying  abandoned  in  disorder  in 
this  vicinity.  In  the  same  year  405  a  triumphal  arch  w^as  raised 
to  the  three  Emperors,  "because  they  had  wiped  off  from  the 
face  of  the  earth  the  nation  of  the  Goths."  Four  years  later  Rome 
was  stormed  by  the  very  barbarians  whom  they  boasted  to  have 

Literature.  —  Christian  Huulsen,  //  monumento  della  (juerrn  f/ihioiiica  sul 
foro  Romano,  in  Mittheil.,  1895,  p.  52. —  Notizie  degli  Scari,  1880,  p.  53. — 
Heinrich  Jordan,  Silloge  inscr.  fori  romani,  n.  Ill,  Ilia,  122.  —  Corpus  Jn- 
script.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1187,1730,  1731. 

XXIX.  The  Column  of  Phocas.  —  The  pedestal  of  this 
column,  to  which  the  most  conflicting  names  had  been  given  by 
early  topographers,  was  discovered  in  the  morning  of  February 
23,  1813,  with  the  inscription  which  tells  the  tale  of  its  erection. 
According  to  this  document,  the  pillar  was  set  up  in  honor  of 
Phocas  by  Zmaragdus,  exarch  of  Italy,  "jDro  innumerabilibus 
pietatis  eius  beneficiis,  et  pro  quiete  procurata  Italise,"  and  dedi- 
cated on  August  1,  608.  It  is  the  last  monument  ei'ected  in  the 
Forum  yet  free  from  the  ruins  which  were  to  bury  and  conceal  it 
so  soon  after  :  it  marks  the  close  of  the  ancient  period  and  the 
beginning  of  the  Middle  Ages.  The  brick  pedestal  is  exactly  like 
the  eight  others  which  line  the  Sacra  Via ;  it  was  concealed  from 
view  by  a  flight  of  nine  marble  steps,  each  0.36  of  a  metre  high. 
The  inscription  is  engraved  on  the  marble  base  which  stands  at 



the  top  of  the  steps.  Tlie  cohimu  is  fourteen  metres  high,  with  a 
diameter  of  1.89  metres,  and  leans  considerably  towards  the  south- 
east.    Its  style  (and  that  of  its  capital)  is  certainly  better  than 

Fig.  9S.  -  The  Column  of  Phocas-  The  Marble  Plutei  in  the  Foreground. 

that  prevailing  in  the  seventh  century;  therefore,  either  the 
column  has  been  removed  bodily  from  a  classic  edifice,  or  else 
Zmaragdus  dedicated  to  Phocas  a  monument  which,  up  to  his 
time,  had  borne  another  name.     I  believe  that  the  words  of  the 

262  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

inscription,  "  Zmaragdus  has  placed  a  gilt  statue  of  liis  Emperor 
on  the  top  of  this  sublime  column,"  must  be  understood  in  the 
latter  sense. 

References.  —  Diario  di  Roma,  .5  marzo,  1817  ;  4  agosto,  1818.  —  F.  Au- 
relin  Visconti,  Lettera  sopra  la  cohmnn  di  Fuca.  Rome,  de  Romani.s,  181-3.  — 
Carlo  Fea,  Osservaz.  suW  anfiteatro  Flavio,  p.  63,  n.  3.  —  Iscrizioni  di  monu- 
nienti  pubblici.    Rome,  Contedini,  1813,  ii.  2. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  ii.  1200. 


XXX.  Curia  Hostilia — Curia  Julia  —  Senatus  (XXIII 
in  plan).  —  The  Senate-house  was,  politically  speaking,  the  most 
important  building  in  the  Roman  world.  The  place  where  it 
stands  was  occupied  at  an  early  age  by  a  small  wood,  by  a  cave 
overgrown  with  ivy,  and  by  a  spring,  at  which  Tarpeia  was  draw- 
ing water  when  she  saw  Tatius  for  the  first  time.  The  first  sena- 
tors met  here,  dressed  in  sheepskins,  in  a  square  hut  covered  by  a 
thatched  roof.  TuUus  Hostilius  gave  the  patres  conscrlpti  a  better 
seat,  an  oblong  hall,  built  of  stone  on  the  northeast  side  of  the 
Comitium,  raised  on  a  platform  above  the  reach  of  floods,  and 
accessible  by  a  flight  of  steps,  down  which  the  body  of  Servius 
was  hurled  by  Tarquinius.  Inside,  it  contained  several  rows  of 
benches,  the  Speaker's  chair,  a  small  apartment  for  the  archives, 
and  a  vestibule.  The  outside  wall  on  the  Argiletum  was  decorated 
in  264  B.  c.  with  a  picture  representing  the  victory  of  M.  Valerius 
Messalla  over  King  Hieron  of  Syracuse.  Hence  the  name  ad  tahu- 
lam  Valeriam  popularly  given  to  the  place.  We  must  remember 
also  that,  the  Senate  being  forbidden  to  vote  a  measure  unless 
assembled  in  a  temple,  their  hall  was  consecrated.  Cicero  calls  it 
sometimes  a  templum  inauguratum,  sometimes  templum  puhlici  ron- 
cilii.  So  extreme  was  the  frugality  and  self-denial  of  Republican 
senators  that  they  had  never  allowed  their  hall  to  be  warmed  in 
winter.  On  January  6,  62  b.  c,  Cicero  wrote  to  his  brother  that 
the  Speaker  Appius  had  summoned  the  senators  to  an  important 
meeting,  when  it  grew  so  cold  that  he  was  obliged  to  dismiss  the 
assembly,  and  expose  its  members  to  the  railleiy  of  the  populace. 
Such  was  the  Curia  Hostilia. 

Sulla  repaired  and  perhaps  enlarged  it  in  80  b.  c.  'Twenty- 
eight  years  later,  it  was  burned  down  by  the  partisans  of  Clodius. 
The  revolutionary  instincts  of  the  mob  having  been  aroused  by 
fiery  speeches  from  the  Rostra,  a  certain  Sextus  Clodius,  a  scribe, 
broke  into  the  Curia  at  the  head  of  a  band  of  roughs  carrying  the 
body  of  the  murdered  anarchist,  and,  having  made  a  pp-e  of  the 



benches,  tables,  books,  and  shelves,  set  the  building  ablaze  and 
destroyed  it  Avitli  the  adjoining  Basilica  Porcia. 

The  task  of  reerecting  it  in  a  more  splendid  form  was  given 
by  the  Senate  to  Faustus,  son  of  Sulla,  with  the  promise  that  it 
should  be  called,  from  both  of  them.  Curia  Cornelia.  The  works 
were  interrupted  a  few  years  later,  and  Lepidus  the  triumvir  was 
asked  to  substitute  for  the  Curia  a  temple  of  Felicitas.  In  M  b.  c, 
however,  Julius  Cfesar,  who  hated  to  see  the  name  of  the  Cornelii 
attached  to  the  Senate-house,  obtained  for  himself  the  commission 


Fig.  99.  —  Plau  of  the  Senate-House,  rebuilt  by  Diocletian. 

to  rebuild  it  under  the  name  of  Curia  Julia.  The  works  inter- 
rupted by  the  death  of  the  dictator,  on  jNIarch  15,  44,  were  con- 
tinued by  the  trium^-irs,  and  completed  by  Augustus.  The  solemn 
dedication  took  place  in  725  ('20  a.  d.).  a  j'ear  famous  for  the  three 
triumphs  celebrated  by  the  founder  of  the  Empire,  and  for  the 
closing  of  the  Temple  of  Janus  pace  terra  marique  parta.  Au- 
gustus added  to  the  Curia  Julia  a  chalcidicum  (called  in  later  times 
Atrium  Minervoi),  a  court  surrounded  by  a  colonnade  ;  placed  in 
the  hall  two  famous  pictures  signed  by  Nicias  and  Philochares,  the 
statue  of  Victory  from  Tarentum,  and  an  altar  before  it,  which 
was  inaugurated  on  August  28  of  the  same  year,  29.  It  is  need- 
less to  state  that  the  Curia  Julia  occupied  absolutely  the  same  con- 
secrated space,  the  same  templum  inauguratmn  as  the  old  Curia  Hos- 
tilia,  and  that  the  new  inauguration  mentioned  by  Gellius  (xiv.  7) 
refers  not  to  the  hall  itself,  but  to  the  additions  made  to  it. 

The  Curia  Julia  suffered  great  damage  from  the  fire  of  Xero, 



and  was  repaired  by  Domitian.  Another  fire  burnt  it  to  the 
ground  under  Carinus,  and  Diocletian  reconstructed  it  under  the 
name  of  Senatus.  I  have  found  in  the  Ufiizi  at  Florence  and  in 
the  Kunstgewerbe  Museum  at  Berlin,  a  precious  set  of  drawings 
by  Antonio  da  Sangallo,  Baldassarre,  Sallustio  Peruzzi,  and  others, 
in  which  Diocletian's  work  is  illustrated  in  every  architectural  and 
decorative  detail. 

Literature.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  L'  aula  e  gli  uffici  del  Senato  romano, 
Rome,  Salviucci,  1883  (Atti  Lincei,  vol.  xi.  28  genn.  1883)  ;  and  Ancient  Rome, 
p.  77.  —  Tliedenat,  in  Daremberg  and  SagUo's  Dictivnnaire,  p.  1293. 

The  Senate-house  formed  a  rectangle  .51.28  metres  long  and  27.54 
metres  wide,  with  the  front  on  the  Comitium,  and  the  back  resting 
against  the  inclosure  wall  of  the  Forum  Julium,  a  huge  construc- 
tion of  tufa  and  travertine  (see  Fig.  99). 

On  the  right  side  it  touched  the  Argiletum,  viz.,  the  open  space 
preceding  the  Forum  Transitorium,  in  the  middle  of  which  stood 
the  Temple  of  Janus ;  on  the  left  it  bordered  on  a  small  square 
ornamented  with  a  fountain,  composed  of  a  river  god  (the  Marfo- 
rio  of  the  Capitoline  Museum)  from  whose  urn  the  water  fell  into 
a  tazza  of  granite  (now  in  front  of  the  Quirinal  palace).  The  hall 
itself  was  25.20  metres  long,  17.61  metres  wide.  Its  walls  were 
covered  with   marble   incrustations  like   those    of   SS.   Cosma   e 

Damiano,  of  the  Hierusa- 
lem  (S.  Croce),  of  the 
Basilica  of  Junius  Bas- 
sus,  etc.,  and  they  are  de- 
scribed by  A.  da  Sangallo 
and  Etienne  du  Perac. 
Cardinal  du  Bellay  de- 
stroyed them  about  1550. 
I  have  discovered  a  sketch 
of  three  panels  in  a  draw- 
ing formerly  in  the  Des- 
tailleur  collection,  now 
in  the  Kunstgewerbe  at 
Berlin  (portfolio  f.  A. 
376,  pi.  35).  The  quality 
of  the  marbles  is  carefully  noted :  "  sei'pentin,  porfide,  marmo," 
etc.,  and  also  the  position  of  the  panels :  "  deli  dui  bande  de  la 
nice  "  on  either  side  of  the  apse. 

The  hall  was  covered  by  a  vaulted  ceiling,  with  heavily  gilt 

Fig.  100.  - 

-  The  Marble  Incrustations  of  the  Senate 



Fig.  101.  —  Details  of  Cornice  of  the  Senate  Hall. 

lacunaria.     On  the  outside,  the  building  appeared  rather  shabby : 

plain  brick  walls  were  plastered  over  in  imitation  of  marble.     The 

cornice  was  more  elaborate, 

as  shown  by  the  following 

sketch  of  the  Anonymus  of 


The  bas-reliefs  of  the  ped- 
iment represented,  accord- 
ing to  Ligorio  (Bodl.,  p.  7), 
"  certi  mostri  marini  chia- 
mati  Tritoni  quali  suona- 
vano  certe  bucine.  ..." 
Traces  of  the  stucco  work 
can  still  be  seen  in  the  up- 
per part  of  the  fa9ade.  The  Senate-house  was  doubly  christian- 
ized :  the  hall  of  assembly  at  the  time  of  Pope  Honorius  I.  (circa 
630),  under  the  invocation  of  S.  Adriano ;  the  offices  or  secreta- 
7-ium  ajiiplLssimi  Senatus,  about  the  same  epoch,  under  the  invoca- 
tion of  S.  Martina.  They  kept  their  classic  form  and  retained 
their  classic  adornments  until  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
centm-y.  Cardinal  Michele  Bonelli  under  Sixtus  V.  cut  the  build- 
ing in  two  with  his  new  "  Via  Bonella."  The  church  of  S.  Adri- 
ano was  modernized  jiartly  in  1580  by  Cardinal  Agostino  Cusano, 
partly  in  1654  by  Alfonso  Sotomayor ;  that  of  S.  Martina  by  Ur- 
ban VIII.  and  Piero  da  Cortona. 

The  bronze  gates  of  the  Curia  were  removed  to  S.  Giovanni  in 
Laterano  by  Alexander  VII.,  but  as  the  folds  measured  only  5.79 
metres  in  height  and  3.56  in  width,  while  the  size  of  the  Lateran 
door  was  considerably  larger,  Borromini  was  obliged  to  add  a  band 
to  the  ancient  metal  work.  The  band  is  ornamented  with  the 
typical  stars  of  the  Chigi.  Martinelli  says  that  while  the  bronze 
folds  were  thus  adapted  to  their  new  destination,  several  coins 
were  discovered  hidden  between  the  inside  and  outside  panels,  one 
of  which  bore  the  name  and  the  image  of  Domitian. 

Literature.  —  Giuseppe  Biaiichini,  Dissertazione  sopra  In  Curia  (in  Cod. 
Vat.,  8113,  f.  113).  —  Lucas  Holstenius,  De  origine  ecclesim  S.  Hadriani  (in 
Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.  p.  306). — Luigi  Canina,  Sufili  edijici  esistenti  nel 
luogo  ora  occupato  dalln  chiesa  di  S.  Martina.  Rome,  1830. —  Theodor  Monimsen, 
De  Comitio  romano,  curiis,  Janique  templo  (in  Annal.  Inst.,  1844,  p.  288).  — 
Franz  Reber,  Die  Larje  der  Curia  Hontilia  iind  der  Curia  Julia,  18.58.  —  Detlef- 
.sen,  De  Comitio  romano  (in  Annal.  Inst.,  1860,  p.  138).  —  Auer,  Der  Altar  der 
Gottin  Victoria  in  der  Curia  Julia  zu  Rom.  Vienna,  18.59.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani, 
Z,'  aula  e  gli  uffici  del  Senato  romano,     Rome,  Salviucci,  1883  (Atti  Lincei, 

266  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

vol.  xi.  "28  gean.  188;3). — J.  H.  Middletoii,  The,  Remains  of  Ancient  Rome, 
vol.  i.  p.  239.  —  Christian  Huelsen,  D<is  Comitium  und  seine  Denkmdler  (in 
Mittheil.,  1893,  p.  279,  pi.  4)  with  the  comments  of  Th^denat,  in  Daremberg 
and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1292,  n.  7. 

XXXI.  The  Comitium  (XXIV  in  plan).  —  The  space  between 
the  Rostra  Vetera  and  the  front  of  the  Senate-house,  neatly  paved 
with  slabs  of  travertine,  marks  the  site  of  the  Comitium.  It  must 
be  remembered  that  the  street  passing  through  the  Arch  of  Sejv 
timius  Severus,  by  which  the  Rostra  and  the  Forum  are  separated 
from  the  Comitium,  is  an  addition  of  the  third  century  after  Christ. 
Before  it,  the  two  places  were  separated  only  by  a  few  steps.  In 
the  early  days  of  Rome  the  Comitinm  was  the  centre  of  civil  and 
political  business,  while  the  Forum  was  simply  used  as  a  market- 
place ;  but  with  the  increase  of  the  population  and  with  the  spread 
of  democracy  the  centre  was  shifted  to  the  Forum,  and  the  Co- 
mitium lost  forever  its  importance.  Its  main  ornaments  wei'e  the 
statue  of  Atta  Navius,  the  augur  who  cut  the  whetstone  with  the 
razor,  and  the  puteal  under  which  whetstone  and  razor  had  been 
buried ;  and  the  Jicux  Naria,  a  hg-tree  which  the  popular  fancy 
believed  to  have  been  transplanted  here  from  the  banks  of  the 
Tiber  by  the  same  miracle-working  augur.  It  was  considered  to 
represent  the  Jicus  ruminalis  which  had  sheltered  with  its  shade 
the  infant  twins  sucking  the  she  wolf ;  and  this  event  was  recorded 
by  a  bronze  group  not  unlike  the  one  now  preserved  in  the  Palazzo 
dei  Conservatory  (Compare  Ilelbig's  Guide  to  the  Collection  of 
Antiquities  in  Rome,  vol.  i.  p.  459,  n.  618.)  There  were  also  the 
statues  of  Porsena,  of  Iloratius  Codes,  of  Hermodoros  from  Ephe- 
sus,  who  had  lielped  the  decemvirs  in  the  codification  of  the  laws, 
of  Pythagoras,  Alcibiades,  and  others.  Concerning  the  last  men- 
tioned, Emiio  Quirino  Visconti  observes  that  the  noble  statue  of 
the  Museo  Pio  Clementino,  known  as  the  "  Gladiatore "  or  the 
"  Atleta  Mattel"  (No.  611  sala  della  Biga),  is  nothing  else  than  a 
marble  copy  of  the  bronze  figure  of  Alcibiades  in  the  Comitium, 
and  corroborates  his  statement  by  comparing  the  features  of  the 
head  with  those  of  bust  Xo.  510  in  the  Hall  of  the  Muses,  inscribed 
with  the  name  of  the  Greek  hero.  Eniil  Braun  (Ruins  and  Muse- 
ums, p.  282,  n.  166)  says :  "  It  is  not  impossible  that  this  statue, 
originally  in  the  Villa  Mattel,  is  a  repetition  of  that  placed  upon 
the  Comitium,  although  positive  proofs  are  wanting."  Wolfgang 
Helbig  (Guide,  etc.,  vol.  i.  pp.  192  and  235)  denies  any  connection 
between  the  marble  of  the  Vatican  and  the  bronze  of  the  Comitium. 

The  only  monuments  visible  in  the  narrow  ledge  of  the  Comi- 

THE    TEMPLE    Of   JULIUS    CjESAR  2,&1 

tium  yet  excavated  are  two  marble  pedestals  of  statues  dedicated, 
one  to  Flavins  Julius  Coustantius  (350-361),  by  Memmius  Vitrasius 
Orfitus,  prefect  of  the  city  in  353-354 ;  the  other  to  Arcadius  (395- 
408),  by  Ceionius  Rufius  Albinus,  prefect  in  398.  These  and  other 
pedestals  lined  the  border  of  the  Comitium  towai'ds  the  Argiletum, 
the  pavement  of  which  has  been  excavated  for  a  length  of  ten  or 
fifteen  metres  only. 

References. — Brecher,  Die  Lage  des  Comitium,  etc.  Berlin,  1870.  —  H. 
Dernburg,  Uber  die  Lage  des  Comitium  und  des  prdtorischen  Tribunals  (in 
Bull.  Inst.,  1863,  p.  38).  —  Theodor  Mommsen,  Be  Comitio  romano,  etc.  (in 
Aunal.  Instit.,  vol.  xvi.,  1844,  p.  288).  —  Franz  Reber,  Bie  Lage  der  Curia. 
1858.  —  Detlefsen,  Be  Comitio  romano  (in  Ann.  Inst.,  vol.  xxxii.,  1860,  ]). 
138,  pi.  D).  — Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Atti  Lincei,  vol.  xi.  28  genn.  1883.^Thonias 
Dyer,  Roma  (in  Dictionary  of  Greek  and  Roman  Geography,  vol.  ii.  p.  775).  — 
Orazio  Marucchi,  Bescript.  du  forum  romain,  p.  51.  —  Christian  Huelsen  (in 
Mittheilungen,  vol.  viii.,  1893,  p.  279). 

The  other  two  buildings  on  the  north  side  of  the  Forum  were 
the  Temple  of  Janus  (XXIV  A)  and  the  Basilica  Emilia  (XXV). 
Both  still  lie  buried  under  the  modern  embankment ;  and  as  it  is 
not  my  scope  to  write  a  manual  on  Eoman  topography,  but  simply 
to  guide  the  student  and  the  traveler  in  their  visit  to  monuments 
and  ruins  which  have  been  made  accessible  by  modern  excavations, 
I  shall  proceed  at  once  to  describe  the 


XXXn.  ^DES  Divi  luLii  (Temple  of  Julius  Caesar)  (XXVI 
in  plan).  —  The  spot  where  the  body  of  Caesar  had  been  cremated 
on  March  17.  44,  was  consecrated  by  the  erection  of  an  altar  and 
of  a  column  of  Xumidian  marble,  on  which  the  words  parenti  patrice 
were  inscribed.  The  illicit  worship  was  stopped  by  Antonius ;  C. 
Amatius,  the  leader  of  the  populace,  was  put  to  death,  and  many 
of  his  partisans  were  crucified,  if  slaves  ;  or,  if  citizens,  hurled 
from  the  Tarpeian  rock.  In  42  b.  c,  however,  the  triumvirs 
decided  to  erect  a  temple  on  the  historical  spot;  Augustus  began 
its  construction  in  33,  and  dedicated  it  on  August  18  of  the 
memorable  year  725  (29  a.  d.).  The  programme  of  the  ceremony 
included,  among  other  performances,  the  Trojan  games,  gladiato- 
rial and  theatrical  shows,  and  an  exhibition  of  wild  beasts  upon 
which  the  Romans  had  never  set  eyes  before.  The  temple  was 
enriched  with  treasures  conquered  in  the  Egyptian  campaign  and 
with  pictures  representing  the  Dioscui-i,  the  Victory,  and  the  Venus 
Anadvoraene.     This  last,  a  masterpiece  of  Apelles,  having  been 



injured  by  damp  and  age,  was  removed  from  the  temple  by  Nero, 
who  substituted  in  its  place  another  by  Dorotheos. 

The  temple,  being  in  the  lowest  portion  of  the  Forum  and  of  the 
Sacra  Via,  was  raised  on  a  high  platform  to  protect  it  from  the 
inundations  of  the  Tiber.  This  platform  of  concrete  was  strength- 
ened by  perimetral  and  cross-walls  made  of  blocks  of  tufa  and 
travertine,  which  were  stolen  away  in  the  excavations  of  1543,  so 
that  it  is  hardly  possible  to-day  to  recognize  the  former  shape  of 
the  temple.  The  fragments  of  its  entablature  (one  of  which  is 
lying  on  the  platform)  belong  to  a  very  late  restoration.  The 
following  view  of  the  platform  was  taken  in  1872  at  the  very 
moment  of  its  discovery. 

The  remains  of  a  semicircular  tribune  on  the  edge  of  the  podium 
pertain  to  the  celebrated  Rostra  Julia,  ornamented  by  Augustus 
with  the  beaks  of  the  ships  captured  in  the  battle  of  Actium.     It 



Fig.  102.  —  The  Rostra  Julia  aud  the  Temple  of  Caesar. 

was  from  this  tribune  that  the  same  emperor  pronounced  the  ora- 
tion on  the  death  of  his  sister  Octavia.  Tiberius  likewise  spoke 
from  it  on  the  occasion  of  the  funeral  of  Augustus.  A  medal 
struck  in  the  year  119,  repi'esenting  an  allocution  of  Hadrian,  from 
the  same  rostra,  proves  that  they  continued  to  be  used  for  Imperial 
communications  for  a  lona;  time. 



References.  —  Babelou,  Moiin.  de  la  republique,  ii.  p.  59,  ii.  138.  —  Cohen, 
Monn.  impth:,  Hadrian,  n.  416—119.  —  Edoardo  Brizio,  in  Rosa's  Relazione  suite 
scoperte  archtologiche,  etc.,  Rome,  1873,  p.  59  ;  and  Bulleit.  Instit.,  1872,  pp. 
225,  237.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Der  Tempel  des  d.  Julius  (in  Hermes,  ix.  p.  342). 

—  Otto  Richter,  Die  Augustbauten  auf  dem  Forum  (in  Jahrbuch  Arch.  Instit., 
1889,  p.  140  ;   and  Mittheilungen  of  the  same  Institute,  1888,  p.  99). 

XXXIII.  Triumphal  Arch  of  Augustus  (XXVII  in  plan). 

—  In  the  same  year  (725)  in  which  the  dedication  of  the  Temple 
ot"  Cfesar  and  of  the  Curia  Julia  took  place,  Augustus  celebrated 
three  triumphs  for  his  victories  in  Dalmatia,  in  Egypt,  and  at 
Actium,  and  the  Senate  offered  him  a  triumphal  arch  in  the  Forum. 
The  same  honor  was  granted  to  him  in  IS  b.  c.  for  the  recovery  of 
the  flags  and  of  the  j^risoners  lost  by  Licinius  Crassiis  in  the  Par- 
thian war.  Otto  Richter  discovered  the  foundations  of  the  arch  of 
725  in  1888,  in  the  narrow  space  which  separates  the  Temple  of 
C?esar  from  that  of  the  Castores.  I  myself  proved,  as  far  back  as 
1882,  that  this  arch  had  been  found  and  destroyed  by  the  workmen 
of  the  fabbrica  di  S.  Pietro  between  1540  and  1546  exactly  in  that 
place,  and  that  the  inscription  in  "  Corpus,"  vol.  vii.  n.  872,  belonged 
to  it.     The  arch  had  three  openings  like  the  one  of  Severus. 

Literature.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  April,  1882.  —  Otto 
Richter,  Mittheil.,  1888,  p.  99;  and  Jahrbuch,  1889,  pp.  153-157. —  F.  Nichols, 
The  Roman  Forum,  p.  140;  Bull,  com.,  1888,  p.  117. — Theodor  Mommsen, 
Res  gestm,  9. —  Christian  Hueisen,  Mittheil.,  1889,  p.  244. 

XXXIV.  ^DES  Castorum  (Temple  of  Castor  and  Pollux) 
(XXVIII     in     plan). — 

This  was  dedicated  by 
A.  Postumius  on  January 
27,  482  B.  c,  on  the  spot, 
near  the  pool  of  Juturna, 
where  the  Dioscuri  had 
appeared  in  496  to  an- 
nounce the  victory  of 
Lake  Regillus.  It  was 
rebuilt  in  119  by  L.  Me- 
tellus  Dalmaticus  with 
the  prize  money  of  the 
Dalmatian  war,  and  or- 
namented with  statues 
and      pictures,      among 

which  was  the  portrait  of    Y\g.  103.  —  Fragment  of  the  Marble  Plan  with  Tein- 
Flora  the  courtesan.     Al-  pie  of  Castores. 

270  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE    SACBA    VIA 

though  named  officially  from  both  the  Dioscuri,  it  went  usually 
by  that  of  Castor  alone,  as  shown,  among  other  documents,  by  the 
fragment  of  the  marble  plan  discovered  in  1882  (Fig.  103). 

Bibulus,  whose  name  was  never  pronounced  with  that  of  Caesar, 
his  more  famed  colleague  in  the  a3dileship,  used  to  say  that  he 
shared  the  same  fate  as  Pollux.  It  is  interesting  to  follow  the 
story  of  the  extortions  of  Verres  in  connection  with  this  temple, 
as  related  by  Cicero,  because  it  throws  much  light  on  the  system 
adopted  by  the  Romans  to  keep  their  buildings  in  repair.  The 
censors  had  entered  into  a  contract  with  P.  Junius,  to  take  charge 
of  the  temple  and  of  its  contents  for  a  fixed  yearly  sum  of  money. 
Junius  died  leaving  a  son,  a  minor,  in  w^hose  name  the  contract 
was  transferred  to  a  L.  Rabonius.  Verres,  who,  as  praetor  urba- 
nus,  had  special  cognizance  of  repairs  to  public  buildings,  thinking- 
it  intolerable  that  out  of  so  great  a  temple  and  so  large  a  contract 
he  should  not  obtain  some  plunder,  summoned  Rabonius  before 
him  to  declare  what  could  be  required  from  his  ward  that  he 
had  not  fulfilled.  The  answer  was  that  no  difficulty  whatever  had 
arisen  from  the  contract  and  that  the  temple  was  in  perfect  repair. 
Verres  goes  himself  to  inspect  the  building.  "  The  only  thing 
you  can  do  here,"  suggests  one  of  his  accomplices,  "  is  to  require 
the  columns  to  be  made  perpendicular."  In  Junius'  contract, 
though  the  number  of  columns  was  specified,  not  a  word  was  said 
about  the  perpendicular ;  yet,  overpowered  by  Verres,  L.  Rabonius 
agrees  to  do  the  work  at  560,000  sesterces,  the  sum  to  be  taken 
out  of  the  minor's  estate,  and  to  find  its  way,  for  the  greater  part, 
into  the  praetor's  hands.  The  work  done,  under  these  circum- 
stances, is  thus  described  by  Cicero :  "  Those  columns  which  you 
see  freshly  whitened  have  been  taken  down  by  machinery  and 
erected  again  with  the  same  stones.  Nay,  some  of  them  have  not 
been  touched  at  all.  There  is  one  from  which  the  old  plastering 
only  has  been  removed,  and  new  stucco  applied."  We  gather 
from  the  words  of  Cicero  that  the  columns  of  the  temple  of 
Metellus  were  of  stone  covered  with  fine  stucco,  like  those  of  the 
temples  of  Fortuna  Virilis,  of  Hercules  Magnus  Custos,  and  of 
Cybele  on  the  Palatine. 

The  Temple  of  Castor,  with  its  lofty  substructures  and  com- 
manding situation,  was  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  objects  of  the 
Forum,  and  became  in  turbulent  times  a  rallying-point  of  great 
political  importance.  Popular  meetings  were  often  held  in  front 
of  it,  when  its  pronaos  served  the  purpose  of  the  Rostra.  In  88 
B.  c.  Sulla  and  Q.  Pompeius  Rufus,  his  colleague  in  the  consvil- 


ship,  were  attacked  here  by  the  partisans  of  jNIarius.  The  contest 
between  Cato  and  Metellus,  respecting  the  recall  of  Pompeius 
fi'om  Asia,  also  took  place  on  the  terrace  before  the  temple.  In 
68  B.  c,  during  the  troubled  consulate  of  Piso,  when  Cicero's 
banishment  was  discussed,  the  temple  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
partisans  of  Clodius ;  its  steps  were  torn  up  and  used  as  missiles, 
and  the  building  became,  in  the  words  of  Cicero,  a  citadel  in  the 
hands  of  his  political  enemies. 

The  present  ruins,  considered  to  be  a  gem  of  art,  date  from  the 
reconstruction  of  Tiberius  and  Drusus,  7  b.  c.  Caligula  opened 
a  communication  between  the  cella  and  his  palace,  pretending  he 
would  make  the  sons  of  Jupiter  and  Leda  his  private  doorkeepers. 
He  also  used  to  place  himself  unobserved  between  the  statues  of 
the  divine  twins,  so  as  to  get  a  share  in  the  honors  paid  to  them. 
Claudius  restored  the  temple  to  its  former  state. 

Two  annual  celebrations  were  connected  with  it,  —  one  on  Janu- 
ary 27,  the  anniversary  day  of  the  dedication ;  another  on  July 
15,  in  memory  of  the  battle  of  Lake  Regillus.  The  Roman 
knights,  five  thousand  strong,  waving  olive  branches,  clad  in  pur- 
ple garments,  and  wearing  the  decorations  gained  on  the  battle- 
field, mustered  at  the  Temple  of  Mars  outside  the  walls,  and,  after 
marching  through  the  city,  passed  in  front  of  the  Temple  of  the 
Dioscuri,  presenting  a  sight  worthy,  as  Dionysius  says,  of  Rome's 
Imperial  greatness. 

No  remains  of  a  classic  edifice  have  been  studied,  sketched,  ad- 
mired by  artists  as  have  the  three  standing  columns  of  this  temple. 
Baldassarre  Peruzzi  calls  them  la  piti  hella  e  meglio  lavorata  ojjera 
di  Roma.  The  temple  must  have  fallen  at  a  very  early  period, 
because  the  lane  between  S.  M.  Liberatrice  and  S.  M.  della  Grazie 
has  been  called  via  trium  coiumnarum  at  least  since  the  end  of  the 
fourteenth  century.  The  first  excavations  of  which  w"e  have  posi- 
tive knowledge  date  from  tlie  end  of  the  quattrocento.  They  are 
described  by  Pomponio  Leto  and  Francesco  Albertino.  The  sec- 
ond date  from  1516-49,  wlien,  according  to  Ligorio,  two  pieces  of 
the  entablature  were  discovered,  one  of  which  served  Loi-enzetto 
for  his  Jonah  in  the  Chigi  chapel  at  S.  M.  del  Popolo ;  the  other, 
Michelangelo  for  the  pedestal  of  the  equestrian  statue  of  M. 
Aurelius.  Ligorio,  as  usual,  tells  a  falsehood,  because  the  Jonah 
was  finished  in  the  lifetime  of  Raphael  (f  1520).  In  1773  part  of 
the  walls  of  the  cella  w'as  destroyed,  the  marble  coating  removed, 
and  even  some  of  the  foundation  walls  demolished  for  the  sake  of 
the  blocks  of  stone  of  w  hich  they  were  built.     In  consequence  of 



this  last  spoliation,  the  size  of  the  substructures  is  reduced  by 
half,  that  is  to  say,  it  is  reduced  to  only  the  central  mass  of  con- 
crete ;  but  the  impressions  left  against  this  mass  by  the  blocks  of 
stone  of  which  the  outside  wall  was  built  enable  us  to  get  an 
idea  of  the  original  size.     (See  Fig.  104.) 

Fig.  104.  —  The  Substructure  of  the  Temple  of  Castores. 

Other  excavations  took  place  in  1799,  1811,  1816,  and  1818. 
The  temple  was  finally  liberated  from  the  accumulation  of  mod- 
ern soil  in  December,  1871  (on  three  sides  only). 

The  temple,  in  common  with  other  religious  edifices,  was  used 
as  a  safe  or  repository  for  objects  of  value,  which  private  owners 
were  afraid  of  retaining  at  home.  There  was  also  a  poyiderarium 
of  standard  weights  and  measures,  many  of  which  are  found  in 
our  excavations  inscribed  wdth  the  words  'EXACtum  ad  CASXORes. 
A  fragment  of  the  great  inscription  of  the  frieze  lies  at  the  foot 
of  the  stairs ;  it  contains  traces  only  of  two  letters,  which  have 
been  completed  by  Professor  Tomassetti :  — 
(PoUuci  •  e)T  •  c(astori). 

Literature.  —  Maurice  Albert,  Le  culte   de    Castor  et  Pollux   en  Italie. 


Paris,  1883.  —  Luigi  Canina,  Supplem.  al  Besgodets,  chap.  x.  pi.  33.  —  Antonio 
Nibby,  Roma  neW  anno  1838,  part  i.  vol.  ii.  p.  82.  —  Pietro  Rosa,  Rduzione 
mile  scoperte.  Rome,  1873,  p.  53.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Bull.  J)i.-<t.,  1871,  p.  11. 
—  Giuseppe  Gatti,  Annal.  Inst.,  1881,  p.  181,  pi.  N.  —  Giuseppe  Tomassetti,  La 
epigrafe  del  tempio  dei  Castor-i  (in  Bull,  com.,  1890,  p.  209).  —  Orazio  Maruc- 
chi,  Guide  du  Forum.     Rome,  1885,  p.  119.  —  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1896,  p.  290. 


XXXY.  Between  the  edifice  just  described  and  the  Basilica 
Julia  runs  the  Vicus  Tuscus,  or  street  of  the  Tuscans  (XXIX  in 
plan),  which  led  from  the  Forum  to  the  Circus  Maximus.  The 
origin  of  its  name  is  variously  explained  by  different  authors,  but 
there  is  no  doubt  that  it  came  from  a  colony  of  Tuscans  who  set- 
tled in  its  vicinity,  at  the  time  either  of  Cseles  Yibenna  or  of  Por- 
senna.  The  tradition  on  this  point  seems  justified  by  the  presence 
of  the  shrine  and  statue  of  Vertumnus,  at  the  entrance  to  the 
street,  whose  worship  woidd  have  been  imported  by  the  Etruscans, 
as  that  of  Semo  Sancus  had  been  imported  on  the  Quirinal  by  the 
Sabine  colonists,  bvtt  the  Etruscan  origin  of  the  god  Vertumnus  is 
more  than  doubtful. 

The  street  vied  with  the  Sacra  Yia  in  religious  importance,  being 
the  route  followed  by  the  great  procession  of  the  Ludi  Romani, 
in  which  the  statues  of  the  gods  placed  on  thensce  (four-wheeled 
chariots)  were  carried  from  the  Capitol  to  the  Circus.  It  was  also 
a  busy  trade  quarter.  Horace  calls  these  tradesmen  Tusci  turba 
impia  vici,  and  alludes  to  the  street  as  the  place  to  which  the  works 
of  unappreciated  poets  were  carried,  to  wrap  up  parcels  of  spices 
or  perfumes. 

XXXA^'I.  Basilica  Julia  (XXX  in  plan),  begun  by  Cgesar 
about  54  B.  c,  on  the  site  of  the  Tabernae  Veteres,  of  the  Basilica 
Sempronia,  and  of  the  house  of  Scipio  the  African  (?),  and  dedi- 
cated in  an  unfinished  state  in  the  year  46,  together  with  the 
Forum  Julium  and  the  Temple  of  Venus  Genetrix.  Augustus 
rebuilt  and  enlarged  it  after  a  fire,  and  opened  it  for  public  use  in 
the  year  12,  under  the  name  of  his  grandsons  Cains  and  Lucius. 
It  consists  of  a  nave  and  four  aisles  divided  by  square  pilasters  of 
travertine,  once  coated  with  marble.  The  fronts  and  sides  were 
built  of  solid  marble,  with  half  columns  of  the  Doric  order,  pro- 
jecting out  of  square  pilasters.  The  half  column  which  stands 
alone  and  perfect  on  the  side  of  tlie  Sacra  Via  was  reconstructed 
by  Rosa  in*  1873  ;    those  on  the  side  of  the  Vicus  Jugarius  are 



genuine,  although  in  a  ruined  state.  The  Basilica  was  destroyed 
by  fire  under  Carinus  and  rebuilt  by  Diocletian,  -who  substituted 
brick  pilasters  and  arches  for  the  old  solid  structure  of  travertine. 
The  mixture  of  the  two  styles  and  epqchs  is  satisfactorily  illus- 
trated by  the  following  view,  taken  at  the  southwest  corner  of  the 
Basilica,  by  the  Lacus  Servilius.     (Fig.  105.) 

In  March,  1883,  a  pedestal  was  found  on  the  edge  of  the  steps 
descending  to  the  Sacra  Via,  with  the  inscription  :  gabinivs  •  vet- 

Fig.  105.  —  The  Southwest  Corner  of  the  Basilica  Julia. 

Tivs  •  PROBiANVS  *  vir  •  clarissimus  •  PRjEFectus  •  vrb«  •  statvam 

QV^  •  BASILICA    •    IVLI.E   '  A  •  SE    •    NOVITER    •    REPARAT^,  •  ORNA- 

MENTO  •  ESSEX  •  ADiECiT.  Probiauus  was  prefect  of  Rome  a.  d. 
377,  under  Valens,  Gratian,  and  Valentinian.  He  restored  the 
Basilica  and  enriched  it  with  works  of  art  and  statues  removed 
from  temples  which  were  either  closed  or  falling  into  ruin.  Five 
pedestals  bearing  his  name  have  already  been  found.  The  origin 
of  the  first  is  not  known,  but  it  was  first  noticed  in  the  Santa- 
croce  Palace  in  the  fifteenth  century.  The  second  was  discovered 
in  1554  near  the  Column  of  Phocas ;    the  third  in  1655  by  the 


Senate-house  ;  the  fourth  in  18:35  on  the  steps  of  the  Basilica 
itself ;  the  fifth,  a  fragment,  is  kept  at  S.  Clemente.  We  know 
that  three,  at  least,  of  these  statues  were  the  work  of  Polykletos, 
of  Timarchos,  and  of  Praxiteles,  these  celebrated  names  being  en- 
graved on  plinths  discovered  within  or  near  the  Basilica. 

LiTERATUKE.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Bull,  com.,  1893,  p.  174.  —  Rodolfo 
LaiK'iaiii, -S«<//.  /ns<.,  1871,  p.  245.  —  Heinrich  iorAsm,  Ephemeris  epiijraphim, 
vol.  iii.  p.  277.  — Eugene  Petersen,  Notizie  degli  Scavi,  1895,  p.  495. 

The  question  has  been  asked  whether  the  Basilica  was  totally  or 
partially  hypsethral,  and  in  case  it  was  not,  whether  it  was  vaulted 
over  or  covered  by  a  roof  resting  on  trusses.  The  question  was 
rather  complicated  by  a  discovery  I  made  in  1878.  During  the 
inundation  of  that  year,  which  brought  the  Tiber  on  a  level  with 
the  marble  floor  of  the  building,  I  noticed  that,  while  the  north- 
east corner  was  just  lapped  by  the  still  waters,  the  southeast  was 
fifteen  centimetres  above  them,  the  southwest  forty-five  centi- 
metares,  the  northwest  thirty-seven  centimetres.  The  floor  of  the 
basilica,  therefore,  is  slanting  diagonally  from  the  corner  by  the 
Lacus  Servilius  to  that  by  the  Temple  of  Castor ;  but  this  fact 
does  not  imply  that  the  place  was  hypa'thral,  and  that  its  pave- 
ment could  be  rained  upon.  The  floors  of  our  churches  of  S.  Saba 
and  of  S.  Maria  in  Aracoeli  are  equally  inclined  towards  the  front 
door,  perhaps  to  facilitate  the  washing  of  their  mosaic  floors.  The 
four  aisles  of  the  Basilica  Julia  were  covered  by  a  vaulted  ceiling, 
large  masses  of  which,  with  stucco  mouldings,  were  discovered  in 
1852,  and  destroyed  in  1872 ;  the  nave  was  roofed  over. 

The  Basilica  Julia  was  the  seat  of  the  court  of  the  centumviri, 
who  sometimes  were  divided  into  four  sections,  sometimes  sat  all 
together  when  the  case  appeared  to  be  of  exceptional  gravity. 
Pliny  the  younger  has  left  an  account  of  the  aspect  of  the  Basilica 
on  the  day  of  a  great  trial.  The  case  was  brought  before  the  four 
united  sections  of  the  covu't.  Eighty  judges  sat  on  their  benches, 
while  on  either  side  of  them  stood  the  eminent  lawyers  who  had  to 
conduct  the  prosecution  and  defend  the  accused.  The  great  hall 
could  hardly  contain  the  mass  of  spectators :  the  upper  galleries 
were  occupied  by  men  on  one  side,  by  women  on  the  other,  all 
anxious  to  hear,  which  was  very  difficult,  and  "to  see,  which  was 
easier.     Trajan  presided  over  this  court  more  than  once. 

The  remains  of  the  stairs  leading  to  the  upper  galleries  are  yet 
visible  on  the  south  side,  together  with  the  shops  of  bankers  and 
money-changers,  known  in  epigraphic  documents  as  the  nummularii 
de  basilica  Julia.     (See  Fig.  106.) 


The  Basilica  Julia  was  partly  christianized  towards  the  end  of 
the  sixth  century,  when  one  half  of  the  outer  aisle  on  the  Vicus 
Jugarius  was  dedicated  to  the  mother  of  the  Saviour  (S.  Maria 
de  Foro ;  later,  in  Cannaparia).  The  remains  of  the  church,  dis- 
covered partly  in  1871,  partly  in  1881,  were  not  treated  well,  so 
that,  of  a  neat  edifice,  with  apse,  nave,  aisles,  side  and  front  door, 
traces  of  fresco  paintings,  and  considerable  remains  of  the  work 
of  Roman  marmorarii  of  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries,  only 
one  column  is  left  standing  in  situ.  (See  Mazzanti,  in  Archivio 
storico  dell'  Arte,  1896,  p.  lU.) 

In  the  Middle  Ages  and  in  more  modern  times  the  Basilica  Julia 
has  been  used  first  as  a  rope-walk,  cannaparia,  then  as  a  workshop 
for  stone-cutters,  and  lastly  as  a  cemetery  for  the  hospital  of  la 
Consolazione.     (See  p.  242.) 

The  earliest  accounts  of  excavations  date  from  1496,  when  Adri- 
ano  di  Corneto,  the  pope's  collector  of  revenues  in  England,  was 
planning  the  construction  of  his  beautiful  palace  (now  Giraud-Tor- 
lonia)  in  the  Piazza  di  Scossacavalli,  of  which  he  made  a  present 
to  King  Henry  VII.  in  1505.  All  the  travertines  used  by  Bramante 
in  the  facjade  of  the  palace  came  from  the  Basilica  Julia. 

The  excavations  were  resumed  in  July,  1500,  by  Gregorio  da 
Bologna  and  Domenico  da  Castello,  continued  in  1511-12  by  Gio- 
vanni de'  Pierleoni,  and  in  1514  by  Jacopo  de  Margani.  In  the 
time  of  Gregory  XIII.  a  sitting  statue  of  a  Roman  magistrate 
was  discovered,  sold  to  Ferrante  de  Torres,  and  removed  to  Sicily. 
Flaminio  Vacca  restored  it  to  represent  Julius  Cjesar  covering  his 
head  at  the  sight  of  the  murderer  Brutus  ! 

In  1742  the  portion  of  the  Basilica  crossed  by  the  Cloaca  JVIaxima 
was  laid  bare,  with  its  pavement  of  giallo  antico,  a  cartload  of 
which  was  sold  to  the  stone-cutter  de  Blasii.  The  rest  of  the 
pavement  and  many  architectural  pieces  fell  a  prey  to  Chevalier 
Fredenheim  in  November,  1788  (to  March,  1789). 

Its  final  discovery,  begun  in  1848,  was  completed  in  1872.  The 
pavement  of  the  aisles,  of  white  marble,  is  covered  with  tabular 
lusorise,  gaming-tables  of  every  description,  about  which  consult, 
among  others,  Becq  de  Fouquieres'  "  Les  jeux  des  anciens ;  "  Fried- 
laender's  "  Sittengeschichte,"  vol.  i.  p.  376 ;  and  Huelsen's  "  Mit- 
theilungen,"  1896,  pp.  227-252. 

Literature.  —  Theodor  Mommsen,  Res  gestw  divi  Aurjusti,  iv.  13,  15. — 
Heinrich  Jordan,  Sylloge  inscript.  fori  rom.  (in  Ephemeris  epigr.,  1877,  pp. 
275-283) ;  and  Forma  urbis  romce,  pi.  3,  n.  20-23.  —  Otto  Gerhard,  Sulla  basilica 
Giulia  (in  Effemeridi  letterarie,  1824).  —  Oberlin,  Expose  d' tine  decouverte  de 

278  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE    SACJRA    VIA 

M.  le  chev.  Fredenheim.  Strassburg,  1796.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Bull.  Inst., 
1871,  p.  6  ;  and  Bull,  com.,  1891,  p.  '229.  —  C.  Liidovico  Visconti,  Jl  rajiporto 
sulla  escavazione  della  basilica  Giulia.  Rome,  1872.  —  Angelo  Pellegrini,  Esca- 
vasione  della  basilica  Giulia  (in  Bull.  Inst.,  1871,  pp.  225-23.3).  —  Thedenat  (in 
Daremberg  and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1303). 

XXXVII.  Vicus  JuGARius  (XXXI  in  plan),  leading  from  the 
Forum  Romanum  to  the  Forum  Olitorium  and  the  Porta  Car- 
mentalis,  under  the  cliffs  of  the  Capitoline,  known  as  the  Saxum 
Carmentse.  It  corresponds  to  some  extent  to  the  modern  streets 
of  la  Consolazione  and  la  Bufala.  At  the  point  where  the  Vicus 
Jugarius  touched  the  Basilica  Julia  there  was  a  fountain,  named 
Lacus  Servilius  from  the  member  of  the  Servilian  family  who  had 
built  it.  It  acquired  a  ghastly  notoriety  during  the  civil  wars  as 
the  place  where  Sulla  exposed  the  heads  of  the  victims  of  his  pro- 
scriptions. Agrippa  ornamented  it  with  the  figure  of  a  hydra. 
The  site  of  the  fountain  has  not  yet  been  explored. 


XXXVIII.  The  Rostra  Vetera  (XXXII  in  plan).  — The 
date  of  the  erection  of  this  renowned  platform,  from  which  magis- 
trates and  orators  addressed  the  people,  is  not  well  determined ;  it 
must  be  placed,  however,  between  449  b.  c,  when  the  old  Volkanal 
is  still  described  as  the  speaking  platform  of  Appius  Claudius,  and 
438,  when  the  first  mention  of  the  new  tribune  occurs  in  Livy  (iv. 
17).  In  338  C.  Msenius  ornamented  it  with  the  (six)  beaks  of  the 
war  vessels  captured  at  Antium,  from  which  it  took  the  name  of 
Rostra.  It  stood  near  the  border  line  between  the  Comitium  and 
the  Forum,  so  that  the  orators  could  be  easily  heard  by  the  i:»atri- 
cians  and  the  plebeians  at  the  same  time.  The  orators,  when  speak- 
ing, generally  turned  towards  the  Comitium  and  the  Curia,  until 
C.  Gracchus  or  Licinius  Crassus  introduced  the  habit  of  facing  the 
people  assembled  in  the  Forum.  The  proximity  of  the  Rostra  to 
the  Senate-house  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  the  leaders  of  the  mob, 
on  the  day  of  the  funeral  of  Clodius,  were  chased  from  them  by 
the  flames  which  were  consuming  the  Curia.  These  topographic 
references  correspond  exactly  to  the  place,  where  the  remains  of  a 
platform,  once  ornamented  with  projecting  bronze  ornaments,  and 
dating  from  the  fifth  century  b.  c,  have  actually  been  found  (see 
Plan,  p.  251).  It  has  been  the  fashion  among  modern  topographers 
to  believe  in  an  alleged  displacement  of  the  Rostra  from  one  place 
to  the  other  in  the  last  years  of  C?esar's  dictatorshii:).  They  seem 
to  forget  that  the  Rostra,  having  been  consecrated  by  the  augurs, 


were,  like  the  Curia,  a  tcmplum  in  the  strictest  sense  of  the  word ; 
so  they  are  called  by  Livy  (viii.  14)  and  by  Cicero  (In  Vatin.,  x. 
24).  As  the  Curia  itself  never  changed  its  position,  so  the  Rostra 
Vetera  have  never  been  removed  from  their  old  location,  nur  has 
the  relationship  between  the  two  temples  been  altered  or  broken. 
The  platform  which  we  behold  before  us  is  the  same  venerable 
nugyestum  from  which  the  warfare  of  centuries  between  aristocracy 
and  democracy  was  carried  on  in  Republican  times,  and  from 
which  Cicero  pronounced  two  of  his  orations  against  Catiline. 
Here  the  heads  of  Antony,  of  Octavius,  of  the  victims  of  Marius 
and  Sulla  were  exposed,  as  well  as  the  bodies  of  Sulla  himself 
and  of  Clodius ;  and  here  also  the  laws  of  the  twelve  tables  were 
exposed  to  view. 

I  do  not  pretend  to  say  that  Julius  Ca'sar  did  not  interfei-e  in 
some  way  with  the  old  Rostra ;  he  may  have  enlarged  them,  lined 
them  with  new  beaks,  and  repaired  in  a  general  way  the  damages 
of  the  revolution  of  the  Clodians,  but  he  did  not  change  their 
position,  lie  set  uj^  again  the  statues  of  Sulla  and  Pompey,  which 
had  been  removed  after  the  battle  of  Pharsalus,  and  raised  an 
equestrian  one  to  Octavian,  then  aged  only  nineteen.  We  hear 
also  of  a  magnificent  bronze  statue  representing  Hercules  expii-ing 
under  the  tunic  of  Nessus. 

The  head  and  the  hands  of  Cicero  were  shown  to  the  populace 
from  this  very  seat  of  his  former  triumphs.  Orations  on  the  death 
of  Ca'sar  and  of  Augustus  were  also  delivered  from  the  Rostra. 

LiTEKATUKE. —  F.  M.  Nlchols,  The  Roman  Forum,  pp.  197-217.  —  Ibid., 
Notizie  (hi  Rostn.  Rome,  Spithoever,  1885.  —  Heiiirich  Jordan,  Sui  rostri  del 
foro  Cm  Annal.  lust.,  1883,  ji.  4!);  and  Moniimcnti  delV  Inst.,  vol.  xi.  pi.  49). — 
'0(to  Richter,  Scavo  ai  rostri  del  foro  (in  Bull.  Inst'.,  1884,  p.  113).  — Tbid., 
Rfkongtriiltion  iind  Geschichte  drr  /viw /.■>•(•// ch  Ri'dnerhilline.  Berlin,  Weid- 
mann,  1884. —  Ibid.,  Die  romische  Rednerbiiline  (in  .Tahrbuch,  1889,  p.  1). 

XXXIX.  Three  monuments  connected  with  the  Rostra  deserve 
notice  :  the  Genius  P(>j)itli  liouiani.  the  J\Iilliariym  Aureton,  and  the 

No  trace  exists  of  the  first  monument.  It  consisted  of  an  fedicula 
or  shrine  with  a  golden  statue  of  the  Genius,  the  gift  of  the  Em- 
peror Aurelian,  before  which  sacrifices  were  offered  on  October  9. 
The  statue  was  still  standing  in  its  place  at  the  end  of  the  fourth 
century,  when  some  one  scratched  on  the  pavement  of  the  Basilica 
Julia  the  words  — 




280  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACEA    VIA 

which  seem  to  make  the  half  of  a  "  tabula  lusoria  "  (three  words 
of  six  letters  in  three  lines).  The  small  circular  shrine  of  the 
Genius  {tempietto  di  marmo  di  forma  circulare)  was  discovered  in 
1539.  The  pedestal  of  the  Genius  of  the  Roman  armies  had  already 
been  found  in  1480. 

Literature. — Theodor  Mommsen,  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.,  Commentarii 
diurni,  October  9  ;  and  Ueber  der  Chronograph  vom  Jahre  354,  p.  648.  — 
Ludwig  Urlichs,  Codex  U.  R.  topoc/raphicus,  pp.  10,  11.  —  Heinrich  Jordan, 
Ephem.  ejngr.,  1876,  p.  278,  n.  40. — Ligorio,  Cod.  Neap.,  xxxiv.  p.  145. 

Milliarium  Aureum  (the  golden  milestone).  —  A  column  of  gilt 
bronze,  on  the  surface  of  which  were  noted  the  distances  from  the 
gates  of  Rome  to  the  postal  stations  on  each  of  the  main  roads 
radiating  from  the  metroj)olis.  It  was  erected  by  Augustus  in  29 
B.  c,  as  a  record  of  the  mensuratio  totius  orbis  on  which  he  and 
Agrippa  had  for  many  yeai-s  been  engaged.  Its  position  was  dis- 
covered in  1849-50,  together  with  the  x'emains  of  its  exquisite 
marble  base.  The  principal  historical  interest  of  the  Milliarium 
arises  from  the  meeting  which  Otho  had  here,  a.  d.  68,  with  the 
handful  of  Praetorians  who  committed  the  double  crime  of  mur- 
dering Galba  and  of  raising  Otho  to  the  Imperial  throne.^ 

The  Umbilicus  Romcc,  the  round  basement  of  which  still  exists 
at  the  other  end  of  the  platform,  near  the  Arch  of  Severus,  belongs 
to  a  much  later  period,  probably  to  the  age  of  Diocletian.  It 
corresponded  to  the  6fx(paK6s  of  Greek  cities.  Ancient  documents 
place  it  close  to  the  Temple  of  Concord  and  to  the  church  of  SS. 
Sergius  and  Bacchus.  This  last  named  edifice  is  so  closely  con- 
nected with  the  topography  of  the  west  end  of  the  Forum  and  of 
the  Clivns  Capitolinus  that,  although  its  remains  have  long  since 
disappeared,  it  seems  necessary  to  have  it  briefly  described  here. 

XL.  The  Church  of  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus  was  the 
only  one  in  this  classic  district  which  did  not  occupy  the  site  of  an 
ancient  building,  but  stood  in  its  own  ground.  The  "  Liber  ponti- 
ficalis  "  mentions  it  for  the  first  time  in  731-741  at  the  time  of 
Gregoi-y  III.,  who  transformed  into  a  church  a  small  oratory 
already  existing  in  the  Volkanal.     Hadrian  I.  (772-795)  enlarged 

1  In  his  work  Le  Pinnte  di  Roma  anteriori  al  secolo  .rri.,  Commendatore  de 
Rossi  has  written  some  admirable  pages  on  the  Milliarium  Aureum,  and  the 
m.ensura  totius  orbis  which  it  represents  (eh.  iv.  pp.  25-34).  Consult  also 
Luigi  Canina,  Sul  valore  dell'  nntico  piede  romano,  Rome,  1853  ;  Heinrich 
Jordan,  Topor/raphie,  vol.  i2,  p.  244;  and  Ann.  Inst.,  1883,  p.  57;  Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Bull,  com.,  1892,  p.  95. 

THE    CHURCH   OF   SS.    SERGIUS   AND   BACCHUS      281 

and  improved  the  structure,  and  Innocent  III.  (1198-1216)  added 
the  front  portico  facing  the  Rostra.  The  exact  position  of  the 
church  appears  from  the  following  unpublished  sketch  by  Martin 
Heemskerk  (Fig.  107).  The  three  fluted  Corinthian  columns  in 
the  foreground  are  those  of  the  Temple  of  Vespasian.  According 
to  Armellini  (C'hiese,  p.  538)  the  bell-tower  stood  on  the  attic 
of  the  Arch  of  Severus ;  but  he  evidently  mistakes  it  for  another 
tower,  having  no  connection  with  the  church,  which  appears  in  du 
Perac's  third  vignette  on  the  opposite  corner  of  the  arch.  I  have 
discovered  in  the  report  of  the  sitting  of  the  city  council  of  Sep- 
tember 9,  1636,  what  was  the  end  of  this  tower.  This  sitting 
agreed  '•  that  the  tow'er 
on  the  Arch  of  Septimius 
be  pulled  down,  and  its 
materials  be  given  to  the 
church  of  Santa  ^larti- 
na,  which  is  in  com-se  of 

Paul  III.  began  demol- 
ishing the  church  of  SS. 
Sergius  and  Bacchus  on 
the  advent  of  Charles  V. 
(1536).  Some  of  its 
walls  appear  still  in  Do- 
sio's  twenty  -  first  vig- 
nette, dating  from  1569 ; 
the  last  traces  of  the 
apse  disappeared  in  1812. 

Between  the  Rostra  and 
the  Sacra  Via  stood  a 
beautiful  little  building, 
the  so-called  Schola  Xan- 
tha,  or  offices  of  the  scri- 
b(B  librarii  (book-keepers) 
and  pnecones  (heralds)  of  the  ^Ediles  Curules.  Its  construction  is 
attributed  by  Henzen  to  C.  Avillius  Licinius  Trosius,  a  contempo- 
rary of  Caracalla,  and  bj^  Huelsen  to  A.  Fabius  Xanthus  and  Be- 
bryx  Drusianus,  who  lived  in  the  first  century.  These  person- 
ages are  all  mentioned  in  inscriptions  discovered  on  the  spot  in 
1539.  (See  Corpus,  vi.  103.)  From  the  words  of  these  documents, 
and  from  the  account  of  the  excavations  left  by  Marliano  and 
Ligorio,  we  gather  that  the  Schola  was  built  of  solid  marble,  and 

Fig.  lo; 

-  The  Church  of  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus, 
sketched  by  Heemskerk. 

282  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

consisted  of  three  rooms  at  least,  with  a  portico  in  front  facing 
the  south ;  and  that  Fabius  Xanthus  and  his  associates  had  deco- 
rated it  with  bronze  seats,  a  statue  of  the  Victory,  seven  silver 
statues  of  the  gods,  etc.  The  edifice  and  its  inscriptions  were 
destroyed  and  the  marbles  turned  into  new  shapes.  I  believe, 
without  being  able  to  prove  it,  that  the  Schola  Xantha  formed 
the  west  side  of  the  Rostra,  the  otfice-room  of  the  scribes  being 
under  its  lofty  platform.  The  pedestal  of  the  statue  of  Stilicho 
(Corpus,  1730),  which  stood  in  7-osti-is,  was  discovered  at  the  same 
time  with  the  remains  of  the  Schola. 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Christian  Huelsen,  II  sitv  e  le  iscrizloni  della  Schola  Xan- 
tha, iu  Mittheilungen,  1888,  p.  208. 

XLI.  The  Arch  of  Tiberius  stood  at  the  foot  of  the  Clivus 
Capitolinus,  where  the  Vicus  Jugarius  diverges  from  the  Sacra 
Via,  between  the  northwest  corner  of  the  Basilica  Julia  and  the 
Milliarium.  It  was  erected  in  769  (16  a.  d.)  in  memory  of  the 
recovery  by  Germanicus  of  the  eagles  and  flags  which  had  been 
lost  with  the  legions  of  Varus  in  the  battle  of  Teutoburg. 

The  name  of  Germanicus,  so  dear  to  the  Romans,  must  have 
saved  the  arch  from  destruction,  after  the  death  and  the  memo7'i(K 
damnatia  of  Tiberius.  According  to  Montiroli,  many  fragments 
were  discovered  in  1848,  with  one  or  more  pieces  of  the  inscrip- 
tion, in  which  the  Elbe  and  the  Rhine  were  alluded  to,  and  the 
recovery  of  the  flags  was  mentioned.  These  pieces  now  lie  scat- 
tered all  over  the  Forum. 

Litp;katiti{e.  —  Olaus  Kellermann,  Bull.  Inst.,  IS^b,  p.  36.  —  Giovanni 
Montiroli,  Ilforo  romano.  Rome,  1852.  —  Theodor  Mommsen,  Re.<  i/esto' divi 
Auf/vsti,  ed.  1883,  p.  127.  —  Heinrich  Jordan,  Ephemerm  epijjr.,  1887,  p.  262. 

XLII.  The  Arch  of  Septimius  Severus  (XXXIII  in  plan) 
was  dedicated  to  him  and  to  his  sons  Caracalla  and  Geta,  a.  d. 
203,  in  recognition  of  the  benefits  they  had  conferred  on  the  com- 
monwealth by  reforming  the  administration  and  extending  the 
boundaries  of  the  Empire.  After  the  murder  of  Geta,  a.  d.  212, 
his  name  was  suppressed  in  the  inscriptions  on  either  face  of  the 
attic ;  but  the  holes  left  in  the  marble  by  the  clami^s  of  the  ori- 
ginal bronze  letters  give  us  the  means  of  reconstructing  the  original 
text ;  it  contained  the  words  (lin.  3)  et  (lin.  4)  Getce  nohilissbno 
ccesari,  which  were  substituted  by  the  acclamation  optimis  fortissi- 
misque  jmncipibus,  addressed  to  Severus  and  Caracalla  alone. 

The  arch  has  three  passages  connected  by  a  transverse  one. 
There  are  four  columns  of  the  composite  order  on  each  front,  on 



the  pedestals  of  which  are  carved  groups  of  prisoners  of  war.  (See 
Fig.  108.)  On  the  spandriLs  of  the  side  archways  are  figures  of 
River  Gods,  on  those  of  the  middle  passage  Victories  with  tro- 
phies. The  panels  above  the  side  arches  are  covered  with  bas- 
reliefs  illustrating  the  campaigns  of  Severus  in  the  East.  The 
small  door  on  the  south  side  leads  to  a  set  of  rooms  in  the  attic, 
some  of  which  have  no  light. 

The  arch  was  erected  on  the  edge  of  the  platform  ( Volkanal  — 
area  CoTiconlicr),  which,  being  six  or  seven  feet  higher  than  the 
level  of  the  Forum  and  of  the  Comitium,  was  accessible  only  by 
means  of  steps.      The  roughly  paved  road  going  through  the  cen- 

Fig.  108.  —  Pedestals  of  Columns,  Arch  of  Severus. 

tral  arch  dates  from  the  fall  of  the  Empire.  Among  the  materials 
of  which  it  was  built,  Fea  discovered  in  1803  a  pedestal  of  an 
Imperial  statue  and  pieces  of  a  monumental  column.  No  part  of 
the  Forum  has  been  more  fi*equently  and  more  successfully  ex- 
cavated than  the  neighborhood  of  this  arch.  On  June  22,  1480, 
the  pedestal  of  the  Genius  of  Roman  armies  was  tound  apud 



arcum.  In  August,  1539,  the  pedestals  of  two  statues  of  Stili- 
cho  were  discovered ;  in  1547-49  many  pedestals  were  unearthed 
coniinemorating  the  peace  restored  to  the  world  by  the  Flavian 
Emperors,  —  the  victory  of  the  Emperor  Julius  Constantius  over 
Magnentius,  a.  d.  353,  the  feats  of  Flavins  Valerius  Constantius 
Caesar,  etc. ;  and  in  1549  the  pedestals  of  the  equestrian  statues  of 
Arcadius  and  Ilonorius.  In  1774,  another  pedestal  of  a  statue 
of  Diocletian  was  foiind;  and  in  1803  another,  dedicated,  a.  d.  357, 
to  Jnlius  Constantius  by  Oriitus,  prefect  of  the  city,  the  latter 
being  probably  in  commemoration  of  the  raising  of  the  great 
obelisk  of  the  Circus  jNlaximus  (now  in  the  Lateran).  These 
historical  documents  are  marked  Nos.  196-200,  234,  1119,  1132, 
1158,  1161,  1162,  1174,  1187,  1203,  1204,  1205,  1730,  1731,  in  vol, 
vi.  of  the  "  Corpus  Inscriptionum  Latinarum." 

Fig.  109.  — A  Fruiterer's  Shop  under  the  Arch  of  Severus. 

Nos.  197,  199,  234,  1132,  1174,  1204  have  perished.  No.  1730  is 
to  be  found  in  the  Palazzo  Capranica  della  Valle ;  No.  1731  in 
the  Villa  Medici ;  Nos.  196,  198,  200,  in  the  Museo  Nazionale  at 
Naples.  No.  1158  was  removed  to  the  Farnese  gardens,  and 
brought  back  in  1875,  together  with  No.  1203.  Fragments  of  No. 
1187  are  dispersed  all  over  the  Fornm.  No.  1119  is  kejit  in  the 
Vatican  Museum  with  No.  1161.  No.  1162  is  broken  in  three 
pieces :  the  first  is  missing,  the  second  is  to  be  found  in  the  Vati- 
can, the  third  near  the  Arch  of  Severns ! 

S.   PETER'S   PRISON  285 

Many  pages  could  be  wi'itten  on  the  history  and  on  the  fate  of 
this  noble  monument  in  recent  times.  One  incident  shall  answer 
for  all.  The  arch,  being  the  property  of  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.,  was  put 
to  ransom  in  this  way.  The  two  side  passages  were  walled  in  at 
each  end,  and  turned  into  shops.  I  have  found  in  the  city  archives 
two  leases,  one  dated  May  1,  1721,  by  which  one  of  the  dens  is 
rented  to  Bonaventura  Rosa  for  four  scudi  and  eighty  baiocchi  a 
year ;  the  other  dated  January  30,  1751,  by  which  both  are  given 
up  to  Battista  Franchi  for  seven  scudi  and  twenty  baiocchi.  The 
last  occupant,  in  1803,  was  a  fruiterer.  This  odd  state  of  things 
is  represented  in  the  above  original  sketch  by  Gianni,  made  about 
1800  (Fig.  109). 

Literature.  —  Suarez,  Arcus  L.  Septiniii  Severi  anaglypha.  Rome,  1676. 
—  Antonio  Guattani,  Roma  antica,  vol.  i.  p.  71.  —  Corpus  Jnscr.,  vol.  vl.  n.  103;j. 

XLIII.  The  Carcer  Tulliaxum  (S.  Peter's  Prison)  (XXXIV 
in  plan),  is  mentioned  by  Livy  as  having  been  built  by  Ancus 
Marcius  in  a  place  near  and  a  little  liigher  than  the  Forum :  carcer 
imminens  foro.  It  contained  an  underground  cell,  formerly  a  cave 
named  Tullianum,  from  a  tullus  or  jet  of  water  which  sprang 
from  the  rock.  It  was  used  as  a  place  of  execution,  and  Sallust 
depicts  it  as  a  dark,  filthy,  and  frightful  den,  twelve  feet  under- 
ground, walled  in  and  covered  with  massive  stone  walls.  The 
fa9ade  is  very  severe  in  style,  and  has  an  inscription  commemo- 
rating the  repair's  to  the  prison,  made  at  the  time  of  Tiberius  by 
C.  Vibius  Rufinus  and  M.  Cocceius  Nerva.  (See  Corpus  Inscr., 
vol.  vi.  n.  1.539.)  Nichols  justly  remarks  that  "the  Carcer  plays 
a  part  in  Roman  history  like  that  of  the  Tower  of  London  in 
English.  The  TuUianum  was,  if  one  may  say  so,  a  Secret  Tower 
Hill.  One  of  the  first  heroes  of  the  long  tale  of  miseries  is  Plemi- 
nius,  who,  being  detained  in  prison  for  his  excesses  at  Locri,  was 
convicted  of  bribing  men  to  set  fire  to  the  city,  lowered  into  the 
Tullianum,  and  executed.  The  same  fate  befell  Lentulus,  Ceth- 
egus,  and  several  other  conspirators  during  the  Catilinarian  trou- 
bles. Cicero,  who  played  such  a  leading  part  in  them,  speaks  of 
the  Carcer  as  having  been  ordained  by  the  kings  as  the  avenger 
of  heinous  and  notorious  crimes.  The  jail  is  also  associated  with 
the  name  of  King  Jugurtha,  starved  to  death  in  the  lower  hole. 
The  body  of  Seianus,  the  disgraced  minister  of  Tiberius,  was  cast 
on  the  Scalse  Gemoniae  (steps  adjoining  the  prison),  and  also  those 
of  his  innocent  children,  whose  execution  was  marked  by  circum- 
stances of  fria;htful  atrocitv.     Here  also  the  headless  trunk  of 

286  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE    SACRA    VTA 

Flavins  Sabinus,  brother  of  Vespasian,  was  thrown  by  the  soldiers 
of  Vitelliiis,  and  soon  after  Vitellius  himself  met  his  end  on  the 
same  spot.  The  Career,"  Nichols  concludes,  "like  the  Tower, 
had  also  its  literary  reminiscences.  Nsevius  is  said  to  have  writ- 
ten two  of  his  plays  while  confined  in  prison  for  his  attacks  on 
the  aristocracy."  ^ 

The  bibliography  on  the  Career  is  given  by  Cancellieri,  "  Notizie 
del  Carcere  TuUiano."     Rome,  1788,  pp.  6,  7. 

XLIV.  tEdes  Concordia:  ('Ojuoroeroj/,  Temple  of  Concord), 
(XXXV  in  plan).  —  The  approval  of  the  Licinian  laws  in  367 
15.  c.  was  a  great  event  in  the  history  of  the  Republic,  because 
tlie  alliance  between  patricians  and  plebeians,  by  restoring  peace 
and  tranquillity  at  home,  allowed  the  government  to  turn  its  at- 
tention to  foreign  affairs.  The  laws,  however,  did  not  pass  with- 
out a  struggle.  During  a  particulai'ly  violent  fight  in  the  Forum, 
C'amillus  promised  to  erect  a  temple  to  Concord,  as  soon  as  peace 
should  be  restored ;  and  he  kept  his  word  in  367.  The  temple, 
a  simple  and  graceful  structure  of  stone,  wood,  and  painted  terra- 
cotta, was  raised  at  the  foot  of  the  Clivus  Capitolinus,  between 
the  Temple  of  Saturn  and  the  prison.  In  b.  c.  121,  after  the 
death  of  C.  Gracchus,  the  Senate  commissioned  L.  Opimius  with 
the  reconstruction  of  the  temple,  to  the  great  distress  of  the  ple- 
beians, who  could  not  tolerate  the  idea  that  a  monument  com- 
memorating a  popular  victory  should  be  made  to  represent  the 
triumph  of  aristocracy,  and  so  the  original  inscription  was 
changed  one  night  into  the  words  :  "  Discord  raises  this  temple  to 
Concord."  The  edifice,  scanty  fragments  of  which  have  come 
down  to  as,  dates  from  a.  d.  10,  when  Tiberius  reconstructed  it 
for  the  second  time,  and  dedicated  it  on  January  16  under  the 
title  of  Concordia  Augusta.  Designed  and  executed  by  the  clever- 
est masters  of  the  golden  age,  entirely  built  of  white  marble,  pro- 
fusely enriched  with  masterpieces  of  the  Greek  school,  the  Temple 
of  Concord  was  one  of  the  finest  monuments  in  the  valley  of  the 
Forum,  and  one  of  the  richest  museums  of  Rome.  The  cella  con- 
tained one  central  and  ten  side  niches,  in  which  were  placed  the 
Apollo  and  Hera  by  Baton;  Latona  nursing  Apollo  and  Diana 
by  Euphranor;  Asklepios  and  Hygieia  by  Nikeratos;   Ares  and 

1  On  the  connection  of  this  historical  monument  with  S.  Peter,  consult  Der 
mamc'7-tinische  Kerker  u.  die  romischen  Traditionen  vom  Gefdngnhse  und  den 
Ketten  Petri,  an  excellent  paper  published  by  H.  Grisar,  S.  J.,  in  the  Zeit- 
schriftfiir  kath.  Theologie,  1896,  p.  102. 


Hermes  by  Piston  ;  and  Zeus,  Athena,  and  Demeter  by  Sthenics. 
Pliny  speaks  also  of  a  picture  by  Theodores  representing  Cassan- 
dra; of  another  by  Zeuxis  which  portrayed  Marsyas  bound  to  the 
tree ;  of  a  third,  Bacchus,  by  Nikias ;  of  four  elephants  cut  in 
obsidian,  a  miracle  of  skill  and  labor;  and  of  a  collection  of 
precious  stones.  Among  these  was  the  sardonyx  set  in  the 
legendary  ring  of  Polykrates  of  Sanios.  I  may  mention  in  the 
last  place  the  statue  of  Ilestia,  which  Tiberius  had  taken  away 
almost  by  force  from  the  inhabitants  of  Paros. 

Like  that  of  Castor,  the  Temple  of  Concord  played  an  im- 
portant i^art  in  Roman  political  life,  and  was  used  very  often  by 
the  Senate  as  a  meeting-place  on  extraordinary  occasions.  Cicero 
delivered  in  it  his  fourth  oration  against  Catiline,  denouncing  the 
conspiracy  and  the  names  of  those  concerned  in  it.  Other  meet- 
ings are  recorded  in  Imperial  times,  under  Severus,  Alexander, 
and  Probus.  The  open  space  in  front  of  the  temple,  originally 
called  Volkanal,  and  later  on  Area  Concordia;,  is  mentioned  sev- 
eral times  in  connection  with  the  "  showers  of  blood."  These 
were  rain  mixed  with  reddish  sand  from  the  deserts  of  Libya,  a 
phenomenon  by  no  means  uncommon  in  Rome,  for  T  have  myself 
observed  it  on  three  occasions. 

The  fate  of  the  building  after  the  barbaric  invasions  is  not 
known.  The  Anonyinus  of  Einsiedlen  saw  (?)  it  almost  perfect 
in  the  eighth  century,  and  copied  the  inscription  of  the  pronaos, 
which  alludes  to  the  restoration  made  by  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  after  the 
fire  of  Carinus.  (See  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  89  and  938.)  The 
"  Liber  Pontificalis "  speaks  of  it  as  threatening  to  collapse  at 
the  time  of  Hadrian  I.  (772-795).  When  Poggio  Bracciolini 
visited  Rome  the  first  time  about  1405,  the  portico  was  still  stand- 
ing, but  he  saw  it  himself,  soon  after,  fall  to  the  ground,  and  its 
beautiful  marbles  were  broken  and  thrown  into  the  lime-kiln. 

The  excavations  of  the  site  of  the  temple  began  on  May  2,  1817. 
The  fragments  of  decorative  marbles  found  within  the  cella  are 
described  by  contemporary  witnesses  as  '*the  most  delicate,  the 
most  perfect  productions  of  ancient  art."  These  fragments  are 
exhibited  in  the  portico  of  the  Tabularium,  where  dampness  and 
saltpetre  corrode  their  surface,  and  will  soon  reduce  them  to  dust ; 
two  bases  of  the  side  shrines  are  in  the  ground  floor  of  the  Museo 
Capitolino ;  two  capitals,  with  lambs  in  the  place  of  volutes,  are 
in  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatory  Nibby  says  that  at  the  time  of 
the  discovei-y  half  the  pavement  was  perfect ;  but  its  slabs  of 
africano,  giallo,  and  pavonazzetto  were  afterward  stolen  one  by  one 

288  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

by  stone-cutters,  and  probably  made  into  paper-weights  and  other 
such  marketable  articles.  The  threshold  of  the  cella,  one  of  the 
few  pieces  left  on  the  spot,  has  the  mark  of  the  caduceus  engraved 
near  the  left  end. 

Literature.  —  Co?y)Ms  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  89-94.  —  Ulrichs,  Codex  topogr., 
pp.  220,  238.  —  Stefano  Piale,  Degli  antichi  templl  di  Vespasiano  e  della  Con- 
cordia.    Rome,  (1818)  1834.  —  Carlo  Fea,   Varieta  di  Notizie,  pp.  93-95. 

XLV.  The  Clivus  Capitolinus  (XXXVI  in  plan).  —  The 
end  of  the  Sacra  Via  which  ascended  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Cap- 
itoline  hill  in  zigzags  was  called  the  Clivus  Capitolinus.  Its  pave- 
ment has  been  laid  bare  in  the  lower  tract  before  and  between  the 
temples  of  Vespasian,  of  Saturn,  and  the  Porticus  Deorum  Con- 
sentium,  as  represented  in  the  illustration  (Fig.  119) ;  but  its  upper 
course  is  as  yet  a  matter  of  speculation.  It  probably  rounded  the 
Porticus  Consentium  and  emerged  on  the  Area  Capitolina,  skirt- 
ing the  south  side  of  the  Tabularium,  as  marked  (XXXVI)  in 
the  plan. 

At  the  foot  of  the  pronaos  of  Saturn  are  the  only  existing  re- 
mains of  a  Roman  street  pavement  of  classic  times.  They  owe 
their  preservation  to  the  fact  of  having  been  covered  by  the  steps  of 
the  temple  in  one  of  the  later  reconstructions.  The  reader  hardly 
needs  to  be  reminded  that  all  the  otlier  pavements  that  go  by  the 
name  of  "  ancient  streets  "  are  a  patchwork  of  the  fifth  and  sixth 
centuries  after  Christ. 

XLVI.  Temple  of  Vespasian  (XXXVII  in  plan ;  Figs.  106 
and  110),  erected  under  Doniitian  in  memory  of  his  deified  father 
(and  brother).  —  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  three  columns,  stand- 
ing on  a  lofty  platform  between  the  Temple  of  Concord  and  the 
Porticus  Consentium,  belong  to  this  temple,  because  the  dedicatory 
inscription,  copied  by  the  so-called  Anonymus  of  Einsiedlen  when 
still  intact,  ends  precisely  with  the  eight  letters  estitver  which 
we  see  engraved  in  the  existing  fragment. 

diro  •  uespasiano  •  augusto  •  s  •  p  •  q  •  r 
impp  •  ccess  •  seuerus  •  et  ■  antoninus  •  pit  •  felic  •  augg  •  rESTiTVER 

Of  this  very  elegant  edifice  only  the  platform,  the  altar,  and  the 
three  corner  columns  of  the  pronaos  are  left  standing.  The  frieze 
is  decorated  with  the  instruments  of  sacrifice  —  the  "  albogalerus," 
the  "  aspergillus,"  the  "  urceus,"  the  knife,  the  "  patera,"  the  axe 
—  in  bold  relief  and  in  the  purest  style  of  art  (Fig.  111).  The 
cornice  is  remarkable  for  the  tiny  rings  interposed  to  the  dentels ; 



it  is  a  characteristic  of  ornamental  work  of  the  time  of  Domitian, 
which  occurs  also  in  the  cornices  of  the  Flavian  Palace,  of  the 
Forum  Transitorium,  of  the  Albanum,  of  the  Serapaeum,  of  the 
Horti  Largiaui  —  buildings  erected  or  restored  by  the  same  Em- 



When  the  excavations  of  the  Clivus  Capitolinus  were  begun  in 
1810,  it  was  observed  not  only  that  the  three  coUimns  were  falling 
out  of  the  perpendicular  by  over  two  feet  in  the  direction  of  the 

THE    TEMPLE    OF   SATURN  291 

Foi'um,  but  that  their  foundations  liad  been  uprooted  in  the  ex- 
cavations of  the  cinquecento.  The  ai'chitects  Valadier  and  Campo- 
rese,  after  measuring  and  sketching  the  ruin  stone  by  stone,  took 
it  down,  rebuilt  the  foundations,  and  set  it  up  straight  again.  The 
accumulation  of  rubbish,  which  reached  nearly  to  the  top  of  the 
shafts,  was  then  removed,  and  the  expectant  public  could  see  out- 
lined against  the  sky  those  capitals  and  that  frieze  which,  only  a 
few  months  before,  had  been  trodden  by  the  feet  of  tourists.  This 
clever  operation  is  described  in  Tournon's  '•  Etudes  statistiques  sur 
Kome,"  vol.  ii.  p.  266,  pi.  21. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  sti'eet  stands  a  nearly  perfect  Ionic 
hexastyle  portico,  which  topographers  agree  in  attributing  to  the 

XLVII.  .EuKS  Satukxi  (Temple  of  Saturn)  (XXXVIII 
in  plan  ;  Fig.  110).  —  According  to  an  old  h-adition  the  Greek 
followers  of  Hercules  had  raised  an  altar  to  Saturn  in  the  "  jaws," 
or  "  at  the  foot "  of  the  hill  which  bore  his  name  (Collis  Satur- 
nius),  and  which  was  inhabited,  even  before  the  Trojan  war,  by  a 
colony  of  men  called  Saturnii.  The  tradition  was  founded  on  the 
fact  that,  in  much  later  times,  sacrifices  were  offered  to  the  god  in 
the  Greek  rite,  the  worshipers  being  allowed  to  keep  their  heads 
unveiled.  A  temple  was  substituted  for  the  altar  in  497  b.  c., 
and  dedicated  on  the  day  of  the  Saturnalia,  December  17.  Lucius 
Munatius  Plancus  rebuilt  it  at  the  request  of  his  friend  Augustus 
in  42  B.  c,  the  money  being  taken  from  the  spoils  of  the  Rhaetic 

The  fire  of  Carinus  must  have  damaged  the  structure,  as  shown 
by  the  inscription  sexatvs  popvlvsqve  romanvs  incendio  cox- 
SVMPTVM  RESTiTviT  eugraved  on  the  architrave  of  the  pronaos, 
and  by  the  patchwork  style  of  the  pronaos  itself,  w^hich  betrays 
an  utter  decadence  of  taste  and  a  great  poverty  of  means.  The 
columns  on  the  front  are  of  gray  granite,  those  at  the  sides  of 
red,  and  made  up  of  several  pieces  ;  some  of  the  bases  are  Attic, 
others  Corinthian,  and  without  plinth.  It  has  been  asked  why 
the  name  of  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  should  appear  on  the  architrave  of 
the  temple  instead  of  the  name  of  an  Emperor.  The  reason  is 
evident :  the  temjile  was  rebuilt  in  the  fourth  century,  when  Chris- 
tianity had  become,  if  not  the  religion  of  the  State,  certainly  the 
personal  religion  of  the  Emperors  ;  and  it  would  not  have  become 
a  Christian  Emperor  to  see  his  name  associated  with  the  restora- 
tion of  heathen  temples.  I  believe,  moreover,  that  the  restoration 
by  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  was  undertaken  not  from  a  religious  point  of 

292  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

view,  but  as  a  necessity  of  public  administration,  because  the 
temple  had  been  used,  since  the  time  of  Valerius  Publicola,  as 
the  civil  treasury  —  ^rarium  Saturni,  —  as  that  of  the  temple  of 
Concord  was  used  for  military  purposes.  The  ^rarium  Saturni 
was  divided  into  two  sections  :  one  for  current  business,  one  as 
a  reserve  fund  (iErarium  sanctius).  Appeal  was  made  to  this 
last  in  211  during  the  second  Punic  war,  and  again  in  49  b.  c,  on 
the  approach  of  Julius  Csesar  to  Rome.  There  were  correspond- 
ing strong  rooms  under  the  cella,  but  no  attempt  has  ever  been 
made  to  discover  them.  The  vErarium  contained  also  the  archives 
of  the  quaestors,  in  which,  among  other  records,  the  sentences  of 
death  were  deposited. 

A  small  square  opened  behind  the  temple,  called  Area  Satvirni. 
It  contained  a  celebrated  altar,  raised  to  Ops  and  Ceres  on  August 
10,  A.  D.  7,  while  the  peninsula  was  suffering  from  a  famine  of  un- 
precedented severity. 

The  lofty  platform  on  which  the  temple  stands  was  reached 
from  the  Clivus  Capitolinus  l)y  means  of  a  long  flight  of  stairs, 
designed  in  fragment  iii.  22,  23  of  the  marble  plan  of  Rome. 

Literature.  —  Theodor  Mommsen,  Res  gestce,  2d  ed.  iv.  12,  13.  —  F.  M. 
Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum,  p.  23.  —  H.  Jordan,  Ephemeris  epigraphica,  vol. 
iii.  p.  55. —  Orazio  Marucchi,  Le.  forum  romani,  p.  139.—  Thedenat,  in  Darem- 
berg  and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1285. 

XL VIII.  PoRTicus  Deorum  Consentium  (Portico  of  the 
Twelve  Gods)  (XXXIX  in  plan;  Fig.  112).  —  At  the  highest 
point  of  the  ascent,  and  under  the  southeast  corner  of  the  Tabu- 
larium,  there  is  a  line  of  cells  built  partly  against  the  cliff,  partly 
against  the  retaining  wall  of  the  Clivus,  the  front  of  which  is 
decorated  with  a  portico  of  the  Corinthian  order.  It  was  rebuilt 
in  A.  D.  367  by  Vettius  Agorius  Praetextatus,  on  the  site  of  a  much 
earlier  shrine  of  the  twelve  deities,  whose  gilded  images,  six  of 
gods  and  six  of  goddesses,  are  mentioned  by  Varro  as  existing  in 
the  Forum  at  a  very  remote  age.  The  inscription  on  the  archi- 
trave discovered  in  the  excavations  of  1834  and  the  remains  of 
the  colonnade  were  set  up  in  1853  by  Canina.  "  Agorius  Prsetex- 
tatus  is  known  as  one  of  the  most  obstinate  upholders  of  pagan- 
ism, already  dying  out.  He  persecuted  the  Christians  whenever  he 
could  do  so  without  incurring  the  penalties  of  law ;  restored  the 
abandoned  and  half-ruined  temples ;  and,  when  Pope  Damasus  re- 
monstrated with  him  for  his  cruel  and  illegal  behavior,  answered, 
'  Make  me  Bishop  of  Rome  and  I  shall  at  once  become  a  good 
Christian.'  " 


Remains  of  his  gardens  on  the  Esquiline  were  discovered  in 
1873-74  near  the  Piazza  Manfredo  Fanti.  The  palace  connected 
with  the  gardens  had  already  been  discovered  in  1591  in  the 
grounds  of  Federigo  Cesi,  near  the  Arch  of  Gallienus.     It  con- 

Fig.  112.  —The  Porticus  Consentium. 

tained,  like  the  gardens,  a  valuable  set  of  works  of  art,  among 
which  was  the  statue  of  Coelia  Concordia,  a  Vestalis  Maxima,  so 
perfectly  preserved  that  even  the  insignia  of  her  order,  of  gilded 
metal,  remained  fastened  around  her  neck. 

Literature.  —  Olaus  Kellerniann,  in  Bull.  Inst.,  1835,  p.  34.  —  Luigi 
Grid,  At ti  accad.  jwntif.  archeoL,  vol.  xiv.  p.  118.  — Adolf  Becker,  Topo- 
graphie,  p.  318.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciaiii,  Bull,  com.,  1874,  p.  83;  and  Ancient 
Rome,  p.  169.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  102. 

XLIX.  Tabularium  (XL  in  plan).  —  This  is  an  immense  and 
well-preserved  building,  on  the  slope  of  the  Capitoline  facing 
the  Forum,  destined  for  the  safe  keeping  of  the  deeds  of  public 
interest,  among  which  were  the  decrees  of  the  Senate  from  the 
earliest  days  of  the  Kings,  the  plebiscites,  the  treaties  of  peace 
and  alliance,  and  so  forth.  Bunsen  calls  the  Tabularium  "le 
seul  edifice  grand  qui  nous  reste  de  la  Republique,  le  seul  edifice 
d'Etat  de  la  Rome  ancienne;"  Emil  Braun,  likewise,  "a  grand 
edifice,  one  of  the  most  considerable  of  the  brightest  epoch  of  the 

294  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

Republic,  .  .  .  which  desei'ves  our  fullest  admiration  ;  "  and  yet  it 
is  one  of  the  least  visited  monuments  in  Rome. 

The  Tabularium  is  probably  the  work  of  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus, 
to  whom  the  task  of  rebuilding  the  Capitol  after  the  fire  of  88  b.  c. 
had  been  intrusted  by  a  decree  of  the  Senate  in  78  b.  c.  There 
are  two  inscriptions  commemorating  his  work :  one  seen  by  Poggio 
Bracciolini  about  1530,  which  expressly  mentions  svhstrvctionem 
ct  tahvlarivm ;  the  other  discovered  by  Canina  in  1845,  which  has 
been  set  into  the  wall  of  the  Tabularium  itself  on  the  north  side. 
This  last  contains  only  the  general  expression  de  sK^atus  sKtirenlia 
FACiVNDvm  (tabularium?)  coeravit.  (See  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p. 
170,  n.  391,  392.) 

The  area  of  the  building  corresponds  almost  exactly  with  that 
of  the  Palazzo  del  Senatore,  the  official  residence  of  the  Roman 
municipal  administration.  The  walls  of  the  palace  rest  on  the 
ancient  ones  on  the  north,  east,  and  south  sides,  as  any  one  can 
see;  but  I  have  discovered  a  document  which  proves  tliat  the 
west  side,  viz.,  the  fa(,'ade  of  the  palace  towards  the  Piazza  del 
Campidogiio,  is  likewise  built  upon  ancient  foundations.  In  p. 
88  of  the  Bodleian  MSS.  Pirro  Ligorio  asserts  that  a  beautiful 
"  basamento  di  sasso  tiburtiuo  di  bella  e  vaga  modanatura  "  runs 
under  the  pedestals  of  the  two  River  Gods  on  either  side  of  the 
fountain,  and  gives  a  good  outline  of  it.  He  also  tells  the  follow- 
ing remarkable  story  about  the  fate  of  the  two  River  Gods.  They 
had  formed  part  of  the  mediseval  museum  of  statuary  on  the 
Piazza  di  Montecavallo,  which  comprised  the  two  colossal  groups 
of  Castor  and  Pollux,  two  statues  of  Constantine,  one  of  Cybele, 
and  the  two  reclining  figures  of  the  Nile  and  the  Tigris,  known 
by  the  name  of  Saturn  and  Bacchus.^  When  the  River  Gods 
were  removed  to  the  Capitol  for  the  decoration  of  the  Palazzo 
del  Senatore,  an  influential  person  (tin  malo  consigliere)  suggested 
that  the  Tigris  should  be  transformed  into  a  Tiber.  The  sug- 
gestion was  adopted ;  the  head  of  the  tiger  was  changed  into  that 
of  a  wolf,  and  the  two  sucking  infants  were  added  to  the  group. 
Ligorio  says  that  the  fingers  of  the  right  hand  of  one  of  the  twins 
were  originally  part  of  the  hair  of  the  tiger. 

LiTEKATURE.  —  Giovaniii  Aziirri,  Descrlzione  delV  areata  dorica  dell'  an- 
tico  Tabulario.  Rome,  1839.  —  Beschreibung  d.  Stadt  Rom,  vol.  iii.  p.  40. — 
Luigi  Canina,  Monumenti  dell'  Istituto,  vol.  v.  pi.  31.  —  Charles  Bunsen, 
Les  forums,   p.  286. —  Emil  Braun,  Ruins  and  Museums,  p.  14. —  Theodor 

1  See  Michaelis,  Le  antichita  della  citta  di  Roma,  descritte  da  Nicolao 
Muffel,  in  Mittheil.,  1888,  p.  271,  n.  23,  24. 


Momm>eii,  Annul.  Inst.,  1858,  p.  211;  and  Bull,  hist.,  IS-l.'),  p.  119,  —  Heiurkh 
Jordan,  //  tabulario  capiloUno  (in  Aunal.  Inst.,  1881,  p.  60). 

The  Tabularium  com2:)rises  a  substructure  built  of  gabinian 
stone,  an  underground  tloor,  wliich  luis  long  been  used  for  a  city 
jail,  and  an  upper  portico  of  the  Doric  order,  with  many  halls, 
passages,  corridors,  and  staircases,  all  in  perfect  preservation.  The 
halls  were  used,  as  has  been  said,  for  state  documents,  engraved 
on  bronze  tablets,  ''  tabulae  seneaj,"  from  which  the  building  was 

Fig.  li;;.  —  OM  (iatc  of  Tabularium  blocked  l.y  T.-mpl.-  of  W-spasian. 

named.  Three  thousand  tablets,  called  by  Suetonius  "  instru- 
mentum  im])erii  pulcherrimum  ac  vetustissimum,"  perished  in  the 
fire  of  Yitellius.  Vespasian  restored  the  set  by  means  of  dupli- 
cates kept  in  other  archives. 

296  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE    SACRA    VIA 

The  Tabularium  was  accessible  directly  from  the  Clivus  Capito- 
liiiLis  and  from  the  iErarium  Saturui,  by  means  of  a  staircase  of 
sixty-seven  steps,  the  preservation  of  which  is  truly  wonderful. 
The  entrance  to  it  was  blocked  at  the  time  of  Domitian,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  erection  of  the  Temple  of  Vespasian,  as  shown  in 
Fig.  113. 

Nibby  asserts  that  the  many  fragments  of  columns  and  capitals 
of  travertine  (of  the  Corinthian  order)  discovered  at  the  foot  of 
the  substructure,  and  now  piled  up  in  front  of  the  Portico  of  tlie 
Consentes,  belong  to  a  second  or  upper  arcade  of  the  Tabularium. 
His  opinion  is  corroborated  by  documents  of  the  time  of  Anacletus 
11.  and  Innocent  III.,  which  mention  two  Camellarige,  the  lower 
and  the  upper,  "  Camellaria  "  being  then  the  denomination  of  the 
Tabularium ;  and  by  Poggio  Bracciolini,  who  saw  in  it  fornices 
(luplici  ordine,  a  double  tier  of  arcades. 

L.  Capitolium  (Temple  of  Jupiter  Optimus  Maximus)  (XLI 
in  plan).  —  This  national  sanctuary  of  ancient  Rome,  designed  by 
the  elder  Tarquin  and  built  by  his  son  Superbus,  was  dedicated 
by  M.  Hoi'atius  Pulvillus,  consul,  on  September  13,  509  b.  c. 
Writers  describe  it  as  raised  on  a  platform  61.62  metres  long, 
and  57.17  wide,  in  the  middle  of  a  sacred  area,  which  was  bounded 
on  three  sides  by  precipitous  cliffs.  There  were  three  rows  of 
columns  on  the  front  of  the  temple,  but  none  at  the  back;  the 
style  of  architecture  was  pure  Etruscan,  low  and  heavy,  with 
intercolumniation  so  wide  (areostyle)  as  to  require  the  use  of 
wooden  architraves.  The  •  cella  was  divided  into  three  compart- 
ments, the  middle  one  sacred  to  Jupiter,  the  one  on  the  left  to 
Juno  Kegina,  the  one  on  the  right  to  Minerva.  The  pediment 
was  crowned  by  a  quadriga  of  terra-cotta,  in  the  manner  of  an 
acroterium ;  and  the  statue  of  the  Father  of  the  Gods  was  of  the 
same  material.  It  was  the  w^ork  of  Turianus  of  Fregena),  who 
had  painted  the  face  of  the  god  in  vermilion,  and  dressed  his 
body  with  the  tunica  palmata  and  the  toga  picta.  Considering 
that  the  wooden  architraves  must  have  been  covered  likewise  with 
panels  of  painted  terra  cotta,  the  roof  lined  with  antefixse,  etc., 
we  may  assume  that  the  old  Capitolium  did  not  differ  from  the 
contemporary  temples  of  southern  Etruria,  a  splendid  specimen 
of  which,  discovered  at  Faleria,  is  now  exhibited  in  the  Villa 
Giulia  outside  the  Porta  del  Popolo. 

In  386  B.  c.  the  rugged  and  uneven  surface  of  the  hill  around 
the  temple  was  made  level  by  means  of  gigantic  substructures, 


which  rose  from  the  level  of  the  plain  to  that  of  the  temple  itself, 
a  work  called  "  insane  "  by  Pliny,  and  classed  by  Livy  among  the 
wonders  of  Rome.  The  Capitolium  was  only  accessible  from  the 
side  of  the  clivus  by  means  of  stately  stairs,  a  kind  of  "scala 
santa,"  which  Csesar  and  Claudius  ascended  on  their  knees. 

On  July  6,  83  b.  c,  a  malefactor,  whose  name  was  never  dis- 
covered, set  the  buUding  ablaze.  Sulla  undertook  its  reconstruc- 
tion, for  which  purpose  he  laid  his  hands  on  some  of  the  columns 
of  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  the  Olympian  at  Athens.  Sulla's  work 
was  continued  by  Lutatius  Catulus  (the  builder  of  the  Tabula- 
rium),  and  finished  by  Julius  C«sar  in  46.  A  second  restoration 
took  place  in  the  year  9  b.  c.  under  Augustus,  a  third  in  74  a.  d. 
under  Vespasian,  and  the  last  in  the  year  82  under  Domitian. 
Domitian's  temple  was  of  the  same  length  and  width  as  its  pre- 
decessors, but  higher  and  more  svelte.  It  had  Corinthian  columns 
of  pentelic  marble. 

For  many  generations  topographers  have  discussed  which  of  the 
two  summits  of  the  Capitoline  hill  was  occupied  by  the  temple, 
which  by  the  citadel.  A  discovery  made  on  Kovember  7,  1875, 
gave  me  the  first  clue  to  the  solution  of  the  difficulty.  While 
building  the  foundations  of  the  new  rotunda  in  the  garden  of  the 
Palazzo  dei  Conservatori  (where  the  works  of  art  dug  up  on  the 
Esquiline  are  now  exhiliited),  we  discovered  the  edge  of  the  plat- 
form built  by  the  Tarquins,  and  upon  it  a  fragment  of  one  of  the 
columns  of  pentelic  marble  pertaining  to  the  last  restoration  of 
Domitian.  Such  a  find,  taken  by  itself,  would  not  have  been  con- 
clusive ;  but  compared  with  others  made  in  the  course  of  the  last 
four  centuries,  it  proves  beyond  doubt  that  the  Capitolium  stood 
ou  the  summit  of  ]Monte  Caprino,  and  consequently  that  the  Arx 
and  the  Tarpeian  rock  must  be  placed  on  the  Aracceli  side. 

First  as  to  the  insame  substriirtiones  which  supported  the  sacred 
area.  They  have  been  seen  and  described  by  Flaminio  Vacca  on 
the  side  of  the  Piazza  della  Consolazione,  by  Sante  Bartoli  on  the 
side  of  the  Piazza  ]Montanara,  by  Ficoroni  on  the  side  of  the  Via 
di  Torre  de'  Specchi.  their  thickness  exceeding  five  metres.  The 
travertine  facing  of  these  walls  w^as  covered  with  inscriptions  and 
dedications  in  honor  of  the  great  Roman  god  by  the  kings  and  the 
nations  of  the  world.  One  cannot  read  these  historical  documents, 
these  messages  of  friendship  and  gratitude  from  the  remotest  corner 
of  the  earth,  without  acqiiiring  a  new  sense  of  the  magnitude  and 
power  of  Rome.i  These  dedications  are  found  only  on  the  side  of 
the  Moute  Caprino. 

1  See  Bull,  com.,  1886,  p.  403 ;  1887,  pp.  14,  124,  251 ;  1888,  p.  138 ;  1890,  p.  57.  — 

298  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE    SACRA    VIA 

The  platform  of  the  Tarquins,  built  of  small  grayish  blocks  of 
tufa  lamellare,  without  cement,  exists  still  in  tolerable  preserva- 
tion under  the  garden  and  palace  (Caft'arelli)  of  the  German  Em- 
bassy. A  sketch  in  Fabretti's  ''De  Columna  traiana"  shows  tliat 
when  the  Caffarellis  enlarged  their  palace  on  the  Monte  Caprino, 
about  1680,  fourteen  tiers  of  stone  at  least  were  removed.  The 
following  illustration  shows  the  only  portion  now  left  visible  of 
this  great  platform  (Fig.  ll-l).  It  lies  under  the  partition  wall  be- 
tween the  Caffarelli  garden  and  that  of  the  Palazzo  dei  Conser- 

Borings  made  all  over  the  Monte  Caprino  in  1876  by  Jordan 

H^Lhl,  ~  il                   ':     >  ,4f??^ 



f  "^  \t^^  ""^  i! 

BJJhjl^^^                    ,       .;^^^^ 


^^^^^HHIkMik. . 

, ,., ..  i 

Fig.  114.  —  Remains  of  the  Platform  of  the  Capitolium  in  the  Garden  of  the  Caffarelli 


and  Schuj^mann  have  enabled  us  to  trace  three  out  of  four  sides 
of  the  parallelogram,  as  well  as  the  size  and  direction  of  one  of 
the  favissce. 

The  temple  rebuilt  \i\  Domitian  was  plundered  in  June,  4.55,  by 
the  Vandals  of  Genseric,  who  carried  off  the  statues  to  adorn  his 

Momm.«en,  Zeitschrift  fur  Numismatik,  xv.  p.  207.  —  Corpus  Inscrip.,  vol.  i. 
p.  169. 


African  residence.  Froni  that  time  the  temple,  stripped  of  its 
roof  of  gilt  bronze  tiles,  fell  into  ruin,  and  became,  like  so  many 
others,  a  stone  quarry  and  a  lime-kiln.  In  January,  1545,  Giovan 
Pietro  Caffarelli  discovered  the  first  relics  in  the  garden  behind 
the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori.  Some  of  the  pieces  were  sketched 
and  measured  by  Antonio  da  Sangallo  the  younger,  and  the  whole 
find  is  described  as  follows  by  Flaminio  Yacca  :  "  Upon  the  Tar- 
peian  rock  (Monte  Caprino)  several  pillars  of  peutelic  marble  were 
found,  with  capitals  of  such  size  that  I  was  able  to  carve  out  of 
one  of  them  the  great  lion  now  in  the  garden  of  Grand  Duke 
Ferdinand  of  Tuscany  by  the  Trinita  de'  Monti  (Villa  Medici). 
The  rest  of  the  marbles  were  used  by  Vincenzo  de  Rossi  to  carve 
the  Prophets  and  other  statues  of  the  chapel  of  Cardinal  Federico 
Cesi  at  S.  ^Slaria  della  Pace.  ...  No  fragments  of  the  entablature 
were  found,  but  as  the  building  was  so  close  to  the  edge  of  the 
precipice,  I  fancy  they  must  have  fallen  into  the  plain  below." 
The  surmise  was  proved  correct  by  subsequent  discoveries.  In 
1780  great  pieces  of  cornice  and  frieze,  ornamented  with  bucranii 
and  festoons,  were  dug  up  from  the  foundations  of  the  house 
Xo.  13  Via  ]Montanara  at  the  foot  of  the  rock ;  other  fragments  in 
May,  1875,  under  the  house  Xo.  83  Via  della  Consolazione.  The 
dedications  by  foreign  kings  and  nations,  mentioned  above,  have 
also  rolled  down  the  hill  towards  the  Piazza  della  Consolazione, 
where  they  were  discovered  in  1887  under  the  Casa  Moroni.  An- 
other piece  of  a  fluted  column  of  pentelic  marble  was  discovered 
on  January  24,  1889,  on  the  slope  towards  the  TuUianum  (S.  Pietro 
in  Carcere),  where  it  had  been  dragged  and  abandoned  by  a  cinque- 
ceiito  stone-cutter. 

A  careful  examination  made  in  1S75  by  the  late  Padre  Luigi 
Bruzza  proves  that  the  statues  of  the  Cappella  Cesi  are  really  sculp- 
tured in  pentelic,  and  so  is  Flaminio  Vacca's  lion,  in  the  Villa  Me- 
dici. The  piece  of  a  column  discovered  in  Xovember,  1875,  is  to  be 
seen  in  the  small  garden  of  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori ;  the  one 
discovered  in  January,  1889.  in  the  Via  di  S.  Pietro  in  Carcere  has 
been  buried  over  in  the  same  place.  The  platform  of  the  temple 
discovered  in  1865  in  the  garden  of  the  German  Embassy  (Caffa- 
relli) was  buried  in  1880  by  Baron  von  Keudell.  The  dedicatory 
inscriptions  found  in  the  Piazza  della  Consolazione,  instead  of 
being  replaced  on  the  Capitol,  to  which  they  had  been  offered  by 
the  discoverer,  have  found  their  way  to  the  Museo  delle  Terme  ; 
those  found  in  the  sixteenth  century  (Corpus  Inscr.  Lat.,  vol.  i.  p. 
169,  n.  589)  have  perished. 

300  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VTA 

Literature. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p.  170;  and  vol.  vi.  n.  372-374. — 
Rycq,  Be  Capitolio  romano.  Leyden,  1669.  —  Bunsen,  Beschreibung  d.  Stadt 
Rom,  vol.  iii%  p.  14. —  Hirt,  Der  capitoliniscke  Jtipitertempel  (in  Abhandl.  d. 
Berlinei"  Akademie,  1813).  —  Bureau  de  la  Malle,  Memoire  sur  la  position  de  la 
roche  tarpeienne  (in  Mem.  Academie  Inscriptions,  1819).  —  R.  Lanciani,  // 
tempio  di  Giove  ottimo  massimo  (in  Bull,  com.,  1875,  p.  165,  pis.  16-18)  ;  and 
Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  84.  —  I'ietro  Rosa,  Annali  Instituto,  1865,  p.  382. 
—  H.Jordan,  Osservazioni  sul  tempio  di  Giove  Capitolino  (in  Annali  Instit., 
1876,  p.  145)  ;  and  TopograpMe,  vol.  i^,  p.  67.  —  Fabio  Gori,  Archivio  storico 
letterario  della  citta  eprovincia  di  Roma,  vol.  i.  1875,  pp.  285-334.  —  Christian 
Huelsen,  Osservazioni  suW  architettura  del  teinpio  di  Giove  Cajntolino  (in 
Mittheilungen,  1888,  p.  150,  pi.  5).  —  Audollent,  Bessein  inedit  d^un  fronton  du 
temple  de  Jupiter  Capilolin  (in  Melanges  de  I'Ecole  frau9aise  de  Rome,  1889, 
]>.  120,  planche  2). 

LI.  FoKUM  JuLiuM.  —  In  spite  of  the  construction  of  so  many 
temples  and  basilicae  on  the  borders  of  the  Forum,  by  wliicli  the 
space  accessible  to  the  public  had  been  more  than  doubled,  the 
Forum  itself,  dating  from  the  early  days  of  the  city,  had  become 
absolutely  insufficient  for  the  wants  of  a  population  which  was 
fast  approaching  a  million.  The  first  step  towards  the  improve- 
ment of  this  state  of  things  was  taken  by  Julius  Csesar  in  54  b.  c. 
He  seems  to  have  planned  the  creation  of  a  new  forum  while 
absent  from  Italy ;  stimulated  perhaps  by  the  example  of  L. 
^milius  PauUus,  who  had  purchased  the  site  of  his  basilica 
(Emilia)  at  a  cost  of  1500  talents,  or  12,000,000  lire.  Equally 
large  was  the  sum  spent  by  Cajsar  in  securing  a  space  for  his 
"  extension."  At  the  date  of  Cicero's  letter  (iv.  16)  to  Atticus, 
some  60,000,000  sesterces  had  already  been  expended.  The  total 
cost  of  ground,  without  including  the  new  buildings,  is  said  to 
have  exceeded  100,000,000  sesterces,  or  about  20,000,000  lire,  a 
sum  obviously  exaggerated,  and  which  has  been  reduced  by  careful 
calculations  to  1,343,750  lire  (about  168  lire  the  square  metre). 
The  Forum  Julium  took  the  shape  of  a  sacred  inclosure  around 
the  temple  dedicated  by  the  dictator  45  b.  c.  to  Venus  Genetrix, 
the  goddess  from  whom  he  professed  to  descend.  Her  statue  was 
a  masterpiece  by  Arkesilaos,  and  a  masterj^iece  also  was  the  statue 
of  the  famous  charger,  which  had  been  foaled  in  the  mews  of  the 
Julian  house,  and  whose  fore  feet  were  nearly  human,  the  hoofs 
being  split,  as  it  were,  into  toes.  Ajipianus  speaks  of  a  statue  of 
Cleopatra  by  the  side  of  that  of  the  goddess ;  Ovid  of  a  fountain 
adorned  with  figures  of  nymphs  called  Appiades ;  and  Pliny  of 
famous  paintings  by  Greek  artists,  of  six  collections  of  engraved 
gems,  and  of  a  breastplate  for  the  goddess  covered  with  British 



The  beautiful  temple  was  discovered  at  the  time  of  Palladio 
in  the  foundations  of  a  house  at  the  corner  of  the  present  streets 
Cremona  and  ^lai-morelle.  He  describes  the  structure  as  built  of 
blocks  of  marble  "  lavorati 
eccellentemente."  Tlie  cor- 
nice was  adorned  with  sym- 
bols of  the  sea  —  dolphins, 
tridents,  etc.  ;  the  temple 
itself  was  hexastyle,  perip- 
teral, and  pycnostyle.  This 
last  particular  is  expressly 
mentioned  by  Vitruvius  (iii. 
3),  and  Palladio  confesses 
"  di  non  hauer  veduto  inter- 
colunnii  cosi  jnccioli  in  al- 
cun  altro  editicio  antico  "  — 
never  to  have  seen  such 
small  intei-columniation  in 
any  other  ancient  edifice. 
The  temple  is  now  com- 
pletely hidden  from  view  ; 
the  only  remains  visible,  in 
an  alley,  Via  del  Ghettarel- 
lo,  No.  18,  pertain  to  the  ta- 
berufe,  or  shops  which  lined 
the  Forum  on  the  (south-) 
west  side.  They  have  been 
excavated  twice  at  least : 
first  about  the  end  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  when  Fra 
Giocondo  da  Yerona  made 
a  design  of  them  (Utfizi,  n. 
l.-j^T),  and  again  by  Parker 
in  186G.  Tliese  important 
remains  were  called  Forum 
^lartis,  ISlartis  Forum,  Mar- 
forio,  in  the  ]Middle  Ages. 
The  statue  of  the  River 
God,  known  as  the  facetious  partner  of  Pasquino,  was  discovered 
at  the  foot  of  the  street  which  bears  his  name,  together  with  the 
granite  basin  into  which  the  water  fell  from  the  god's  ui-n.  The 
statue  was  removed  to  the  Caintol  by  Sixtus  V.,  and  placed  by 

Fig.  115.  —The  Venus  Genetrix  by  Aikesilaos 
—  a  Fragment  iu  the  Museo  delle  Terms. 

302  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

Clement  XII.,  in  1734,  in  the  court  of  the  Capitoline  Museum, 
above  the  fountain.  The  basin  was  removed  first  to  the  Campo 
Vaccino,  by  S.  Maria  Liberatrice,  in  1594,  and  again  to  the  Piazza 
del  Quirinale  in  1818.  The  place  where  both  were  discovered  is 
marked  by  a  tablet  (written  by  Bartolomeo  Marliano)  above  the 
door  No.  49  Via  di  Marforio. 

There  are  several  copies  of  the  Venus  Genetrix  of  Arkesilaos. 
The  goddess  appears  clad  in  a  thin,  semi-transparent  chiton, 
tlirough  which  the  form  of  the  young  and  lovely  body  can  be 
clearly  seen ;  the  left  breast  is  bare.  There  is  a  replica  in  the 
Borghese  Museum  (Helbig,  Guide,  vol.  ii.  p.  141,  n.  915);  an- 
other in  the  ]\Iuseo  delle  Terme,  reproduced  in  Fig.  115  (ibid., 
p.  213,  n.  1027);  a  third  in  the  Louvre  (Froehner,  Sculpture 
antique,  vol.  i.  p.  16G,  n.  135),  etc.  Consult  Otto  Jahn,  "Leip- 
ziger  Monatsberichte,"  1861,  p.  114;  and  Wissowa,  "De  Veneris 
Simulacris  romanis."     Wratislaw,  1882. 

LiTEKATUKE.  —  Andrea  Palladio,  Architettura,  ed.  1570,  lib.  iv.  c.  31. — 
Flaminio  Vacca,  3Ie.m.  69  (in  Fea's  Miscell.,  vol.  i.  p.  Ixxxiii.). —  Francesco 
Cancellieri,  Noiizie  delle  statue  chtte  di  Marforio  e  di  Pasquino.  Rome,  1789. 
—  Giovanni  Battista  Cavalieri,  Antiquar.  statuar.  Rome,  1585,  pi.  94. — 
Charles  Bunsen,  Bull.  Inst.,  18.36,  p.  55.  —  Luigi  C'anina,  Foro  Romano,  94; 
and  Edifizii,  vol.  ii.  pis.  xcii.-xcv.  — F.  M.  Nichols,  The  Roman  Forum, 
p.  251.  —  Forma  Urbis  Roma,  pi.  xx. 

LII.  Forum  Augustum  (plan.  Fig.  110).  Augustus  followed 
the  example  of  Ceesar  and  built  a  third  and  more  magnificent 
forum  in  continuation  of  the  two  existing  ones.  Its  remains, 
known  by  the  name  of  "  Arco  dei  Pantani,"  rank  among  the  finest 
of  ancient  Rome.  The  most  remarkable  feature  of  the  place  is  a 
wall  of  blocks  of  peperino,  raised  to  a  great  height  to  screen  the 
view  of  the  mean  houses  clustered  on  the  slope  of  the  Quirinal, 
in  the  neighborhood  of  the  present  Via  Baccina  and  Salita  del 
Grillo.  The  wall  is  pierced  liy  an  original  archway,  the  Arco  dei 
Pantani  just  named,  through  which  the  modern  traflSc  passes  at  a 
considerably  higher  level  than  the  original  street  which  led  to  the 
Subura.  Against  it  stand  the  remains  of  the  beautiful  Temple  of 
Mars  Ultor,  one  of  the  few  which  have  come  down  to  us  from  the 
Augustan  age  without  restorations.  They  consist  of  three  fluted 
Corinthian  columns,  of  part  of  the  right  wall  of  the  cella,  and  of 
the  roof  of  the  vestibule.  They  stand  on  a  substructure  excavated 
in  1842,  when  the  inscription  in  "  Corpus,"  n.  2158,  was  found,  re- 
lating to  the  solemn  procession  which  the  Salii  Palatini  made 
every  year  on  INIarch  1   (and  for  several  days  following),  chanting 



the  axamenta  or  saliaria  carmina,  and  dancing  sacred  war-dances  — 
whence  the  name  of  Salii.  The  inscription  had  ah-eady  been  seen 
and  copied  at  the  time  of  Sixtus  IV.  in  1477,  and  had  been  used, 
later  on,  in  the  restorations  of  the  church  of  S.  Basilio  of  the 
Priory  of  Malta,  which  occupied  the  southern  hemicycle  of  the 
Forum.     Mars  (Gradivus)  being  the  god  presiding  over  the  Col- 

Foro  troiano 

PUTKUS    (1263) 

Part  excavated  under  Sixtus  IV  (1477) 


lia/ier  Cr  BoiUalliC. 

Fig.  116.  —  Plan  of  tlie  Forum  Augustuin. 

304  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

lege  of  the  Salii,  its  temple  was  selected  by  them  as  the  last  haltr 
ing-place  (mansio)  after  their  exhausting  progress  through  the 
city.  The  splendor  of  the  banquet  which  terminated  the  celebra- 
tion is  praised  by  both  Cicero  and  Horace,  and  indeed  the  phrases 
"  saliares  dapes  "  and  "  epulari  saliarem  in  modum  "  seem  to  have 
passed  into  a  proverb.  Suetonius  relates  that  while  the  Emperor 
Claudius  was  sitting  one  day  on  the  throne  delivering  judgment 
in  this  forum,  his  nostrils  were  struck  by  the  appetizing  odor  of 
the  repast  prepared  for  the  Salii.  Adjourning,  therefore,  the 
case  which  was  being  argued  before  him,  he  rushed  into  the  tem- 
ple and  sat  down  among  the  banqueting  priests. 

The  ii-regular  form  of  the  wall  at  the  back  of  the  temple  and 
of  the  Forum  is  accounted  for  by  the  circumstance  that  Augustus 
was  unable  to  obtain  a  symmetrical  area,  as  the  owners  of  the 
nearest  houses  could  not  be  induced  to  part  with  their  property. 
Flaminio  Vacca  says  that  a  piece  of  the  wall  having  been  demol- 
ished, towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  it  was  found  out 
that  the  blocks  of  peperino  were  fastened  to  each  other  by  means 
of  wooden  clamps  shaped  like  a  swallow's  tail,  and  that  nobody 
could  ascertain  what  kind  of  wood  they  were  cut  out  of  (probably 
box- wood).  Pliny  praises  the  Temple  of  Mars  Ultor  as  one  of 
the  rnost  beautiful  and  perfect  works  of  man  ever  seen  on  earth, 
and  places  it  on  the  same  level  with  the  Forum  and  Temple  of 
Peace,  and  with  the  Basilica  ^Emilia.  The  great  pieces  of  timber 
used  in  the  roof  had  been  cut  in  the  Rhaitian  Alps,  in  the  dog- 
days,  a  precaution  which  was  considered  to  make  wood  indestruc- 
tible. Pliny  also  mentions  among  its  treasures  vases  of  chiseled 
iron,  a  statue  of  Apollo  cut  in  ivory,  two  large  pictures  represent- 
ing a  battle  and  a  triumph,  and  four  noble  works  of  Apelles,  one 
of  which,  representing  the  victory  of  Alexander  the  Great,  was 
altered  in  the  time  of  Claudius  by  substituting  the  likeness  of 
Augustus  for  that  of  the  Macedonian  king.  The  temple  also 
contained  a  set  of  standard  weights  and  measures,  and  safes  and 
strong  boxes,  where  large  sums  belonging  to  private  citizens 
were  kept  under  the  guarantee  of  the  priests.  A  daring  robbery 
perpetrated  towards  the  end  of  the  first  century,  when  even  the 
precious  helmet  was  wrenched  from  the  head  of  Mars  Ultor, 
frightened  the  depositors  so  that  the  priests  gave  up  banking,  at 
least  for  the  time. 

The  main  point  of  interest  of  this  forum  was  the  gallery  of 
statues,  raised  by  Augustus  to  the  generals  who  by  their  exi^loits 
and  victories  had  extended  the  boundaries  of  the  Roman  Empire. 



The  rules  formulated  by  Augustus  for  the  giving  of  so  great  a 
distinction  were  very  strict,  but  his  successors  soon  relaxed  their 
severity,  and  statues  were  offered  right  and  left,  just  like  the 
equestrian  orders  of  nowadays.  L.  Silanus,  although  a  minor, 
was  given  a  statue  after  his  betrothal  to  Octavia,  daughter  of 
Claudius.  Another  was  raised  in  honor  of  Q.  Curtius  Rufus, 
legate  of  Germany,  for  having  opened  a  silver  mine  (near  Nassau 

Fig.  117.  —  Tlie  South  Heuiicycle  of  the  Foruui  Augustmii.  excavated  in  1888. 

306  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhine)  which  brought  little  profit  to  the 
treasury,  but  caused  great  toil  and  hardship  to  the  soldiers. 
Nero,  after  the  conspiracy  of  the  Pisones  was  revealed  to  him, 
convened  the  Senate,  and  obtained  the  ornamenta  triumplialia  for 
those  who  had  turned  informers.  Pliny  the  younger  reproaches 
Domitian  for  having  given  statues  to  men  who  had  never  been  in 
action,  not  even  in  camp,  and  who  had  never  heard  the  sound  of  a 
trumpet  except  from  the  stage. 

The  Forum  of  Augustus  lost  its  privilege  of  being  the  national 
protomotheca  with  the  construction  of  that  of  Trajan.  The  honors 
were  then  divided  between  the  two  places,  as  shown  by  the  inscrip- 
tion of  M.  BassfBus  Rufus  (Corpus,  n.  1599). 

Many  important  discoveries  illustrating  this  point  were  made  in 
1888-89,  when  the  municipality  of  Rome,  at  my  suggestion,  pulled 
down  the  houses  and  factories  which  concealed  the  southern  hemi- 
cycle  and  laid  bare  its  boundary  wall  and  the  niches  once  occupied 
by  the  statues  of  the  Roman  heroes.  I  have  described  the  results 
of  these  great  excavations  in  the  "  Bull.  arch,  com.,"  1889,  pp.  26 
and  73  (compare  1889,  p.  481 ;  and  1890,  p.  251). 

Besides  fragments  of  statues  in  military  attire,  columns  of  giallo 
antico,  capitals,  friezes  of  exquisite  workmanship,  we  brought  to 
light  the  base  of  a  donariuin,  for  which  one  hundred  pounds  of 
gold  had  been  used,  offered  to  Augustus  by  the  Spanish  province 
of  Baetica ;  a  pedestal  of  a  statue  dedicated  to  Nigrinianus,  nephew 
of  the  Emperor  Cams,  by  a  financier  named  Geminius  Festus  ;  and 
inscriptions  —  in  a  more  or  less  fragmentary  state  —  which  accom- 
panied the  statues  of  some  victorious  generals,  giving  a  short 
account  of  their  exploits.  The  editors  of  the  first  volume,  second 
edition,  of  the  "  Corpus  Inscript."  ^  attribute  to  Professor  Bormann 
the  merit  of  having  made  known  the  fact  that  these  eulogistic 
biographies,  dictated  by  Augustus,  are  divided  into  two  parts, — 
one  giving  the  name  in  the  first  case,  like  — 

M  •  AIMILIVS  •  Q  •  F  •  L  •  N 

engraved  on  the  plinth  of  the  statue ;  the  other  giving  the  account 
of  his  career,  being  engraved  on  a  marble  tablet  placed  below  the 

1  Inscription es  latinee  antiquissimce,  editio  altera,  pars  prior,  Berlin,  Reimer, 
MDcccxciii,  p.  187,  col.  a. 


niche.  I  had  myself  pointed  out  this  important  circumstance  so 
far  back  as  February,  1889  (see  Bull,  com.,  pp.  73,  77),  and  I  was 
able  to  prove  thus  that  many  eulogies  of  illustrious  men  —  the 
place  of  discovery  of  which  was  not  known  —  belonged  to  the 
Forum  of  Augustus. 

The  eulogies,  or  fragments  of  eulogies,  found  in  1888-89  are 
now  preserved  in  the  Museo  Municipale  al  Celio.  They  belong  to 
Appius  Claudius  Csecus,  the  builder  of  the  Via  Appia ;  to  C.  Duillius, 
who  destroyed  the  Punic  fleet  on  the  coast  of  Sicily ;  to  Q.  Fabius 
Maximus,  dictator ;  to  L.  Corjielius  Scipio,  who  led  a  successful 
war  against  King  Antiochus  in  190  b.  c.  ;  to  Q.  Csecilius  Metellus 
Xumidicus ;  to  L.  Cornelius  Sulla  Felix,  dictator,  etc. 

The  area  of  the  Forum  of  Augustus  is  covered  by  a  double  bed 
of  ruins.  The  lower  one,  2.75  metres  high,  formed  the  bottom  of 
the  marsh,  or  pond,  called  il  Pantano,  where,  for  want  of  a  proper 
outlet,  the  rain-water  from  the  slopes  of  the  Quirinal  and  the 
valley  of  the  Subura  collected  in  the  Middle  Ages.  The  upper 
one,  3.25  metres  thick,  dates  from  the  year  1570,  when  Pius  V.  and 
the  commissioner  of  streets,  Prospero  Boccapaduli,  drained  the 
marsh,  found  an  outlet  for  the  waters,  and  raised  the  city  to  the 
present  level.  Needless  to  say,  works  of  art  and  objects  of  arcliae- 
ological  value  are  found  only  in  the  lower  strata.  Marchese  Ales- 
sandro  Guiccioli,  syndic  of  Rome,  at  the  time  of  the  excavations 
of  1888-89  had  formed  tlie  project  of  laying  bare  the  whole  extent 
of  the  Forum  ;  and  certainly  no  greater  benefit  could  have  been 
conferred  on  students  of  ancient  Rome,  and  no  greater  addition 
secured  to  the  archajological  w^ealth  of  our  city  than  by  the  libera- 
tion of  these  ruins  from  the  ignoble  superstructures  which  hide 
them  from  view.  An  exchange  of  property  between  the  munici- 
pality and  the  Ospizio  dei  Convertendi,  which  owns  the  place,  had 
already  been  agreed  upon,  when  the  financial  crisis  of  1889  occurred, 
and  stopped  the  progress  of  our  work. 

LiTEKATUKK.  —  Theodor  Mommseu,  Res  Gestce  did  Augusti,  iv.  21-2(i,  p. 
126,  2d  edit.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  1386  ;  and  Inscr.  lat.  antiquiss.,  2d  edit. 
Berlin,  Reimer,  189.3,  p.  186.  —  Luigi  Borsari,  II  foro  di  Aur/usto  e  il  temj3io  di 
Marte  Ultore,  Accad.  Lincei,  3  serie,  vol.  xiii.,  1883-84,  p.  406.  —  Rodolfo 
Lanciani,  Bull,  com.,  1889,  pj).  26  and  73.  —  Giuseppe  Gatti,  ibid.,  1889,  p. 
481;  and  1890,  p.  251,  pi.  14.  —  Christian  Huelsen,  Mittheilungen,  vol.  v., 
1890,  pp.  247,  305  ;  and  vol.  vi.,  1891,  p.  94.  —  Th(?denat,  in  Daremberg  and 
Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1311. 

LIII.  Forum  Transitorium.  —  This  Forum,  commenced  by 
Domitian  and  finished  by  Nerva,  was  called  transitorium  or  pervium 

o08  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA     VIA 

because  tlie  great  thoroughfare  of  the  Argiletum  passed  through 
it ;  also  Forum  Nerval  from  the  founder  and  Forum  jNIinervse  or 
Forum  Palladium  from  the  goddess  to  whom  it  was  dedicated.  It 
was  a  long,  narrow  inclosure,  117  metres  by  39,  more  like  a  hand- 
somely decorated  street  than  a  scjuare.  The  inclosure  walls,  built 
of  peperino  and  coated  with  marble,  were  lined  with  fluted  columns 
supporting  a  richly  carved  entablature,  of  which  one  intercolumnia- 
tion  alone  remains,  known  by  the  name  of  Le  Colonnacce  (corner 
of  Via  Alessandrina  and  Via  della  Croce  Bianca).  Four  hundred 
years  ago  it  could  still  be  measured  in  its  entirety  by  Antonio  da 
Sangallo  the  younger,  Baldassarre,  and  Sallustio  Peruzzi  and  others, 
whose  drawings  I  have  published  in  the  "  Atti  d.  r.  Accad.  d. 
Lincei,"  vol.  xi.  1883.  The  destruction  was  not  accomplished  at 
once,  but  was  the  work  of  many  generations,  the  monks  of  S. 
Adriano  being  foremost  in  the  campaign  against  the  edifice.  I 
have  found  mention  more  than  once,  in  deeds  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  of  a  great  lime-kiln  established  near  their  church  under 
the  name  of  "  calcaria  ecclesise  sancti  Hadriani."  In  November, 
1520,  a  gang  oi  fossores  lapidum  ^  opened  a  trench  at  the  foot  of  one 
of  the  archways  of  the  Forum,  known  by  the  name  of  Arcus  Noe, 
or  Arcanoe  (the  Arch  of  Noah),  and  began  to  undermine  the  wall 
of  peperino.  Francesco  di  Branca,  one  of  the  city  magistrates, 
caused  a  member  of  the  gang  to  be  arrested  ;  but  Cardinal  Scara- 
muccia  Trivulzio,  in  whose  interests  perhaps  he  was  working, 
obtained  his  prompt  release  from  Leo  X.  The  "  vignettes  "  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  of  Dosio,  Du  Perac,  Koch,  Gamucci,  etc.,  repre- 
sent this  Arch  of  Noah  and  the  adjoining  Temple  of  JNIinerva  in  a 
good  state  of  preservation.  The  ruins  were  so  striking  and  pic- 
turesque that  many  artists  have  selected  them  as  a  background  to 
their  compositions.  The  following  sketch  (Fig.  118)  of  Boscolo  in 
Laing's  collection,  Royal  Scottish  Academy,  Edinburgh,  represents 
the  meeting  of  some  holy  men  before  the  Temple  of  Minerva ;  the 
Arch  of  Noah  appears  on  the  right,  and  above  it  the  church  and 
belfry  of  SS.  Stefano  and  Lorenzo  (now  SS.  Quirico  e  Giolitta). 

The  destruction  of  the  arch  and  of  the  temple  is  commonly  attri- 
buted to  Pope  Paul  v.,  Borghese ;  but  Clement  VIII.,  Aldobrandini, 
had  already  laid  hands  on  them.  Giacomo  Grimaldi  says  that 
while  walking  one  day  through  the  Lungara  with  Giacomo  della 
Porta,  they  saw  a  great  block  of  Parian  marble  being  removed 
from  this  temple  to  S.  Peter's.  The  block,  belonging  to  the  archi- 
trave, measured  11.5.5  cubic  metres,  or  about  346  cubic  feet.  Clem- 
1  Contractors  for  the  supply  of  building  materials. 



eut  VIII.  made  use  of  it  for  the  high  altar  of  S.  Peter's,  which  he 
inaugurated  on  June  26,  1594.  The  rest  of  the  temple  disappeared 
in  1606.  The  columns  and  the  frieze  were  cut  in  slabs,  and  made 
use  of  for  the  decoration  of  the  fountain  of  the  Acqua  Paola  on  the 
Janiculum.  The  blocks  of  stone  belonging  to  the  cella  and  to  the 
inclosure  wall  of  the  Forum  were  given  by  Paul  V.  to  the  prior 
and  monks  of  S.  Adriano.  The  platform  of  the  temple  still  exists, 
althougli  liidden  from  view ;  the  house  at  the  corner  of  the  Via 
Alessandrina,  which  faces  the  Colonnacce  on  one  side  and  the 
church  of  8.  Agata  on  the  other,  is  built  upon  it.  Another  house. 
No.  ;58  Via  della  Croce  Bianca,  may  be  truly  said  to  rest  on  a  bed 
of  marble.  I  saw  its  foundations  sunk,  in  October,  1882,  through 
a  mass  of  broken  columns,  capitals,  friezes,  and  pedestals.  The 
pavement  of  the  Forum  lies  here  at  the  depth  of  5.50  metres. 
Like  the  Forum  Augustum  and  the  Forum  Traiani,  this  one 

Fig.  118.  — The  Forum  Trausitorium  :  a  sketch  by  Boscolo. 

had  also  its  own  gallery  of  portrait  statues.  Its  institution  dates 
from  the  time  of  Severus  Alexander ;  compare  "  Vita  Alex.,"  28  : 
"Colossal  statues,  single  or  equestrian,  were  raised  by  him  in 
Nerva's  Forum  to  deified  Emperors  or  Empresses."  Two  speci- 
mens have  come  down  to  us :  one  of  them  was  discovered  in  the 

310  A     WALK    THROUGH    THE    SACRA    VIA 

first  quarter  of  the  sixteenth  century  by  Angelo  de  Massimi,  and 
removed,  first  to  the  family  palace  in  the  Via  Papale,  and  later  on 
to  the  Capitoline  Museum  (ground  floor,  corridor  No.  19).  The 
name  of  King  Pyrrhus  attributed  to  it  is  manifestly  erroneous ;  at 
the  same  time  we  cannot  agree  with  Helbig  in  identifying  it  with 
Mars,  on  account  of  the  evidence  of  the  biographer,  who  speaks 
not  of  gods  but  of  deified  Roman  Emperors.  The  fragments  of 
a  second  colossal  (female)  figure,  resembling  to  a  certain  degree 
the  Thusnelda  in  the  Loggia  de'  Lanzi,  Florence,  were  discovered 
by  Vitali  in  1882. 

LiTEKATURE.  —  Rodolfo  Lauciaiii,  L^  aula  e  gll  uffici  del  Senato  Romano  (in 
Mem.  Accad.  Liucei,  1883,  p.  2:3).  —  Wolfgang  Helbig,  Guide,  vol.  i.  p.  295, 
11.  405.  —  H.  Bliimner,  Annul.  Inst.,  1877,  p.  5;  and  Munmnenti,  vol.  x.  pi.  11. 
—  Eugene  Petersen,  Mittheilunyen,  vol.  iv.  1889,  p.  88.  —  TWdenat,  in  Da- 
remberg  and  Saglio's  Dictionnaire,  p.  1314.  —  Heinricli  .Jordan,  Forma,  p.  27. 

LIV.  Forum  Traiani  (Forum  of  Trajan,  Plan,  Fig.  119). — 
We  must  now  enter  the  last  and  most  magnificent  of  Roman  fora, 
built  by  Trajan  between  a.  d.  112  and  111  from  the  designs  of 
Apollodorus  of  Damascus.  It  was  not  only  a  masterpiece  of 
architecture,  but  also,  if  we  recollect  the  difficulties  its  builders 
had  to  contend  with  to  find  a  suitable  space  for  it,  a  chef-d' ceuvre 
of  engineering  skill. 

The  Capitoline,  located  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  was  not  an 
isolated  hill,  as  it  is  at  present :  the  tide  of  traffic  between  the 
northern  and  southern  quarters  could  not  round  it  on  either  side 
as  is  now  the  case.  The  Capitoline  was  a  spur  of  the  Quirinal, 
advancing  towards  the  river  to  within  a  few  hundred  feet  from  its 
left  bank.  The  obstruction  could  be  overcome  in  one  of  two 
ways  :  by  crossing  the  ridge  connecting  the  two  hills  by  the  Clivus 
Argentarius,  corresponding  to  our  Via  di  Marf orio,  only  five  metres 
wide  with  a  gradient  of  ten  per  cent ;  or  else  by  rounding  the  rock 
on  the  river-side.  The  passage  was  certainly  easy  and  level  on 
the  rivei-side,  but  three  times  as  long  as  the  cut  through  the  ridge, 
and  obviously  insufficient  for  the  traffic  of  a  city  inhabited  by  a 
million  people.  To  obviate  this  evil,  to  relieve  the  strip  of  land 
west  of  the  Capitoline  from  the  pressure  of  traffic,  and  to  double, 
at  the  same  time,  the  extent  of  the  five  existing  fora  (Romanum, 
lulium,  Augustum,  Pacis,  and  Transitorium)  Trajan  and  Apollo- 
dorus conceived  the  plan  of  severing  the  Capitoline  from  the  Qui- 
rinal, and  of  substituting  for  the  narrow  and  steep  guUy  of  the 
Clivus  Argentarius  a  level  space  185  metres  wide.  Private  prop- 
erty on  each  slope  and  on  the  top  of  the  ridge  was  accordingly 



bought  and  destroyed  to  the  extent  of  over  40,000  square  metres, 
and  the  ridge  was  cut,  excavated,  and  bodily  carted  away.  So 
great  was  the  astonishment  created  by  the  great  work  that  the 
well-known  column  was  erected  at  a  public  cost,  "  ad  declarandum 
quantas  altitudinis  raons  et  locus  sit  egestus  "  (Corpus  Inscr.,  vi. 

312  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

11.  960),  —  "•  to  show  to  posterity  how  high  rose  the  mountain  lev- 
eled to  make  room  for  the  I'orum."  The  pillar,  statue  included, 
is  42  metres  high.  The  700,000  or  800,000  cubic  metres  of  earth 
and  rock  were  carted  away  outside  the  Porta  Collina,  and  spread 
over  the  cemetery  between  the  Via  Salaria  Nova  and  Vetus.  (See 
Pagan  and  Christian  Rome,  p.  284.) 

Trajan's  Forum  comprised  seven  parts :  the  propylaia  with  the 
triumphal  arch  of  the  founder,  the  square  itself  with  the  eques- 
trian statue  in  the  middle,  the  Basilica  Ulpia,  the  Bibliotheca 
Ulpia,  two  hemicycles,  the  monumental  column,  and  the  Temple 
of  Trajan. 

The  triumphal  arch  which  formed  the  entrance  to  the  Forum 
was  demolished,  or  at  least  greatly  injured,  by  the  cominissioiiers 
of  streets  in  March,  1.526.  The  case  was  inquired  into  by  Fran- 
cesco Cenci,  the  chief  magistrate  of  the  city,  who  made  a  report 
to  the  town  council  March  26,  but  no  redress  seems  to  have  been 
obtained.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  sixteenth  century  (about 
l.'iTO)  other  remains  were  dug  up  near  the  church  of  S.  Maria  in 
C'anipo  Carleo.  Flaminio  Vacca  describes  them  as  "vestigie  di 
un'  arco  trionfale  con  molti  pezzi  di  istorie,"  viz.,  with  fragments 
of  bas-reliefs  which  represented  Trajan  fording  a  river  on  horse- 
back. King  Decebalus  bound  in  chains,  the  seizing  of  the  enemy's 
cattle,  etc.  The  last  discoveries  took  place  in  1863,  when  the 
church  of  S.  Maria  in  Campo  Carleo  was  demolished  to  widen 
the  roadway  at  the  entrance  of  the  A^ia  Alessandrina.  The  arch, 
erected,  or  at  least  voted,  by  the  S.  P.  Q.  R.  in  a.  d.  117,  a  few 
months  before  Trajan's  death,  is  represented  with  minute  details 
in  the  medal  ap.  Cohen,  "Monnaies  imper.  Trajan,"  n.  167. 

Literature.  —  Dion  Cassius,  Ixviii.  29.  —  Codex  vatic,  3439,  f .  84.  —  Codex 
Berolhi.,  f.  36.  — Flaminio  Vacca,  Mem.  9  (in  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.).— 
Angelo  Pellegrini,  Bull,  fnst.,  1883,  p.  78.  —  Pasquale  Adinolfi,  Roma  neW 
eta  di  mezzo,  vol.  i.  p.  54. 

The  Forum,  95  metres  long  and  116  wide,  was  surrounded  by  a 
double  colonnade  on  three  sides,  the  fourth  side,  opposite  the 
propylaia,  being  occupied  by  the  basilica.  The  porticoes  were 
crowded  with  statues  of  eminent  men,  with  an  account  of  their 
career  engraved  on  the  pedestals.  Many  of  these  valuable  histori- 
cal documents  have  already  been  discovered ;  ^  they  belong  mostly 
to  the  fourth  century  after  Christ.  The  inclosure  wall  of  the 
forum  was  built  of  blocks  of  peperino  lined  with  marble,  like 

1  Corpus  Inscr.,  1141,  1679,  1683,  1710,  1715,  1721,  1724,  1725,  1727,  1729, 
1736,  1749,  1764,  1783. 


those  of  the  Foriiin  Augustum  and  Forum  Transitorium.  No  trace 
of  it  appears  now  above  ground,  but  we  have  a  careful  descrip- 
tion of  it  in  a  deed  of  1263  (quoted  by  Adinolfi  in  vol.  ii.  of  "  Roma 
nell'  eta  di  mezzo,"  p.  54.  It  was  called  the  "  murus  marmoreus," 
and  crossed  the  whole  extent  of  the  Campo  Carleo  from  the  Capi- 
toline  to  the  Quirinal  hill.  The  equestrian  statue  of  the  Emperor 
rose  in  the  centre  of  the  square.  Ammianus  Marcellinus  (xvi.  10) 
describes  the  impressions  felt  by  the  Emperor  Constantius  at 
the  first  sight  of  the  group.  "  Having  now  entered  the  Forum 
Trajanum,  the  most  marvelous  creation  of  human  genius,  he  was 
struck  with  wonder,  and  looked  round  in  amazement  at  the  gi-eat 
structures  which  no  pen  can  describe,  and  which  mankind  can 
ci-eate  and  see  but  once  in  the  course  of  centuries.  .  .  .  Then  he 
turned  his  attention  to  the  equestrian  statue  in  the  centre  of  the 
forum,  and  said  to  his  attendants  he  would  have  one  like  it  in 
Constantinoiile,  to  which  Ilormisdas,  a  young  Persian  prince  at- 
tached to  the  com't,  replied,  '  You  must  first  provide  your  horse 
with  a  stable  like  this.'  "  I  shall  recall  to  the  memory  of  the 
reader  only  two  of  the  numy  historical  events  which  have  taken 
place  in  this  forum.  First  the  burning  of  the  registers  of  the 
arrears  due  to  the  Imperial  Treasury  {syntjrapha  or  tahulce  dehito- 
rum)  by  private  citizens,  ordered  by  Hadrian  a.  d.  118.  The  sum 
was  simply  apjialling  :  "  novies  millies  centena  millia  sestertium," 
or  about  170,000.000  lire.  A  fragment  of  the  inscription  record- 
ing the  event,  discovered  in  1812,  has  been  set  up  in  the  modern 
wall  behind  the  pillar.  (See  Corpus  Inscr.,  vi.  967 ;  Eckhel, 
Doctr.  numm.,  vol.  vii.  486 ;  and  Vita  Hadr.,  7.)  The  other 
occm-rence  is  related  in  the  "  Vita  Marci,"  ch.  xvii.  The  treasury 
being  exhausted  in  consequence  of  the  Marcomannic  wars,  and 
the  Emperor  being  unwilling  to  burden  his  subjects  with  new 
contributions  (especially  as  the  pestilence  was  then  raging),  he 
put  up  at  auction  all  the  valuables  of  the  crown.  The  auction 
took  place  in  the  Forum  of  Trajan  and  lasted  two  months,  a  large 
sum  of  money  being  realized,  with  the  help  of  which  the  war  was 
brought  to  a  successful  close.  Marcus  Aurelius  sold  the  golden 
plate  and  vases  of  crystal  and  murrha,  even  the  Imperial  drinking- 
cups,  the  state  robes  set  with  gems  and  woven  of  silk,  and  also 
many  marvelous  jewels  which  he  had  found  in  a  secret  drawer  of 
Hadrian  (m  repostorio  sanctiore  Hadriani).  After  the  end  of  the 
war  he  offered  to  buy  back  the  objects  sold,  and  showed  no  dis- 
satisfaction whatever  with  those  who  refused. 

To  support  the  deep  cuttings  on  either  side  of  the  Forum,  Apol- 



lodorus  raised  two  hemicycles  (Fig.  119,  A,  B)  the  design  and  ai-- 
chitecture  of  which  is  so  complicated  that  it  would  be  difficult  to 
describe  it  properly.  There  are  few  traces  left  of  the  one  towards 
the  Capitol,  but  the  semicircular  line  of  the  houses  in  the  Piazza 
delle  Chiavi  d'  Oro  shows  it  to  have  been  perfectly  symmetrical  with 
the  one  on  the  opposite  side.  This  last,  very  well  preserved,  bears 
the  traditional  name  of  baths  of  ^Emilius  Paulus  —  Balneapauli, 
Magnanapoli  —  and  consists  of  many-storied  corridors  and  shops 
or  rooms,  built  against  the  live  rock  of  the  Quirinal.  The  pave- 
ment which  extends  in  front  of  the  building  was  laid  bare  during 
the  French  invasion  (1812).  The  place  well  deserves  a  visit. 
Apply  to  the  custode  of  the  Forum,  or  to  the  Ufficio  dei  Monu- 
menti  via  in  Miranda.  The  remains,  however,  are  not  all  accessi- 
ble. They  cover  an  immense  sj^ace  under  the  Palazzo  Ceva-Rocca- 
giovane,  Palazzo  Tiberi,  under  the  barracks  and  monastery  of  S. 
Caterina  da  Siena,  under  the  house  and  garden  of  Prince  Ruspoli, 
and  also  under  the  houses  of  the  Via  del  Grillo. 

LiTERATUKE.  —  Carlo  Fea,  Prodromo  di  nuove  osservazioni,  p.  4  ;  and  Iscri- 
zioni  di  Monum.,  p.  13.  —  Emil  Braun,  Ruins  and  Museums,  p.  20,  ii.  8.  —  Mari- 
ano Armellini,  Chiese,  2d  ed.  p.  177.  The  remains  have  been  measured  and 
slcetched  by  Sangallo  tlie  elder,  Cod.  Barberin.,  f .  2  ;  by  Sangallo  the  younger, 
Uffizi,  n.  1187;  by  Salhistio  Peruzzi,  Uffizi,  653,  654!^  656,  665,  687;"  by  Gio. 
Antonio  Dosio,  Uffizi,  2540,  2565;  by  Martin  Heemskerk,  Berlin,  28,  34;  and 
by  Andrea  Aleppi  and  Domenico  Cacchiatelli,  after  the  French  excavations 
in  1815. 

The  Basilica  Ulpia,  a  hall  89  metres  long  and  .54  wide,  siuTounded 
by  a  double  line  of  columns,  96  in  all,  was  excavated  in  1813  by 
the  French  government  after  the  demolition  of  the  convents  dello 

Fig.  120.  —Frieze  from  the  Basilica  Ulpia  (Laterau  Museuiu). 



Spirito  Sauto  and  di  S.  Eufemia,  which  occupied  its  site.  On  the 
return  of  Pius  VII.  in  1S14  the  works  were  resumed,  a  wall  support- 
ing the  modern  streets  was  built  on  the  border  of  the  excavations, 
and  the  columns  of  the  nave  and  aisles  were  set  up  on  their  bases, 
many  of  which  had  been  found  in  situ.  It  must  be  observed,  how- 
ever, that  not  all  tlie  columns  were  of  gray  or  Psaronian  granite  ; 
those  on  either  side  of  the  entrance  doors  were  certainly,  and  those 
of  the  nave  were  probably,  of  giallo  antico,  and  fluted.  One  of  these 
last  was  removed  to  the  Lateran  at  the  time  of  Clement  VIII.  and 
placed  under  the  organ  of  the  nave  Clementina ;  and  four  went  to 
the  transept  of  S.  Peter's.  The  nave  was  covered  by  a  roof  of 
bronze,  the  bpo^ov  xa^^icov  of  Pausanias  (v.  12,  4,  and  x.  5,  5),  and 

Fig.  121.  —  Frieze  from  the  Basilica  Ulpia  (Lateran  Museum). 

paved  with  crusts  of  the  rarest  marble,  many  fragments  of  which, 
discovered  in  1813,  have  since  been  stolen  by  unscrupulous  tourists. 
The  basilica  faced  the  Forum  on  its  longer  side,  as  the  Basilica 
Julia  faced  the  Forum  Romanum.  There  were  three  doors,  flanked 
by  four  columns  each,  and  above  them  quadrigae,  and  trophies  of 
gilt  metal,  made  ex  vianuhiis,  viz.,  with  the  produce  of  the  sale  of 
the  spoils  of  war.  The  names  of  the  glorious  legions  who  had 
fought  so  bravely  in  botli  Dacian  campaigns  were  engraved  on  the 

316  A    WALK    THROUGH   THE   SACRA    VIA 

frieze  over  the  doors ;  we  can  still  i"ead  those  of  the  XI  Claudia, 
of  the  XV  Apollinaris,  and  of  the  XX  Valeria  Victrix.  Other 
trophies  were  set  up,  on  the  edge  of  the  five  marble  steps  which 
descended  to  the  "  ai'ea  fori,"  on  pedestals  inscribed  with  the  legend 
(Corpus,  vi.  n.  959),  "  The  S.  P.  Q.  R.  to  Traian,  son  of  Nerva 
.  .  .  consul  for  the  sixth  time  (a.  d.  112),  father  of  the  country, 
for  the  great  services  rendered  to  the  commonwealth  in  peace  and 
in  war."  The  marvelous  beauty  of  the  marble  decorations  of  the 
nave  and  aisles  cannot  be  properly  described.  The  reader  may  get 
an  idea  of  it  from  the  two  fragments  which  are  here  reproduced 
(Figs.  120,  121).  (Compare  Helbig's  Guide,  vol.  i.  p.  468,  n.  627; 
and  p.  470,  n.  629,  630.)  The  side  of  the  basilica  towards  the 
Forum  is  represented  in  two  medals  ap.  Cohen,  "  Monnaies  imper. 
Trajan,"  n.  42,  43,  44 ;  and  its  plan  in  a  fragment  of  the  "  Forma 
Urbis,"  ap.  Jordan,  25,  26. 

The  basilica  ended  with  two  hemicycles,  one  of  which  was  called 
"  Libertatis."  The  meaning  of  the  name  is  not  certain,  but,  as  we 
know  from  Sidonius  Apollinaris  that  the  formalities  attending  the 
manumission  of  slaves  were  accomplished  in  this  Forum,  it  is 
possible  that  the  old  name  of  Atrium  Libertatis  had  been  trans- 
ferred in  the  second  century  from  the  neighborhood  of  the  Forum 
Romanum  ^  to  the  hemicycle  of  the  Basilica  Ulpia,  a  portion  of 
which  is  still  visible  under  the  Palazzo  Ceva-Roccagiovine.  Momm- 
sen  and  De  Rossi  have  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  ceremony  of 
manumission  was  again  performed  in  the  fourth  century  in  or  near 
the  old  site,  in  the  Secretarium  Senatiis. 

Coming  out  of  the  basilica  from  the  side  opi^osite  the  Forum, 
we  enter  a  small  court  or  cavasdium  (24  metres  by  16)  flanked  by 
two  halls,  which  have  been  identified  with  the  libraries  mentioned 
by  Dion  Cassius  (Ixviii.  26).  They  were  called  Bibliotheca  Ulpia, 
and  also  Bibliotheca  Templi  Traiani.  Nibby,  who  saw  them  exca- 
vated in  1812-14,  gives  a  good  description  of  their  arrangement  in 
vol.  ii.  p.  189  of  the  "  Roma  antica."  Gellius  names  among  their 
contents  the  edicta  prcetorum,  and  Vopiscus  (?)  the  libri  lintei  or 
official  registers  {regestd)  of  the  acts  and  deeds  of  each  Emperor. 
A  special  license  from  the  prefect  of  Rome  was  required  to  inspect 
these  records  of  the  history  of  the  world ;  and  when  Vopiscus 
himself  was  asked  to  write  the  life  of  Aurelianus  on  the  basis  of 
official  documents,  he  had  to  apply  to  Junius  Tiberianus.  prefect 
A,  D.  291,  for  a  permit  to  consult  them.  Thei-e  was  another  set 
called  lihri  elephantini,  on  the  leaves  of  which,  made  of  sheets  of 
1  Cicero,  Ad  Attic,  book  iv.  n.  16  ;  Servius,  ^ntkl,  book  i.  v.  726. 


ivory,  were  transcribed  the  Senatus  consulta  concerning  the  person 
of  the  Emperor.  The  documents  of  state  were  afterwards  re- 
moved by  Diocletian  to  his  baths. 

The  great  column,  columna  cochlis,  128  feet,  or  38  metres,  high, 
without  the  statue,  stands  in  a  court  of  such  diminutive  propor- 
tions that  it  could  not  possibly  be  seen  to  advantage,  except  from 
the  north  side,  that  is,  from  the  steps  of  the  temple.  It  is  com- 
posed of  34  blocks  of  Carrara  marble,  8  of  which  form  the  pedestal, 
1  the  base,  23  the  shaft,  1  the  capital,  and  1  the  pedestal  of  the 
bronze  statue.  A  spiral  staircase  of  185  steps,  lighted  by  45  loop- 
holes, leads  to  the  top,  viz.,  to  the  square  platform  above  the 
capital.  A  spiral  band  of  high  reliefs  describing  the  fortunes  of 
the  Dacic  wars  covers  the  column  on  the  outside.  The  reliefs, 
containing  2,500  figures,  were  cut  after  the  shaft  had  been  set  up, 
so  as  to  make  the  joints  of  the  blocks  absolutely  imperceptible. 
The  same  process  was  followed  with  regard  to  the  spiral  stairs, 
which  were  only  roughly  hewn  out  of  the  block  before  it  was 
lifted  into  position,  and  then  finished.  Nothing  can  give  a  better 
idea  of  the  exactness  and  ingenuity  with  which  the  great  work 
was  accomplished  than  to  ascend  the  pillar  ^  and  examine  the 
joints,  the  development  of  the  steps,  and  the  clever  distribution  of 
the  loopholes,  which,  while  supplying  plenty  of  light,  are  so  well 
concealed  by  the  outer  relief  as  to  i-emain  almost  invisible.  On 
Hearing  the  door,  which  opens  on  the  platform  or  balcony  above 
the  capital,  we  see  the  sides  of  the  stairs  covered  with  graffiti, 
with  historical  names  among  them.  The  oldest  dates  from  a.  d. 
663,  and  refers  to  the  disastrous  visit  of  Constans  II.,  described 
in  "  Ancient  Rome,"  p.  294. 

There  is  a  current  belief  that  Trajan's  ashes  were  deposited 
underneath  the  column  in  an  urn  of  solid  gold.  Dion  Cassius 
(Ixix.  2)  is  responsible  for  this  statement,  which  is  confirmed  by 
Eutropius  and  Cassiodorus  ;  but  if  we  consider  that  the  column 
was  finished  in  113,  viz.,  four  years  before  Trajan's  death,  that  the 
inscription  on  the  pedestal  distinctly  asserts  that  it  was  raised  to 
mark  the  height  of  the  hill  cut  away  to  make  room  for  the  Forum 
and  not  as  a  funeral  monument,  and  that  there  is  no  trace  of  a 
room,  recess,  or  vault,  nor  of  a  door  and  of  stairs  leading  or  de- 
scending to  it,  Dion's  statement  appears  to  us  more  than  doubtful. 
The  question  C9uld  be  easily  cleared  up  de  facto  by  examining  the 
foundations  on  which  the  column  rests. 

1  Permission  may  be  obtained  at  the  Ufficio  regionale  dei  Monumenti  via  in 

318  A    WALK    THROUGH    THE   SACRA    VIA 

An  inscription  discovered  in  Rome  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
fifteenth  century  is  closely  connected  with  the  Emperor's  death  at 
Selinus  in  Cilicia,  in  Angust,  117.  It  mentions  likewise  the  death 
of  one  of  his  faithful  servants,  a  young  man  of  twenty-eight,  M. 
Ulpius  Phsedimus,  a  butler,  which  took  place  on  August  12  of  the 
same  year  and  in  tlie  same  city.  His  ashes  were  also  removed 
to  Rome  and  given  a  solemn  burial :  "  reliquiae  treiectse  eius  ex 
permissu  collegii  pontific(um)  piaculo  facto." 

The  discovery  of  the  polychromy  of  the  column,  viz.,  of  traces 
of  colors  (and  of  gilding?),  was  made  by  G.  Semper  on  July  9, 
1833,  as  briefly  described  in  the  "Bull.  Inst.,"  1833,  p.  92.  P. 
Morey,  one  of  those  who  had  joined  Semper  in  his  perilous  expe- 
dition,!  tried  to  deny  the  statement  in  a  letter  addressed  to  Bun- 
sen  (ibid.,  1836,  p.  39).  Later  observations,  made  when  Napoleon 
III.  caused  a  plaster  cast  to  be  taken  of  the  column,  have  shown 
Semper's  theory  to  be  the  correct  one. 

The  pedestal  of  the  column  was  excavated  at  the  time  of  Paul 
III.,  who  caused  the  church  of  S.  Nicolao  de  Columna  to  be  de- 
molished. Sixtus  V.  in  1.588  built  an  inclosure  wall  round  the 
pedestal,  and  placed  the  bronze  statue  of  S.  Peter  on  the  top  of 
the  pillar.  The  murder  of  Hugues  Basseville  or  Basville,  the 
envoy  of  the  French  revolutionists,  took  place  at  the  foot  of  this 
column  the  23  nivose,  an  I.  (January  13,  1793).  The  assassina- 
tion is  represented  in  a  rare  engraving  by  Berthault. 

Literature.  —  Cor/9M.s  inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  960. —  Antonio  da  Sangallo  the 
elder,  Cod.  Barber.,  f.  18,  and  other  artists  mentioned  in  Ferri's  Catalogue  of 
Architectural  Drawings  in  the  Uffizi  (Rome,  1885),  pp.  156  and  167.  —  Pietro 
da  Cortona,  in  Dr.  Meade's  collection  of  drawings  at  Eton  College.  See  Bull, 
com.,  1895,  p.  182. —  Alfonso  Ciaccone,  Hisloria  utriusque  belli  Dacici,  etc. 
Rome,  1576,  fol.  — Anton.  Francesco  Gori,  Columna  traiana  .  .  .  ab  Andrea 
Morellio  delineata;  etc.  Amsterdam,  1652.  —  Raffaele  Fahretti,  De  columna 
traiana  syntai/ma'.  Rome,  1683.  —  Gio.  Battista  Piranesi,  Trofeo  o  sia  mayni- 
fica  cohnna,  etc.,  in  28  plates.  —  Platner  and  Hirt,  Gesch.  des  Baukunst,  ii. 
355.  ^  Carlo  Fea,  in  Winckehnann's  Storia  dell'  Arte,  .\o\.  in.  p.  .355.— 
Froehner,  La  colonne  trajane,  in  8°  1865; -in  fol.  1874. —  Salomon .  Reinach, 
La  colonne  trajane  au  musee  de  Saint  Germain,  1S8G.  —  Auguste  Geffroy,  La 
colonne  d'Arcadius  a  Constantinople,  extrait  des  Monuments  et  Memoires  pu- 
blies  par  I'Acad.  des  Inscr.  Paris,  Leroux,  1895.  In  the  Cabinet  des  Estampes, 
Biblioth^que  Nationale,  Paris  (Rome,  volume  3fonti,  D),  there  are  over  one 
hundred  prints  of  the  column.  A  silver  model  carved  by  Valadier  is  now  in 
the  royal  palace  at  Munich. 

The  Temple  of  Trajan  closed  the  monumental  group  on  the 
1  They  had  been  lowered  from  the  capital  in  a  kind  of  cage  held  by  ropes 
and  pulleys. 



north  side.  It  was  erected  by  Hadrian  parentibvs  svis  (Trajan 
and  Plotina),  and  was  noted  for  its  colossal  proportions.  The 
Corinthian  capitals  six  feet  high,  and  the  pieces  of  columns  of 
granite  six  feet  in  diameter  which  now  lie  at  the  foot  of  the  pillar, 
have  been  discovered  at  various  times  under  the  Palazzo  Imperiali- 
Valentini.  Winckelmann  describes  the  removal  of  one,  found 
in  August,  1765,  while  five  more  were  left  on  the  spot.  I  liave 
myself  seen  other  pieces  discovered  when  the  Palazzo  Valentin i 
became  the  seat  of  the  county  council.  The  curious  set  of  heads 
of  animals,  alluding,  perhaps,  to  the  conquest  of  Arabia  made  by 

Fig.  122. 

1  in  the  Forum  of  Trajan. 

Cornelius  Pal  ma,  formerly  in  the  court  of  the  palace,  was  removed 
in  1878  to  the  Collegio  Romano,  and  again  in  1890  to  the  Museo 
delle  Terme.     (See  Fig.  122.) 

Literature. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vi.  n.  966.  —  Winckelmann,  in  Fea's  Miscel- 
lanea, vol.  i.  p.  cci.  n. '7;  anil  Storia  deW  Arte,  vol.  ii.  p.  372,  iii.  p.  44. — ' 
Minutolo,  in  Sallengre's  Stijjpl.  antiq.  rom.,  vol.  i.  col.  159.  —  Rodolfo  Lan- 
ciaui,  Bull.  Inst.,  ISdQ,  p.  237. 

The  Forum  of  Trajan  has  been  a  favorite  subject  of  study  with 
the  young  architects  of  the  French  Academy,  Villa  Medici.  A 
list  of  their  drawings  and  restorations  has  been  published  by  E. 
Pourchet,  15  Rue  des  Beaux  Arts,  Paris. 



Before  giving  an  account  of  the  rest  of  the  city,  I  must  remind 
the  reader  once  more  that  in  writing  this  book  I  do  not  intend  to 
produce  a  manual  of  Roman  topography,  but  simply  a  description 
of  its  existing  remains.  In  carrying  out  the  scheme  I  have 
endeavored,  as  stated  in  the  preface,  to  group  the  buildings  in 
regard  to  their  chronology  or  destination  rather  than  to  the  place 
they  occupy  accidentally  in  the  various  quarters  of  the  city. 


Regio  I.    Porta  Capena. 

I.  The  Cfelian  liill  and  its  southwestern  slopes  were  included 
by  Augustus  within  the  limits  of  the  first  and  second  regions,  the 
line  of  separation  being  the  wall  of  Servius  Tullius.  Regio  I, 
named  Porta  Capena,  extended  on  the  left  side  of  the  Appian 
Way  as  far  as  the  river  Almo  (tlie  Acquataccio,  or  Marrana  della 
Caffarella),  a  distance  of  2107  metres  from  the  gate.  Richter 
calls  it  appropriately  "die  Vorstadt  der  Via  Appia"  and  also  "die 
Vorstadt  extra  Portam  Capenam."  It  was  a  narrow  strip  of  land, 
bounded  on  the  side  opposite  the  Appian  Way  by  another  road, 
issuing  from  the  Porta  Metroni,  the  name  of  which  is  unknown. 
A  third  road,  the  Latina,  crosses  it  diagonally,  skirting  the  base 
of  a  hillock  called  by  Ficoroni  "  il  Celiolo,"  "  Remuria  "  by  others, 
"Calvarello"  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  now  the  "Monte  d'  Oro." 
Considering  the  preference  given  by  the  Romans  to  the  borders  of 
the  great  consular  roads  for  the  establishment  of  public  cemeteries, 
and  for  the  erection  of  private  tombs  and  mausoleums,  no  wonder 
that  Regio  I,  crossed  by  three  of  them,  the  Appia,  the  Latina,  and 
the  one  issuing  from  the  Porta  Metroni,  should  be  in  the  main  a 
region  of  tombs.     Some  of  them  date  from  a  remote  age,  when 

Ftg   1Z3 

y\\V  OF   KKGIONS    T   PORTA 



the  Via  Appia  and  the  Via  Latina  were  mere  paths  traced  by  the 
hoofs  of  beasts  of  burden  and  not  leveled  or  yet  paved  by  the 
hand  of  man.  Such  is  the  sepulchral  cave  discovered  in  May, 
1836,  in  the  Vigna  Cremaschi,  the  first  on  the  right  of  the  Porta 
Latina,  a  description  of  which  is  given  in  the  "Bullett.  Inst.," 
1836,  p.  103.  It  was  found  by  accident  below  the  pavement  of  a 
columbaria  of  the  first  centiuy,  at  a  depth  of  7.80  metres.  It  con- 
sisted of  "a  gi'otto  hewn  out  of  the  live  rock,  of  irregular  shape 
and  without  ornaments.  It  contained  several  vases  of  black  wai-e 
(bucchero  ?)  with  rough  figures  of  animals  traced  on  their  surface 
in  the  Etruscan  fashion.  One  of  the  vases  contained  the  remains 
of  an  incinerated  body."  Roman  tradition  and  epigraphic  docu- 
ments help  us  in  following  the  growth  and  development  of  this 
great  necropolis,  especially  after  the  opening  of  the  Vise  Latina 
and  Appia,  which  took  place  between  312  and  297  b.  c.^  The  first 
historical  tomb,  on  leaving  the  gate,  was  that  of  Horatia,  which 
Livy  (i.  26)  describes  as  built  "saxo  quadrate"  with  blocks  of 
tufa;  then  followed  the  family  mausoleums  of  the  Catalini,  of  the 
Scipios,  of  the  Servilii,  of  the  Metelli,  mentioned  by  Cicero  (Tus- 
cul.  1,  7,  13),  two  of  which,  those  of  the  Scipios  and  of  the  Metelli, 
are  still  in  existence. 

II.  HypoG.EUM  SciPioxuM,  discovered  partly  in  1614,  partly  in 
1780.  This  venerable  monument  and  the  ground  which  covers 
and  surrounds  it  were  bought,  on  my  suggestion,  by  the  city  in 
1880.  They  are  entered  by  the  Via  di  Porta  S.  Sebastiano,  No.  12, 
and  can  be  visited  every  day,  Sundays  excepted.  Entrance  fee,  2.5 

The  discoveries  of  the  seventeenth  century  have  been  mentioned 
by  one  epigraphist  alone,  Giacomo  Sirmondo,  in  a  book  entitled 
"  Antiqna?  inscriptionis,  qua  L.  Scipionis  Barbati  filii  expressum 
est  elogium,  explanatio,"  Rome,  1617.  Two  sarcophagi  were  found  : 
one,  of  L.  Cornelius  Scipio,  qutestor  167  B.  c,  was  left  undisturl)ed  ; 
the  other,  of  L.  Cornelius,  son  of  Barbatus,  consul  2.'59,  was  broken 
and  its  inscription  sold  to  a  stone-cutter  near  the  Ponte  Rotto,  in 

1  The  Via  Appia  was  munita,  that  is  to  say,  leveled,  straightened,  and  ma- 
cadamized by  Appius  Claudius  Cfficus,  censor  in  312  b.  c.  (Livj-,  ix.  29).  The 
brothers  Ogulnii,  censors  in  297,  added  to  it  a  sidewallv  paved  with  flagstones, 
which  went  as  far  as  the  Temple  of  Mars  {ibid.,  x.  23).  Lastly,  T.  Quinctius 
Flamininus  and  M.  Claudius  Marcellus,  censors  in  188,  "  viam  silice  sternen- 
dam  a  porta  Capena  ad  Martis  locaveriint"  (ibid.,  xxxviii.  28).  If  we  can 
believe  the  same  historian,  the  rest  of  the  road  from  the  temple  to  Bovillje 
had  been  paved  since  the  year  292  (x.  47). 



whose  shop  Grimaldi  saw  it  on  September  25,  1614.  Agostini 
bought  it  for  twenty  scudi,  and  gave  or  sold  it  to  the  Barberini, 
who  set  it  into  the  wall  of  the  spiral  staircase  of  their  palace,  near 
the  door  of  the  library. 

The  brothers  Sassi,  owners  of  the  vineyard  in  wliich  the  dis- 
coveries of  1614  had  taken  j)lace,  while  enlarging  their  wine-cellar 
in  May,  1780,  came  once  more  across  the  hypogseum,  and  laid  bare 
its  pi-ecious  contents.  In  reading  the  accounts  left  by  Morcelli, 
Marini,  Visconti,  and  Amaduzzi,  we  cannot  understand  liow  such 
acts  of  wanton  destruction  as  the  brothers  Sassi  perpetrated  on 
this  most  venerable  of  Roman  historical  tombs  could  have  been 
permitted  or  left  unpimished  by  Pius  VI.,  whose  love  for  antique 
monuments  certainly  cannot  be  questioned. 

"The  Scipios'  tomb  contains  no  ashes  now: 

The  very  sepulchres  lie  tenantless 

Of  their  heroic  dwellers  !  " 
The   sarcophagi  were   broken   to   pieces ;    their   inscribed   fronts 
removed  to  the  Vatican ;   the  aspect  of  the  crypts  altered ;    tlie 



Fv IT- CONSO i. -C EHjrOTI;Al'Dl I- 1  5 QvElE\flT-^ PvO-VXJS -TAVPAStftC l5 AVW^ 

Fig.  in.  —  Sarcoi>liiigu.s  of  Scipio  Barbatus  in  tlie  Vatican. 

movable  objects  dispersed;  the  facsimiles  of  the  original  epitaphs 
affixed  to  the  wrong  places ;  the  signet  ring  of  one  of  the  heroes, 
with  the  image  of  the  Victory,  given  away  to  a  Frenchman,  Louis 
Dutens,  who  in  his  turn  gave  or  sold  it  to  Lord  Beverley.  And 
lastly,  the  very  bones  of  the  illustrious  men,  which  had  been 
respected  even  by  the  so-called  barbarians,  would  have  been  dis- 
persed to  the  four  winds,  but  for  the  ijious  interference  of  Angelo 
Quirini,  a  senator  of  Venice,  who  rescued  the  relics  of  L.  Cornelius 
Scipio,  son  of  Barbatus,  and  placed  them  in  a  marble  nrn  in  the 

THE    TOMB    OF    THE    SCIPWS  323 

Villa  deir  Alticchiero,  near  Padua.  A  remarkable  fate  indeed,  if 
we  recall  to  mind  the  words  of  Livy  (xxxviii.  53):  •'  Scipio  spent 
the  last  years  of  his  life  at  Literuum,  without  missing  in  the  least 
degree  the  attractions  of  city  life ;  and,  if  we  are  to  believe  tradi- 
tion, he  left  instructions  at  the  point  of  death  to  be  buried  in  his 
farm  :  monimentumque  ibi  sedificarine  funus  sibi  in  ingrata  patria 
lieret."  The  same  mother  country,  obdurate  in  her  ingratitude, 
allowed  these  remains  to  be  dispersed  after  twenty  centuries  of  rest. 

From  the  descriptions  left  by  those  who  witnessed  the  excavations 
of  1780,  compared  with  a  model  in  full  relief  made  at  the  same 
time  ^  and  with  the  present  aspect  of  the  place,  we  learn  the  fol- 
lowing details  about  the  origin  and  the  arrangement  of  the  hypo- 

The  part  of  the  ancient  cemetery  now  occupied  by  the  Vigna 
Sassi  was  crossed  at  an  early  period  by  a  side  road,  connecting  the 
Via  Appia  with  the  Latina,  the  pavement  of  which  is  still  visible 
at  the  two  ends.  The  road  followed  the  foot  of  a  rocky  ridge  ten  or 
fifteen  feet  high,  and  passed  one  or  more  tufa  quarries  which  had 
been  opened  in  the  face  of  the  cliffs.  One  of  these  quarries,  proba- 
bly the  property  of  the  Scipios,  was  transformed  into  their  family 
tomb  at  the  beginning  of  the  third  century  b.  c,  probably  on  the 
occasion  of  the  opening  of  the  Via  Appia,  u.  c.  812.  The  hypo- 
gteum,  roughly  modeled  on  the  Etruscan  type,  formed  ,a  lai-ge 
room,  with  a  flat  low  ceiling  supported  by  four  massive  pillars  of 
rock,  yet  very  far  from  the  regularity  which  it  appears  to  have  in 
Piranesi's  drawings  (Fig.  125).  The  fii-st  occupant  was  L.  Cornelius 
Scipio  Barbatus,  consul  in  298  b.  c.  His  sarcophagus,  now  in  the 
Vatican  Museum  (Belvedere,  No.  2),  is  the  only  elaborate  piece  of 
work  discovered  in  the  tomb.  The  frieze,  which  is  Doric  in  style, 
consists  of  triglj'jjhs  and  of  metopes  adorned  with  rosettes :  the 
torus  of  the  lid  ends  with  Ionic  volutes.  The  inscription,  in  the 
early  Italic  Saturnine  verse,  has  been  translated  by  Mommsen  as 
follows  :  — 

roniclius  Lucius  —  Scipio  Barbatus 
son  of  his  father  Gn:evus  —  a  man  as  clever  as  brave 
whose  handsome  appearance  —  was  in  harmony  with  his  A-irtue 
who  was  consul  and  censor  —  among  you,  as  well  as  ^Edilu 

Tanrasia  Cisaunia  —  he  captured  in  Samnium 
utterly  overcomes  Lucania  —  and  brings  away  hostages. - 

1  Nibby  saw  it  in  18.39  in  the  house  of  Signer  Vincenzo  Titoli. 

-  Wolfgang  Helbig,  Guide  to  the  Collections  of  Antiquities  in  Rome,  vol.  i.  p. 
7.5.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  i.  p.  16,  n.  29,  30;  vol.  vi.  n.  1284,  1285.  —  iJet-we  de 
Philologie,  xiv.  (1890)  p.  119. 



The  other  sarcophagi  were  made  of  phiin  slabs  of  stone,  or  cut 
out  of  a  single  block.  Their  respective  positions  are  marked  in 
tlie  annexed  plan. 

Fig.  125.  —  Plan  of  the  Tomb  of  the  Scipios,  according  to  Piranesi. 

A  A,  Cross-road  between  the  Via  Appia  and  the  Latina.  B  B,  }fiirtii>  or 
semita,  raised  footway.  C,  Arclied  entrance  built  of  rough  blocks  of  pepe- 
rino.  D,  Base  of  one  of  the  columns  which  decorated  the  front  of  the  upper 
story.  E,  Ancient  entrance  to  the  quarry,  by  which  the  sarcophagi  were 
nitroduced  into  the  crypt.  F,  Sarcophagus  of  Lucius  Scipio,  son  of  Asiaticus, 
Corpus,  vol.  i.  n.  31.  G,  H,  L,  T,  V,  Coffins  of  unknown  personages.  I,  Coffin 
of  peperino  before  which  the  marble  tablet  of  .Julius  Silanus  was  found.  M, 
Sarcophagus  of  L.  Scipio,  son  of  Barbatus,  n.  -32.  X,  Sarcophagus  of  L.  Scipio, 
sou  of  Cuivus,  n.  34.  0,  Sarcojiliagus  of  Scipio  Bar-batus,  n.  29.  P,  Sarco- 
phagus of  Cornelia  Paula,  n.  -30.  Q,  Sarcophagus  of  Scipio  Asiagenes  Comatus, 
n.  36.  R,  Sarcophagus  of  Scijiio  Hispallus,  n.  38.  S,  Marble  slab  with  name 
of  Cornelia  Ga?tulica.  XXX,  Three  rooms,  forming  part  of  an  edifice  of  the 
second  century,  built  of  bricks.  Y,  Sarcophagus  of  P.  Scipio  flamen  dialis, 
n.  33.    Z,  Present  entrance  to  the  crypt. 

THE    TOMB    OF    THE    f^ClPlOS 


We  are  not  sure  how  much  faith  Piranesi's  plan  deserves,  some 
of  the  particulars  being  manifestly  fanciful.  The  gallery,  for 
instance,  which  runs  in  front  of  the  sarcophagus  of  Barbatus  (O), 
has  never  been  finished,  and  its  end  on  the  right  is  still  blocked 
by  a  ledge  of  live  rock.  The  reader  may  estimate  the  amount  of 
damage  M'hich  the  hypogajum  has  suffered  since  1780  by  compar- 
ing Piranesi's  plan  w  ith  the  following  one,  w  hich  shows  its  present 


Fig.  \16.  —  Tomb  of  the  Scipios.     (Present  State.) 

There  are  three  more  particulars  to  be  noticed.  The  first  is  that 
the  crypts  of  the  Scipios  were  kept  accessible  as  a  place  of  his- 
torical pilgrimage  up  to  the  fourth  century  after  Christ,  as  shown 
by  the  walls  in  the  so-called  "  opus  maxentianum,"  built  here  and 
there  to  keep  the  tomb  in  repair. 

In  the  second  ])lace,  the  preference  shown  by  the  gens  Cornelia, 
of  which  the  Scipios  were  a  branch,  for  burial  as  opposed  to  crema- 
tion, is  proved  by  the  presence  of  sarcophagi  and  by  the  absence 
of  cinerary  urns.  (See  Cicero,  De  Leg.,  ii.  12 ;  and  Pliny,  vii.  54^.) 
The  first  Cornelius  to  give  up  family  traditions  on  this  point  was 
Sulla  the  dictator,  who,  having  caused  the  remains  of  Marius  to 
be  exhumed  and  profaned,  ordered  his  own  body  to  be  cremated 
tor  fear  of  retaliation.     Sulla's  ashes  wei'e  not  deposited  in  this 


family  vault,  —  which  seems  to  have  been  owned  only  by  the  three 
branches  of  the  Scipios  called  Africani,  Asiatici,  and  Hispalli,  — 
but  in  a  great  mausoleum  on  the  Campus  Martins  described  by 
Plutarch.  What  seems  strange,  however,  is  that  none  of  the  leaders 
of  the  three  branches  —  Publius  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus  Maior, 
the  conqueror  of  Carthage,  f  183  b.  c.  ;  Lucius  Cornelius  Scipio 
Asiaticiis,  his  brother ;  and  Cn.  Cornelius  Scipio  Ilispallus,  consul 
in  171  —  should  have  found  rest  in  this  tomb.  Livy  (xxxviii.  .56) 
says  that  no  one  knew  whether  the  great  Africanus  had  been  buried 
at  Liternum  or  at  Rome,  because  a  grave  and  a  statue  were  shown 
in  both  places.  Seneca  likewise  writes  to  Lucilius  from  Liter- 
num :  "  I  address  this  epistle  [Ixxxvi]  to  you  from  the  very  villa 
of  Scipio  the  African,  after  having  paid  reverence  to  his  memory 
and  to  the  altar  which  I  suspect  to  be  his  grave."  The  monument 
and  statue  erected  in  or  near  the  Roman  hypogseum  have  yet  to 
be  discovered. 

The  third  particular  refers  to  the  presence  of  an  outsider  in  the 
same  hypogreum,  of  Q.  Ennius  the  poet,  who  was  born  at  Rudise 
in  Calabria  in  289  b.  c,  and  died  in  Rome  at  the  age  of  seventy. 
Although  dwelling  in  a  humble  house  on  the  Aventine,  and  sup- 
porting himself  by  teaching  the  Greek  language  and  translating 
Greek  plays  for  the  Roman  stage,  he  was  the  friend  of  the  great, 
and  lived  on  terms  of  the  closest  intimacy  with  the  elder  Africanus. 
Livy  (xxxviii.  36)  says  that  "  in  Scipionum  moimmento  extra 
portam  Capenam"  three  statues  could  be  seen,  one  of  which  was 
considered  to  represent  the  poet,  and  Cicero  adds  that  the  statue 
was  of  marble.  A  laurel-crowned  portrait  head  in  peperino  was 
actually  found  in  the  tomb  in  1780,  and  is  now  placed  in  the 
Vatican  Museum  above  the  sarcophagus  of  Barbatus.  "  The  un- 
Roman  type  of  countenance  and  the  jiresence  of  the  laurel  wreath, 
which  might  well  be  worn  by  a  poet,"  have  led  many  to  attribute 
this  head  to  the  statue  mentioned  by  Livy  and  Cicero.  The  objec- 
tion derived  from  the  material  in  which  it  is  carved  (peperino 
instead  of  marble)  has  no  great  weight.  I  have  no  doubt  that 
Cicero  is  mistaken  in  mentioning  marble,  because  in  the  third 
century  b.  c.  portrait  statues  and  busts  were  sculptured  in  Rome 
out  of  stone. 

Literature.  —  Giovanni  Amaduzzi,  Novelle  letter,  forentine,  1780-83. — 
Gio.  Battista  Visconti,  Antologia  romana,  vols,  vi.-ix.  —  Louis  Dutens,  CEuvres 
melees.  Geneva,  1784.  —  Enrico  Quirino  Visconti,  in  Piranesi's  Monumento 
def/li  Scipioni,  Rome,  178.5  ;  and  Opere  varie,  Milan,  1827,  voL  i.  pp.  1-70. — 
Lanzi,  Saggio  di  lingua  etrusca,  vol.  i.  p.  150.  —  Gaetani  Marini,  Atti  A7-val.,  p. 


117,  n.  109.  —  Carlo  Fea,  in  Wiuckelmaiiii's  Storia  deW  Arte,  i.  30,  and  iii.  46. 
—  Antonio  Jfibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  .561. —  Corpus  Iiiscr.,  vol.i.  pp.  11-16, 
n.  29-39  ;  and  vol.  vi.  p.  282,  n.  1284-1294.  — Wolfgang  Helbig,  Gtdde,  vol.  i. 
p.  75,  n.  127;  and  p.  .356,  n.  484. 

Fig.  127.  —  Portrait  Bust  of  Scipio  the  Elder  (Capitoline  Museum). 

At  the  opposite  end  of  the  Vigiia  Sassi,  to  the  chapel  of  S. 
Giovanni  in  Oleo  and  to  the  Porta  Latiua,  are  to  be  seen  — 

III.  The  Columbaria  (so-called)  of  Pomponius  Hylas.  Keys 
with  the  custode  of  the  tomb  of  the  Scipios ;  open  every  day  except 

This  graceful  structure,  one  of  the  best  preserved  of  its  kind  in 
Rome,  was  discovered  by  Pietro  Campana  in  1831.  It  is  known 
by  the  name  of  "  Hylas  and  Vitaline,"  because  the  mosaic  tablet 
inscribed  CN  •  pompoxi  hylae  —  pomponiae  •  cn  ■  l  vitalinis 


occuj)ies  the  most  conspicuous  place  opposite  the  entrance ;  but 
the  fact  is  that  it  was  built,  like  so  many  others  of  the  Augustan 
age,  either  by  subscription  among  friends  or  relatives,  or  by  specu- 
lators ready  to  sell  the  cinerary  urns  to  the  first  comer.  The  crypt 
itself  contains  but  twenty-two  inscriptions,  of  no  special  interest. 
One  hundred  and  seventeen  more  were  discovered  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, many  of  which  are  set  into  the  modern  wall  inclosing  the 
tomb.  It  apj)ears  from  one  of  them  (Corpus,  n.  5631)  that  the 
ground  where  this  and  the  neighboring  tombs  are  located  belonged 
to  Cnseus  Manlius  Hasta,  a  freedman  of  the  Manlii. 

Some  of  the  fediculse  and  niches  for  cinerary  urns  have  been 
elaborately  decorated  by  the  purchasers,  though  not  often  in  good 
taste.  The  decorations  are  mostly  in  bold  relief  of  white  stucco 
on  a  colored  ground,  and  represent  various  subjects,  such  as  the 
education  of  Achilles  by  Chiron,  Oknos  twisting  the  rope  of 
rushes  while  the  ass  eats  it  up,  the  tripos  of  the  Delphic  Apollo 
between  two  griflBns  (under  the  mosaic  tablet  of  Hylas),  Bacchic 
scenes  and  dances,  etc. 

Literature.  —  Girolamo  Amati,  Codex  vatic.,  9770,  p.  3,  seq. — Antonio 
Nibby,  Roma  antica,  vol.  ii.  p.  556.  —  Pietro  Campana,  Di  due  sepolcri  romnni 
del  secolo  di  Auejusto  scoverti  tra  la  via  Laiina  e  V  Appia.  Rome,  1840,  fol. — 
Otto  Jahn,  Specimen  epigraph,  in  memoriam  Olai  Kellermunn.  Kiel,  1841. — 
Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  5539-5678. 

IV.  The  Columbaria  of  the  Vigna  Codini.  —  The  southeast 
end  of  the  necropolis,  between  the  Vigna  Sassi  and  the  walls  of 
Aurelian,  is  occupied  by  the  Vigna  Codini,  famous  for  the  colum- 
baria discovered  within  its  limits  since  the  renaissance  of  classical 
studies.  The  first  of  which  w^e  have  an  account  was  found  towards 
the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  seems  to  have  belonged  to 
the  freedmen  and  servants  of  the  sons  of  Nero  Drusus  senior, 
brother  of  Tiberius,  born  38  b.  c,  died  a.  d.  9.  It  contained  at 
least  eighty-six  inscriptions,  which  were  bought  by  several  amateurs 
of  the  age  —  Giovanni  Ciampolini,  Paolo  Alessi,  and  Francesco 
Porcari.  They  have  all  perished  except  a  dozen  or  so  which  were 
removed  from  the  Porcari  House  (Vicolo  delle  Ceste,  No.  25)  to 
the  Vatican  by  Gaetano  Marini.  Consult  the  "  Corpus  Inscr.,"  vol. 
vi.  p.  899,  n.  i'o'27-i4:lS.  Other  columbaria  were  excavated  and 
destroyed  under  Pius  IV.  (1559-66).  Pirro  Ligorio  designed  one 
of  them,  belonging  to  the  freedmen  of  the  gens  Pompeia ;  and  his 
drawings  have  been  reproduced  by  Pietro  Sante  Bartoli  in  plates 
39-41  of  the  volume  "  Gli  autichi  sepolcri,"  Kome,  1768.  Flaminio 
Vacca  speaks  of  a  "  magnificasepoltura"  discovered  and  destroyed 


by  Cardinal  Prospero  Santacroce,  f  1589,^  and  of  some  sarcophagi, 
inscribed  Diis  Maiiibus,  of  columns,  architectural  ornaments,  and 
other  fragments  which  he  himself  bought  in  a  vineyard  near  the 
Porta  Latina.  Pietro  Sante  Bartoli  likewise  mentions  the  dis- 
covery of  pagan  and  Christian  cemeteries  near  the  junction  of  the 
Ajipia  and  the  Latina,  in  a  vineyard  of  a  certain  Orlandi.  Orlandi 
had  collected  a  very  rich  harvest  in  cameos,  intaglios,  cinerary  urns 
of  glass,  of  marble,  and  of  metal,  figurines  of  bronze  and  terra 
cotta,  and  other  "  cose  bellissime,"  when  Donna  Olimpia  Pamfili, 
the  omnipotent  sister  of  the  reigning  Pope  Innocent  X.,  seized  the 
whole  collection,  and  carried  it  in  four  cartloads  to  her  own  palace 
in  the  Piazza  Navona.  Another  excavation,  described  by  Bartoli, 
led  to  the  discovery  of  a  sepulchral  room  containing  the  cinerarium 
of  Asinia  Fortunata  (Corpus,  n.  12,547). 

In  1726-33  many  columbaria  (gran  quantita  di  camere  sepol- 
crali  ripiene  di  colomhaj)  were  excavated  by  Francesco  Bevilacqua 
near  the  boundary  line  with  the  Vigna  Sassi.  Ficoroni  speaks  of 
many  hundred  urns  of  terra  cotta  and  alabaster  filled  with  incin- 
erated remains,  of  inscriptions  still  retaining  the  red  color  of  the 
letters,  of  vases  carved  in  marble,  and  of  frescoes,  one  of  which 
represented  the  figure  of  an  architect  with  the  instruments  (the 
graphium,  the  pes,  the  square,  the  plummet)  of  his  profession. 
This  interesting  picture  would  have  been  destroyed  like  the  others, 
but  for  the  prompt  action  of  Marchese  Alessandro  Capponi,  who 
caused  it  to  be  removed  from  the  wall,  transferred  to  canvas, 
framed,  and  afterwards  engraved  on  copper.  The  original  is  now 
preserved  in  the  Kircherian  ^Museum.  Pier  Leone  Ghezzi  adds 
that  the  excavations  of  1726  were  carried  on  in  both  vineyards 
at  the  same  time,  —  in  the  Yigna  Sassi  at  the  expense  of  Herr 
Wenkler  of  Leipzig,  in  the  Vigna  Codini  at  the  expense  of  Signor 
Garzia  Muggiani,  who  then  owned  the  property.  The  quantity  of 
tombs  brought  to  light  by  these  men  is  described  as  "  prodigious." 
The  reader  may  appreciate  the  barbarous  way  in  which  antique 
monuments  were  treated  in  those  days  from  the  fact  that  many  of 
the  inscriptions  discovered  in  1726-33  have  perished,  and  the  few 
spared  are  now  dispersed  far  and  wide,  at  Verona,  A^enice,  Lowther 
Castle  near  Penrith,  and  at  Rome  itself  in  the  Vatican  and  Kir- 
cherian museums. 

1  Cardinal  Prospero  is  famous  for  having  first  introduced  into  Kome  the  tobacco 
leaf,  which  was  named  from  him  erba  santa,  or  erba  santacroce.  In  memory 
of  this  event  Roman  tobacconists  used  to  put  in  the  signs  of  their  shops  a  white 
cross,  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  Santacroce  family. 


Literature.  — Francesco  Ficoroni,  La  boUa  d'  oru,  p.  47  ;  and  Memorie 
(in  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.  p.  cxxxiv.  n.  33).  —  Pier  Leone  Ghezzi  (in  Bull, 
arch,  com.,  1882,  p.  206,  n.  2  ;  and  p.  222,  n.  60).  — Theodor  Schreiber,  Die 
Fundberichte  des  P.  L.  Ghezzi  (in  Bericliten  der  k.  siichs.  Gesellschaft  d. 
Wissenschaften,  1892,  p.  111).  —  Corpus  Jnscr.,  vol.  vi.  part  ii.  p.  968,  n.  .581.3- 

Excavations  were  resumed  in  1788,  near  the  tomb  of  the  Scipios ; 
sixty-four  inscriptions  came  to  light,  of  wliich  fourteen  have  per- 
ished ;  the  others  were  removed  to  the  Museo  Borgia  at  Velletri 
(now  in  the  Museo  Nazionale,  Naples),  to  that  of  Palermo,  of  the 
Vatican,  etc.  A  few  are  to  be  seen  on  the  spot.  (Corpus  Inscr., 
vol.  vi.  part  ii.  p.  968,  u.  5679-5743.) 

The  three  columbaria  now  visible  in  the  Vigna  Codini  (entrance 
Via  di  Porta  S.  Sebastiano,  No.  l-S,  last  door  on  the  left)  were  dis- 
covered respectively  in  1S40,  1847,  and  1853;  the  first  and  the  sec- 
ond by  Pietro  Campaua,  the  third  by  Codini  himself.  The  colum- 
barium opened  in  1840  consists  of  one  room  deep  under  ground, 
and  accessible  by  a  flight  of  twenty  steps.  It  measures  7.50  by  5.65 
metres,  and  has  a  massive  pier  in  the  centre,  to  which  the  weight 
of  the  vaulted  ceiling  was  intrusted.  The  ancient  walls,  6.24 
metres  high,  were  covered  with  frescoes  and  arabesques  represent- 
ing birds  and  animals.  The  room  contains  450  pigeonholes  for 
cinerary  urns,  and  'J97  inscriptions,  dating  inostly  from  the  time 
of  Tiberius  and  Claudius.  They  afford  nuich  interest  to  the 
student  of  Roman  auti(|uities,  and  tlu'ow  a  considerable  light  on 
the  organization  and  nninagement  of  the  Imperial  household. 

The  trade  in  pigeonholes  and  cinerary  urns  appears  to  have 
been  very  brisk.  The  iii'ns  passed  sometimes  through  several 
hands.  One,  marked  n.  4884  in  the  "  Corpus,"  was  sold  by  Porcius 
Philargurus  to  Pinarius  Ruf  us,  who  in  his  turn  sold  it  to  Sotericus 
Liicer.  Pinarius  Rufus  is  mentioned  more  than  once  as  an  active 
stock-jobber,  selling  at  a  profit  what  he  had  purchased  at  low 
price.  It  appears  that  to  facilitate  the  approach  to  the  upper  rows 
of  niches  —  there  are  nine  in  all  —  the  tomb  was  provided  with 
movable  wooden  balconies,  supported  by  wooden  brackets ;  this  is, 
at  least,  the  explanation  suggested  for  the  square  holes  visible 
between  the  fourth  and  the  fifth  row.  Inscription  n.  4886  com- 
memorates a  buffoon  of  Tiberius,  a  mute,  wdio  tried  to  divert  the 
gloomy  temper  of  his  master  by  imitating  the  gesticulations  of 
lawyers  pleading  in  the  Forum.  Another,  marked  5076,  contains 
the  fragment  of  a  diary  of  a  journey  from  the  borderland  of  Cilicia 
towards  Cassarea  in  Cappadocia.     The  dates  go  from  the  12th  to 



the  19tli  of  October,  during  which  time  the  traveler  proceeds  from 
Mopsuki-ene,  a  frontier  station  near  the  Cilician  gates,  to  Tyana 
and  Audabalis  on  the  side  of  Caesarea,  a  distance  of  seventy-seven 
miles,  according  to  the  "  Itinerary  of  Antoninus,"  or  of  eighty- 
one  miles,  according  to  the  Hierosolymitanum. 

Literature.  —  Pietro  Campana,  D'l  due  sepolcrl  romani  del  secolo  di  Au- 
gusto,  Tparte  seconda.  Rome,  1840.  —  Emil  Braun,  Colomhario  scopei-to  nella 
vigna  accanto  a  porta  Latina  (in  Bull.  Inst.,  1840,  p.  136).  —  Otto  Jahn,  Speci- 
men epigraphiciim.  Kiel,  1841,  p.  28.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  part  ii.  p.  926,  n. 

The  second  columbarium  was  discovered  by  Campana  in  Febru- 
ary, 1847,  not  far  from  the  preceding  one.  It  consists  of  a  plain 
square  room,  with  nine  rows  of  pigeonholes  in  each  wall,  num- 
bering 29.5  in  all,  with  over  400  funereal  tablets.  Four  inscrip- 
tions (one  of  which  is  written  on  the  floor  in  letters  of  mosaic) 
tell  the  tale  of  the  place.  The  columbarium  was  finished  and  the 
urns  divided  among  the  shareholders  of  the  company  which  had 
built  the  place  in  the  year  a.  d.  10,  under  the  consulship  of  Sergius 
Lentulus  Malugiuensis  and  Q.  Junius  Blajsus.  The  pavement  was 
a  private  contribution  of  two  shareholders,  one  a  freedman  of 
Sextus  Pompeius,  son  of  Pompey  the  Great,  the  other  a  freedman 
of  C.  Memmius.  The  majority  of  those  whose  ashes  have  found 
rest  in  this  room  belong  to  the  servants  and  freedmen  of  Marcella 
the  elder,  who  married  Julius  Antonius  after  her  divorce  with  M. 
Agrippa  (21  b.  c.)  ;  and  of  Marcella  the  younger,  who  had  also 
married  twice,  first  Paullus  ^Emilius  Lepidus,  and  then  M.  Vale- 
rius Messalla.  Annexed  to  the  columbaria  were  the  iistrina,  or 
spaces  set  apart  for  the  incineration  of  bodies.  The  indications 
on  this  particular  given  by  the  inscribed  stones  allow  us  to  recon- 
struct a  fragment  of  the  plan  of  the  necropolis,  as  follows  :  — 

Laue  (via,  populus). 

(No  measure  xiiij  ft.  xviii.  ft. 


Ustrinuin  of     ,  jj  Ustrinuni  of  ^       Ustrinum  of  the 

the  College  of  I_b,  Vitalis  and  UJ"        corporation  of 

Musicians.       rg  Praepusa.  '«       wreath-makers. 


of  the  makers 

of  sacks. 

Lane  (via,  populus). 

Literature. — Wilhelm  Henzeii,  Bull.  Iitgf.,  1847,  p.  49  ;   and  Ann.  Inst.. 
1856,  p.  9.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  part  ii.  p.  908,  n.  4414-4880. 

332  UUBS    SACRA   REG  ION  UM   XI V 

The  third  and  last  columbarium  was  discovered  by  Gio.  Battista 
Guidi  ill  May,  1852.  The  shape  of  the  edifice  differs  considerably 
from  that  of  the  preceding  ones,  and  presents  the  appearance  of 

Fig.  128.  — The  Colmnb.irimu  diseovei'ed  in  tlie  Vigua  Codiiii,  Ma}',  185'2. 

a  corridor  the  three  wings  of  which  follow  each  other  at  right 
angles.  The  stairs  occupy  the  end  of  the  wing  parallel  with  the 
Via  Appia,  while  the  opposite  wing  terminates  with  a  crypt  exca- 

THE    COLUMBARIA    OF   THE    VIGNA    COD  INI         333 

vated  in  the  live  rock.  The  bones  and  skulls  which  filled  it  up  at 
the  time  of  the  discovery  were  considered  to  belong  to  slaves 
of  the  lowest  order,  whose  remains  had  been  thrown  into  the  den 
as  if  they  were  carrion.  The  walls  of  the  corridor  are  divided 
into  compartments  by  means  of  pilasters  with  capitals  of  the 
composite  order  (Fig.  128).  The  niches  for  cineraria  are  not 
arched,  as  usual,  but  square,  and  contain  four  urns  each.  The 
characteristic  of  this  "  cooperative  tomb,"  so  evident  in  our  illus- 
tration, is  a  set  of  marble  brackets  which  project  from  the  walls 
between  the  fourth  and  fifth  row  of  niches,  counting  from  tlie 
floor.  They  were  destined  to  support  the  temporary  wooden  bal- 
cony by  means  of  which  the  relatives  and  friends  of  the  deceased 
could  reach  the  upper  tiers  of  niches  on  anniversary  days,  when 
the  urns  were  decorated  with  flowers,  libations  were  offered,  and 
other  ceremonies  were  performed.  This  sepulchral  chamber  ap- 
pears to  have  been  tenanted  by  a  better  and  wealthier  set  of  people 
than  the  otlier  two.  INIany  were  freedmen  of  the  ,Tulian  dynasty 
from  the  age  of  Augustus  and  Livia  to  that  of  Claudius.  The 
last  places  seem  to  have  been  occupied  under  the  last-named 
Emperor.  The  room  was  entered  again  under  Trajan  and  Ha- 
drian, and  a  few  liberti  Ulpii  and  vElii  laid  to  rest  on  the  only 
vacant  space  left,  viz.,  on  the  floor.  This  has  been  more  or  less 
the  fate  of  all  Roman  columbaria.  It  seems  that  at  one  time, 
towards  the  middle  of  the  second  century,  no  more  room  could  be 
found  within  reasonable  distance  from  the  city  for  the  erection  of 
sepulchral  chambers,  or  else  that  the  price  of  land  had  reached  a 
prohibitory  figure  above  the  means  of  the  poorer  classes.  Old 
columbaria  were  therefore  reopened,  as  res  nullius,  and  new  corpses 
crammed  within  their  precincts.  I  remember  having  seen  in  the 
excavations  of  the  necropolis  by  the  Porta  Maggiore  one  or  two 
columbaria  of  the  Statilian  family,  which  had  been  used  again  as 
a  burial-place  when  their  pavement  was  already  covered  by  a  bed 
of  rubbish  tliree  feet  thick.  Some  of  the  terra-cotta  coffins  had 
been  simply  laid  on  this  newly  made  ground,  other  bodies  liad  been 
buried  in  it. 

Literature.  —  Emil  Braun,  Bull.  Inst.,  1852,  p.  82.  —  Wilhelm  Hen- 
zen,  Annal.  Inst.,  185G,  p.  18. —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  part  ii.  p.  9;i9,  ii.  5179- 

In  the  triangle  between  the  vife  Latina  and  Appia  and  the  walls 
of  Aurelian,  in  fact,  in  the  vigne  Sassi  and  Codini  alone,  15.59 
tombstones  have  already  been  found,  not  counting  those  of  the 


Scipios,  one  twentieth  perhaps  of  the  oi'iginal  number.     The  ex- 
ploration is  far  from  being  complete. 

Before  leaving  this  conspicuous  section  of  the  Ronian  necropolis 
I  must  mention  two  monuments  which  connect  it  with  the  early 
days  of  Christianity. 

While  Pietro  Campana  was  searching  the  ground  in  his  fii'st 
attempt  of  1840,  a  cubiculum  was  discovered  the  paintings  of 
which  represented  Biblical  scenes.  The  Pastor  Bonus  was  given 
the  place  of  honor  in  the  middle  of  the  vault,  while  Moses  striking 
the  rock,  the  feeding  the  five  thousand,  the  raising  of  Lazarus, 
and  a  fourth  uncertain  subject  were  painted  on  the  four  lunettes. 
Three  sides  of  the  room  were  occupied  by  arcosolia,  the  fourth  by 
the  door.  The  paintings  of  the  arcosolia  represented  the  "  Orante  " 
(a  woman  praying  with  hands  raised),  Daniel  in  the  den  of  lions, 
Noah  and  the  ark.  The  figures  of  the  paralytic  and  of  Job  were 
represented  on  each  side  of  the  door.  Two  inscriptions  were 
found  in  front  of  two  arcosolia,  one  of  which,  written  in  a  patois 
half  Greek  half  Latin,  bore  the  name  of  a  Veratius  Nikatoras 
(BHPAT10T2  NIKATOPA2)  and  ended  with  the  sentence,  O  BIOS 
TATTA,  "  this  is  life,"  vita  hoc  est !  This  Veratius  was  a  Galatian, 
as  is  proved  by  the  discovery  made  by  George  Perrot  near  Ancyra 
of  the  tombstone  of  his  wife,  which  ends  with  the  same  words, 
o  fiios  ravTa.  Now  it  seems  certain  that  this  particular  plot  of  the 
necro[)olis  was  destined  for  foreigners  who  died  in  Rome.  De 
Rossi  discovered  here  in  1883  the  broken  epitaph  of  one  of  the 
faithful  from  Smyrna,  and  Campana  the  tombstone  of  another 
from  the  borderland  of  Cappadocia  and  Armenia.  The  impor- 
tance of  the  discovery  lies  in  the  fact  that  the  crypt  adorned  with 
Christian  paintings  must  be  older  than  the  walls  of  Aurelian 
(272),  contemporary,  in  fact,  with  some  of  the  pagan  mausoleums 
by  which  it  is  surrounded.  This  remarkable  monument  is  lost. 
Campana  concealed  its  discovery  from  De  Rossi,  and  revealed  it 
only  many  years  aftei'wards,  when  he  had  lost  the  memory  of  its 
exact  position.     De  Rossi  tried  in  vain  to  rediscover  it  in  1884. 

Literature.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Bull,  crist.,  1884-85,  pp.  57,  58;  and 
1886,  pp.  14,  17. — Raffaele  Garrucci,  Monumenti  del  museo  lateran.,  pi.  1, 
n.  3;  and  Arte  cristiana,  tav.  484,  10. — Compare,  also,  Gian  Pietro  Secchi, 
Monumenti  inediti  d'  nn  antico  sepolcro.     Rome,  Salviucci,  1843. 

The  second  Christian  monument  of  this  region  is  to  be  found 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Yigna  Sassi,  under  the  farmhouse  of 
the  Vigna  Pallavicini.     Mariano  Armellini  rediscovered  it  in  1875, 

THE    C^LIAN    HILL  335 

all  traces  of  it  having  been  lost  since  the  days  of  Agiucourt.  It 
is  an  ancient  crj^jt  dedicated  to  Gabriel  the  archangel,  and  also  to 
the  memory  of  the  "  seven  sleepers  "  of  Ephesus.  It  was  entirely 
covered  with  frescoes  representing  Gabriel  with  his  hands  raised 
in  the  attitude  of  prayer,  the  Redeemer  among  hosts  of  angels, 
Greek  saints  of  both  sexes,  and  seven  tiny  reclining  figures  under 
that  of  the  Saviour,  which  were  considered  to  be  the  '•  sette  dor- 
mienti."  The  frescoes  had  been  executed  in  the  eleventh  century 
at  the  expense  of  Beno  de  Rapiza  and  of  his  wife  ]\Iaria  Macellaria, 
the  same  to  whom  we  owe  the  paintings  of  S.  Clemente  and  of 
S.  Urbano  alia  CaffareUa.  It  seems  that  in  those  days  the  Greek 
legend,  which  had  transformed  the  "  sleep  of  the  just,"  the  "  dor- 
mitio  in  Domino,"  of  the  seven  young  Ephesians  into  an  actual 
state  of  catalepsy,  had  already  found  its  way  to  Rome,  and  struck 
the  imagination  of  the  people.  Tlieir  anniversary  feast  fell  on 
the  27th  day  of  July.  The  "  cavern  of  the  sleepers  "  is  now  used 
as  a  pig-sty. 

Literature.  —  Alberto  Cassio,  Corso  delle  acqtie  antiche,  Rome,  17-57,  p. 
28.  —  Dissertatio  de  SS.  septem  dormientihus.  Rome,  1741.  ^  Mariano  Avmel- 
liiii,  Scopertd  di  tin'  antico  oratono  presso  In  ria  Ajjpia  dedlcato  tdl'  arcungelo 
Gabriele.     Rome,  1875. 

ReGIO    II.       C.EMMOXTIUM. 

V.  The  C.ELIAN  Hill  was  named  Querquetulanus  in  the  early 
days  of  Rome,  from  the  trees  (quercioli,  oaks)  which  clothed  its 
eastern  slope,  as  the  opposite  or  western  slope  of  the  Esquiline 
was  named  Mons  Fagutalis  from  the  beeches  (fagi)  by  which  it 
was  shaded.  The  name  of  Cailian  was  subsequently  adopted  in 
memory  of  the  Etruscan  lucumo  Cieles.or  Cselius  Vibenna,  who 
had  settled  with  his  followers  on  the  hill  at  the  time  of  Servius 
Tullius.  An  attempt  was  made  under  Tiberius  to  change  the 
name  into  that  of  Mons  Augustus  because,  during  a  terrible  con- 
flagration in  the  year  a.  d.  27,  which  desti-oyed  hundreds  of  houses 
and  palaces,  the  only  object  respected  by  the  flames  was  a  statue 
of  the  Emperor  placed  in  the  vestibule  of  the  palace  of  the  Junii. 

A  spm-  of  the  hill,  crowned  by  a  shrine  of  Diana,  was  called 
Cseliolus,  or  minor  Cjelius.  Topographers  disagree  as  to  its  posi- 
tion. Ficoroni  and  otliers  place  it  at  the  Monte  d'  Oro,  Canina 
at  the  SS.  Quattro,  Brocchi  on  the  site  of  the  Villa  Wolkonsky, 
Nibby  on  the  site  of  S.  Gregorio.'  The  hill  and  the  spur  were 
included  in  the  first  region  of  Servius,  Suburana. 

1  Consult:   Stefano  Piale,  Delle  parte  meridioitall  di  Servio,  del  vera  sito 


Augustus  in  his  reform  of  10-4  b.  c.  made  of  the  Cfelian  the 
second  region  of  the  city.  At  the  time  of  Constantine  it  con- 
tained 7  parishes  (vici),  3600  tenement  houses,  127  palaces,  85 
public  baths,  65  public  fountains,  and  15  bakeries.  The  most 
curious  feature  consisted  in  the  fact  of  its  being  at  the  same  time 
a  district  of  barracks  (with  the  customary  annexes,  drinking  and 
gambling  dens,  lupanaria,  etc.)  and  a  district  of  aristocratic 

VI.  The  Castra  C^limontana.  —  The  list  of  barracks 
includes  — 

A.  The  Castra  Equitum  Singularium,  a  select  body  of 
horsemen,  who,  like  our  life-guards,  cent-gardes,  or  cuirassiers 
du  roi,  were  employed  in  the  personal  service  of  the  Emperor. 
They  were  lodged  in  two  splendid  barracks,  the  castra  vetera 
and  the  castra  nova.  The  first  were  discovered  between  1885  and 
1887  in  the  Via  Tasso,  in  the  grounds  of  the  Villa  Giustiniani ; 
the  second  in  1733  and  1734,  in  the  foundations  of  the  Cappella 
Corsini  at  the  Lateran.  Both  barracks  were  magnificently  deco- 
rated with  statues,  busts,  altars,  and  works  of  art  of  every  de- 
scription, among  which  were  the  Bacchus  in  the  Maraini  House, 
illustrated  by  Visconti  in  "  Bull,  com.,"  1886,  p.  166,  pi.  6,  and 
the  marble  seat  in  the  Corsini  Library,  considered  to  have  been 
chiseled  by  a  Greek  artist.  The  equites  singulares  were  sub- 
stituted for  the  old  German  bodyguard  (collegium  Germanorum, 
Germani  corporis  custodes)  about  the  time  of  the  Flavians,  and 
were  likewise  recruited  among  the  semi-barbarians  of  the  estuary 
of  the  Rhine  and  of  the  Lower  Danube,  the  Thracians  being  pre- 
ferred to  all  other  nationalities.  The  regiment,  one  thousand 
sti-ong,  was  placed  under  the  command  of  the  prcefectus  prcetorio. 

Literature.  — Wilhelm  Henzen,  Ann.  Inst.,  1850,  p.  5;  and  1885,  p.  235.— 
Theodor  Mommsen,  Ephem.  epir/r.,  vol.  v.  p.  233;  Hermes,  vol.  xvi.  p.  459,  4; 
and  KorrespondenzUaU  der  Westdeutschen  Zeitschrift,  1886,  pp.  50,  123. — 
Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Bull.  arch,  com.,  1885,  p.  37;  1886,  p.  94;  and  Notizie 
Scavi,  1885,  p.  524;  1886,  pp.  12,  48;  1887,  p.  139;  1888,  p.  566.  —  Orazio 
Marucchi,  Btdl.  arch,  com.,  1886,  p.  124.  — Carlo  Ludovico  Visconti,  BiiU. 
arch,  com.,  1886,  p.  166,  pi.  6.—  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  224-228,  and  p.  766, 
n.  3173-3323.  — Francesco  Ficoroni,  Memorie  (in  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i. 
n.  46). 

B.  The  Castra  Peregrinorum.  —  AVhatever  may  have  been 

del  Celiolo.     Rome,  1824.  — Bunsen,  etc.,  Beschreibung,  >,  p.  478.  — Antonio 
Nibby.  Roma  antica,  A'ol.  i.  p.  19. 

THE    BARRACKS    OF    THE    C^ELIAN  337 

the  original  scope  of  the  institution  of  a  special  body  of  men  called 
milites  perefjrini  (foreigners)  and  of  their  associates  the  milites 
fruvientarii  (coanmissariat),  tliere  is  no  doubt  that  towards  the 
beginning  of  the  second  century  after  Christ  the  peregrin!  per- 
formed the  duties  of  the  modern  gendarmes  or  carabinieri,  while 
the  frumentarii  had  become  secret  police  agents  or  detectives. 
They  were  employed  to  carry  disx^atches,  to  act  as  spies  and 
informers,  and  to  make  arrests.  The  biographer  of  Hadrian  says 
that  he  knew  all  the  secrets  of  the  Imperial  household  and  of  his 
friends  with  the  help  of  the  frumentarii :  "  per  frumentarios 
omnia  occulta  explorabat "  (Vita  Iladriaui,  c.  6).  They  were  the 
chief  agents  in  the  persecutions  of  the  Christians,  as  described  by 
Cyprianus  and  Jerome.  Prisoners  of  state  were  also  intrusted 
to  their  custody ;  Cnodomer,  king  of  the  Germans,  made  prisoner 
in  the  battle  of  Strasburg  and  brought  to  Rome,  is  said  to  have 
died  "  in  castris  peregrinis,  qua-  in  Monte  Cselio  sunt."  The  fru- 
mentarii and  the  peregrin!  were  commanded  by  an  officer  called 
"  princeps."  The  body  was  suppressed  by  Diocletian  as  "  pestilen- 
tial "  and  replaced  by  another  called  agentes  in  rebus. 

The  barracks  were  placed  in  the  neighborhood  of  S.  Maria  in 
Dominica,  but  we  do  not  know  exactly  where.  In  March,  1848, 
an  inscription  describing  the  baths  of  the  barracks  was  discovered 
in  situ,  but  Matranga,  who  illustrated  it  in  the  "  Bull.  Inst."  of  the 
same  year,  p.  39,  keeps  the  secret  of  the  find  to  himself,  and  only 
mentions  in  general  terms  "  una  vigna  rimpetto  S.  Maria  in  Navi- 
cella."  The  barracks  were  discovered  partly  about  15.50,  partly 
under  the  pontificates  of  Innocent  X.  (1644-55)  and  Clement  X. 
(1670-76).  Ligorio  (Torin.,  vol.  xv.  p.  127)  describes  them  as 
divided  into  two  sections  or  quadrangles  (one  for  the  frumentarii, 
one  for  the  peregrini?),  and  as  occupying  the  space  between  the 
aqueduct  of  Nero,  S.  Stefano  Rotondo,  and  la  Navicella.  Holste- 
nius  places  them  between  the  aqueduct,  S.  Stefano  Rotondo,  and 
the  hospital  of  S.  Giovanni,  and  describes  one  of  the  rectangles  as 
lined  with  cells,  flanked  by  towers  and  walls  1.20  metre  thick,  and 
containing  in  the  middle  of  the  court  a  round  temple  with  columns 
of  porphyry  and  oriental  granite.  The  works  of  art,  statues,  and 
busts  discovered  in  the  excavations  of  1550  were  probably  removed 
to  the  house  of  Ascanio  Magarozzi,  where  Ulisse  Aldovi-andi  saw- 
and  described  them  in  15.53.  The  account  which  approaches  near- 
est the  truth,  and  settles  the  question  of  site,  is  jjerhaps  that  of 
Pietro  Sante  Bartoli  (Mem.  55).  He  says  that  under  Innocent  X. 
and  Clement  X.  great  excavations  were  made  in  the  garden   of 


Teofilo  Sartori,  Via  di  S.  Stefano  Rotondo,  viz.,  on  the  site  of  the 
present  military  hospital  (Villa  Casali) ;  that  rows  of  cells  {ima 
filara  di  botteghe)  were  uncovered  pertaining  to  the  Castra  Pere- 
grina,  as  well  as  great  halls  and  mess-rooms,  com-ts  lined  with 
colonnades,  the  shafts  of  which  were  of  "bellissima  breccia," 
statues,  busts,  heads,  and  various  ornaments  of  metal  incrusted 
with  silver,  which  Bartoli  thinks  belonged  to  a  triumphal  arch. 
Here  also  was  found  the  pedestal  (Corpus,  vi.  231)  dedicated  genio 


Literature.  —  Pin-o  Ligorio,  Cod.  torin.,  xv.  p.  127.  —  Lucas  Holstenius, 
Cod.  vatic,  9141.  —  P.  Sante  Bartoli,  Mem.  55  (in  Fea's  MiscelL,  voL  i.  p. 
ccxxxv.).  —  Willielm  Heuzen,  Bull.  Inst.,  1851,  p.  113.  —  Pietro  Matranga, 
Bull.  Inst.,  1849,  p.  .34.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Le  stazioni  delle  coortl  del 
Vif/ili,  ]).  28;  and  La  basilica  di  S.  Stefano  rotondo,  etc.,  p.  9  (in  Studii  e 
docuni.  di  storia  e  diritto,  vol.  vii.  1886). 

C.  Static  cohortis  v  vigilum  (barracks  of  the  fifth  battalion 
of  firemen  and  policemen),  on  the  platform  of  the  Villa  Celimon- 
tana,  formerly  belonging  to  the  Mattel  dukes  of  Giove,  and  now 
to  Baron  Richard  von  Hoffmann.  In  Januarjr,  1820,  two  marble 
pedestals  were  found  near  the  gate  of  the  villa,  standing  in  their 
original  position  on  a  tessellated  jjavement  which  formed  part  of 
the  vestibule.  The  rolls  of  the  battalion,  name  by  name,  were 
engraved  upon  them.  The  first  pedestal  had  no  dedicatory  inscrip- 
tion ;  the  second  (and  the  statue  upon  it)  were  offered  to  Caracalla 
in  the  year  210  by  C.  Julius  Quintilianus,  prefect  of  police,  M. 
Firmius,  adjutant-general,  L.  Speratius  Justus,  colonel  of  the  fifth 
battalion,  the  captains  commanding  the  seven  companies,  the  four 
physicians  and  sui'geons  attached  to  the  barracks,  etc.  The  last 
names  engraved  on  the  front  of  the  pedestal  are  those  of  the  cap- 
tain and  of  the  standard-bearer  of  the  first  company,  the  trustees 
of  the  fund  subscribed  towards  the  erection  of  the  statue.  The 
importance  of  these  two  documents,  however,  comes  from  the  I'oUs 
of  the  rank  and  file.  "  In  the  year  205,  which  is  the  approximate 
date  of  the  first  pedestal,  the  battalion  numbered  113  officers  and 
sub-officers,  and  930  men.  In  the  year  210  the  number  of  the 
former  had  decreased  to  109,  the  number  of  the  latter  had  increased 
to  1013.  Taking  as  the  average  strength  of  a  battalion  1033  men 
all  told,  the  whole  police  of  the  metropolis  must  have  numbered 
7231  men."  ^  The  pedestals  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  Villa  Mattei 
at  the  entrance  of  the  celebrated  avenue  of  ilexes  between  the 
Casino  and  the  obelisk.  Luigi  Rossini  asserts  that  in  the  excava- 
1  Ancient  Home,  p.  228. 


tions  of  1820  the  prison  of  the  barracks  was  also  found,  "  as  proved 
"by  the  chains  still  fixed  to  its  walls."  Students  are  kindly  allowed 
to  visit  the  Villa  Mattel  on  Thursdays. 

Literature.  —  Olaus  Kellermaun,  Vigilum  latercula  duo  ccelimmitana. 
Rome,  1835.  —  Gio.  Battista  de  Rossi,  Le  stazioni  delle  sette  coorti  dei  Vigili, 
p.  27  (in  Anual.  Inst.,  1858).—  Corpus  Insci:,  vol.  vi.  n.  221,  222,  1057,  1058. 
—  P.  Saute  Bartoli,  Mem.  79  (in  Fea's  Miscell.,  vol.  i.  p.  ccxlii.).  —  Luigi 
Rossini,  /  sette  colli,  n.  1-3.     Rome,  1829. 

Connected  with  the  bari'acks  of  the  Cfelian  hill  were  the  Lupa- 
naria,  mentioned  in  the  catalogues  of  the  second  region,  probably 
a  state  establishment,  the  site  of  which  corresponds  with  that  of 
the  Vigna  Colacicchi,  as  shown  by  the  discovery  of  some  charac- 
teristic mosaic  pavements  made  there  in  1878. 

VII.  The  Palaces  ok  the  C.elian  :  — 

A.  DoMUS  Lateraxorum  —  Egkegi.e  Lateraxorum  .(Edes 
(Lateran  palace).  It  is  a  cm-rent  opinion  that  after  the  execution 
of  Plautius  Lateranus  in  a.  d.  66  for  his  share  in  the  plot  of  the 
Pisones,  his  magnificent  palace  on  the  Cselian  was  confiscated  by 
Nero,  and  the  grounds  were  added  to  the  Imperial  domain  of  the 
Domus  Aiirea.  No  classic  historian  speaks  of  such  a  confiscation ; 
on  the  contrary,  we  are  informed  by  one  of  them  that  T.  Sextius 
Lateranus,  consul  in  196,  was  offered  large  sums  of  money  by 
Septimius  Severus,  with  the  help  of  which  he  restored  the  paternal 
estate  on  the  Ctelian.  This  account  is  confirmed  by  the  discovery 
made  in  1.59.5  of  water-pipes  inscribed  with  the  names  of  Sextius 
Lateranus  and  of  his  brother  Torquatus.  Another  water-pipe, 
bearing  the  name  of  Mamnifea,  mother  of  the  Emperor  Severus 
Alexander,  found  among  the  ruins  of  the  palace  in  1890,  seems  to 
prove  that  the  palace  had  become  state  property  only  under  the 
rule  of  the  last  (a.  d.  222-23.5).  It  remained  so  until  the  time  of 
Constantine,  who  offered  part,  or  perhaj^s  the  whole,  of  it  to  Pope 
jNIiltiades  in  313 ;  this,  at  least,  is  the  date  of  a  council  of  bishops 
convened  in  the  palace  under  the  presidency  of  the  pope.  Perhaps 
it  was  only  a  case  of  a  loan,  as  we  find  the  palace  called  "  Domus 
Faustse,"  the  house  of  Fausta,  at  a  later  date.^  I  do  not  yet  under- 
stand clearly  myself  what  happened  in  those  days,  how  the  trans- 
ference of  property  from  the  Crown  to  the  Church  was  made,  and 
which  portion  was  transformed  into  a  Christian  basilica,  "  omnium 
ecclesiarum  urbis  et  orbis  mater  et  capiit."     The  difficulty  arises 

1  Fausta,  second  wife  of  Constantine,  was  smothered  by  her  husband's  order 
in  .326,  and  her  stepson  Crispus  was  executed  on  the  same  daj'. 


from  the  fact  that  the  area  of  the  basilica  is  cut  in  two  by  a 
Roman  street,  which  runs  parallel  with  the  transept  of  Clement 
VIII.  {nave  Clementina),  passes  under  the  canopy  of  Urban  V., 
and  leads  to  a  postern  in  the  walls  of  Aui'elian  still  visible  in  the 
garden  "  dei  Penitenzieri."  The  ruins  east  of  this  ancient  street 
are  "  oriented  "  with  it ;  those  on  the  other  side  form  an  angle  of 
31°.  There  were  therefore  two  distinct  and  independent  palaces, — 
one  on  each  side  of  the  street.  The  one  on  the  west  was  certainly 
tlie  palace  of  the  Laterans ;  the  one  on  the  east  might  possibly  be 
identified  with  the  "  castra  nova  equitum  singularium,"  epigraphic 
records  of  which  have  been  found  under  the  Corsini  chapel.  The 
nave  and  aisles  of  the  church  would  occupy  in  this  case  the  site  of 
one  of  the  courts  of  the  barracks ;  while  the  transept  and  the  apse 
woidd  occupy  the  site  of  the  atrium  of  the  palace.  I  need  not 
remind  the  reader  that  the  name  of  St.  John  the  Lateran  is  com- 
paratively recent,  the  basilica  having  been  dedicated  originally  to 
the  Redeemer  alone. 

Many  discoveries  have  taken  place  east  of  the  street  mentioned 
above.  In  1732  Alessandro  (ialilei,  the  architect  of  Clement  XII., 
whilst  building  the  new  facade,  found  walls,  cells,  water-pipes,  and 
other  remains.  In  the  following  year  the  excavations  extended  to 
the  site  of  the  cappella  Corsini,  and  to  the  vacant  space  between 
the  chapel  and  the  walls  of  the  city.  Splendid  remains  of  the 
barracks  and  of  their  annexes  were  found  everywhere,^  with  other 
sections  of  the  watei'-pipes  mentioned  before,  bearing  the  name  of 
M.  Opellius  Macrinus,  prefect  of  the  praetorium,  and  Commander- 
in-Chief  of  the  equites  singulares.  Other  walls,  decorated  with 
frescoes  of  no  special  value,  came  to  light  in  1838  in  the  founda- 
tions of  the  "  sala  capitolare  "  behind  the  Lancellotti  cliapel.  In 
style  of  masonry,  in  age,  and  in  direction  they  correspond  exactly 
to  the  remains  discovered  by  Rohault  de  Fleury  and  by  myself  in 
the  cellars  of  the  palace  of  the  pope  (Sixtus  V.)  on  the  other  side 
of  the  church. - 

More  important  are  the  finds  obtained  at  various  epochs  among 
the  remains  of  the  "  egregife  Lateranorum  sedes,"  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  street.  Flavio  Biondo  describes  those  of  the  time  of 
Eugenius  IV.  (1431-47)  on  the  site  of  the  monastery,  west  of  the 

1  Literature.  —  See  p.  336  and  Eidolfino  Venuti,  Descriz.  di  Roma,  ed. 
1803,  p.  179. — Lupi,  Epitaph,  sanctce  Severce,  p.  43.  —  Francesco  Ficoroni, 
Gemmm  litteratce,  p.  126.  —  Corpus  Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  22.5,  226. 

2  Emil  Braun,  Bull.  Inst.,  1838,  p.  6.  — Rohault  de  Fleury,  Le  Latran  au 
moyen  dr/e.     (Plan  general.)  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Forma  Urbis,  pi.  xxxvii. 



cloisters  of  Vassalectus  ;  and  speaks  of  halls  the  pavements  of  which 
were  5.34:  metres  lower  than  that  of  the  church,  of  colonnades, 
statues,  etc.  Flaminio  Vacca  says  that  when  Clement  VIII. 
removed  and  destroyed  in  1595  the  old  presbyterium  (un  certo 
rialzo  innanzi  al  coro),  three  large  niches  were  found,  pertaining 


to  an  "edifizio  antichissimo  e  nobilissimo,"  the  pavements  of  which 
were  incrusted  with  porphyry  and  serpentine.  Filippo  Martinucci 
discovered  in  1853  the  pavement  of  the  street  under  the  canopy  of 
Urban  V.,  as  related  above.  Costantino  Corvisieri  excavated  in 
1873  the  neighborhood  of  the  Baptistery.  Pius  IX.  and  Leo  XIII., 
whilst  destroying  the  Constantinian  apse  and  building  the  new 
one,  with  the  sacristry  and  the  chapter-house  (1877-90),  brought 
to  light  other  remains,  described  by  Stevenson  in  the  "  Annal. 
Inst.,"  1877,  pis.  R,  S,  T,  and  represented  in  the  above  view  (Fig. 
129).  I  have  tried  to  express  as  well  as  I  could  the  results  of  all 
these  excavations  in  sheet  No.  xxxvii.  of  the  "  Forma  Urbis." 
The  level  of  this  part  of  the  palace  was  7.50  metres  lower  than 
that  of  the  church. 

Nothing  is  left  visible  of  the  old  Constantinian  Basilica  except 
a  few  bits  of  the  walls  which  support  the  roof  of  the  nave.  When 
Borromini  inflicted  upon  the  nave  itself  the  present  hideous  trans- 
formation, and  encased  the  columns  dividing  the  nave  from  the 
aisles  in  a  coating  of  bricks,  he  left  patches  of  the  original  walls 
visible  in  a  set  of  oval  panels  between  the  windows.  The  ovals 
are  now  concealed  by  indifferent  paintings  on  canvas.  However, 
there  is  at  least  one  set  of  precious  relics  of  Constantine's  age 
which  has  escaped  destruction  but  not  transformation  :  I  refer  to 
the  four  large  fluted  bronze  columns  of  the  Corinthian  order  which 
adorn  the  Altare  del  Sacramento,  at  the  south  end  of  the  transept. 
The  guide-books  of  Rome  have  suggested  various  theories  about 
them,  the  current  belief  being  that  they  belonged  in  days  gone  by 
to  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus.  Others  contend  that  they 
were  cast  under  Augustus  with  the 'bronze  beaks  of  the  ships  cap- 
tured in  the  battle  of  Actium;  others  that  they  were  removed 
from  Solonion's  Temple,  etc.  The  columns  are  mentioned  for  the 
first  time  under  Constantine,  who  offered  them  to  the  Church  to  be 
used  as  "  pharocautharoi  "  ^  on  either  side  of  the  altar.  Clement 
VIII.  and  Pietro  Paolo  Olivieri,  his  architect,  found  them  seriously 
injured  and  without  capitals ;  Orazio  Censori,  the  pope's  brass- 
founder,  was  asked  therefore  to  make  a  tour  through  the  cities  of 
southern  Etruria  and  try  to  collect  antique  objects  of  bronze. 
Hundreds  of  tombs  must  have  been  rifled  of  their  invaluable 
treasures ;  at  Corneto  alone  Censori  gathered  665  pounds  of 
metal,  and  a  great  deal  more  at  Civita  Castellana  (Falerii).  The 
treasures  were  melted  together  with  pieces  of  the  bronze  beams 
of  the  Pantheon,  and  the  metal  was  employed  in  casting  three 
1  Lighthouses,  or  pillars  supporting  a  circle  of  lights  on  the  capitals. 



capitals,  the  whole  cornice  and  pediment  of  the  altar,  sixteen 
doves,  sixteen  stars,  and  two  angels.  It  was  lucky  that  the  bronze 
masterpieces  formerly  in  the  Campus  Lateranensis  (Piazza  di  S. 
Giovanni)  had  been  removed  to  a  place  of  safety  since  the  times 
of  Sixtus  IV.  and  Paul  III.,  otherwise  they  would  probably  have 
shared  the  fate  of  the  bronzes  from  Tarquinii  and  Falerii. 

The  mediaeval  collection  of  bronzes  at  the  Lateran  comprised 
the  equestrian  statue  of  M.  Aurelius,  removed  by  Paul  III.  to  the 
Piazza  del  Campidogiio  in  1538 ;  the  she-wolf ;  the  colossal  hand 
with  the  globe ;  the  Zingara  or  Camillus ;  the  head  of  young 
Nero  (?),  removed  to  the  Palazzo  dei  Conservatori  by  Sixtus  IV. ; 
and  the  "  lex  regia,"  now  in  the  Capitoline  Museum.  The  follow- 
ing sketch  by  Martin  Heemskerk  represents  tlie  Campus  Late- 
ranensis about  1531,  with  the  statue  of  M.  Aurelius  in  its  proper 

Fig.  130.  —  Campus  Lateraneusis,  about  1534. 

place.  The  four  columns  in  the  foreground  supported  a  slab  of 
marble  wliich  was  thought  to  mark  the  height  of  the  Saviour. 
Heemskerk's  view  has  already  been  published  by  T.  Springer,  in 

Literature  for  the  Lateran  Palace.  —  Louis  Duchesne,  Le  liber 
pontijicalis,  vol.  i.  passim.  —  Rohault  de  Fleury,  Le  Lntran  au  moyen  age. 
Paris,  1877.  —  Giovanni  Ciampini,  De  saci-is  (Bdificiis  a  Constantino  magno 
extructis.  Rome,  1693.  —  Cesare  Rasponi,  Be  basilica  et  patriarchio  Late- 
ranensi.  Rome,  1656.  —  Nicola  Alemanni,  De  Lateranensibus  parietinis. 
Rome,  17.56. —  Eugene  MUntz,  Les  arts  a  la  cour  des  papes,  vol.  iii.  passim. 
—  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Bull.  Inst.,  1870,  p.  50  ;  and  Itinerario  di  Einsiedlen,  pp. 
70  and  102.  —  Enrico  Stevenson,   Scoperte  di  antichi  edijizi  al  Laterano  {in 

1  In  Gesammelte  Studien  zur  Kunstgeschichte  :  eineFestgabe  zum  iMai  1885. 
Fiir  Anton  Springer,  Leipzig,  1885. 


Annal.  Inst.,  1877);  and  Topogrnfia  e  momcmenti  dl  Roma  in-Ue piltnre  di  Sisto 
v.,  etc.,  plate  iv.  n.  2. 

The  bronzes  formerly  in  the  Lateran  are  illustrated  in  Annnl.  Inst.,  1877, 
p.  381.  —  Riim.  Mittheilimyen,  vol.  vi.  1891,  p.  14. — Refue  archeol.,  xliii. 
1882,  pp.  20,  28.  —  Wolfgang  Heli)ig,  Guide  to  the  Coll.  of  Class.  Antiquities, 
vol.  i.  p.  402,  n.  538  ;  p.  454,  n.  612,  etc. 

B.  DoMUS  Vectiliana,  a  favorite  resort  of  the  Emperor  Corn- 
modus,  whither  he  used  to  repair  when  sufteriug  from  insomnia, 
and  where  he  was  strangled  in  a.  d.  192.  Its  site  is  not  known, 
but  it  cannot  have  been  very  far  from  the  Lateran.  The  eques- 
trian statue  of  Marcus  Aurelius,  of  which  we  hear  for  the  first 
time  in  a.  d.  966  (when  Peter,  prefect  of  Rome,  was  hung  by  the 
hair  from  the  horse  for  his  rebellion  against  John  XIII.),  must 
have  come  from  this  Domus  Vectiliana.  The  house  was  certainly 
discovered  at  the  time  of  Ficoroni,  about  1735,  by  a  man  named 
Giuseppe  Mitelli,  but  the  site  of  the  excavation  is  indicated  only 
by  thev  ague  formula  "  nell'  estremita  del  Monte  Celio  "  (at  the 
extreme  point  of  the  Cselian  hill). 

The  family  of  M.  Aurelius  and  Commodus  was  closely  con- 
nected with  that  of  the  Annii.  Annia  Faustina  the  elder,  wife  of 
Antoninus  Pius  ;  Annia  Faustina  the  younger,  wife  of  M.  Aure- 
lius; Annia  Cornificia,  his  sister;  Annius  Verus,  his  son;  Annia 
Lucilla,  his  daughter,  have  made  the  name  illustrious  in  the 
annals  of  the  Empire.  By  a  singular  coincidence  we  find  a 
Domus  Anniorum  on  the  Cselian,  close  to  the  supposed  site  of 
the  Vectiliana  in  which  Commodus  was  assassinated.  One  of 
the  new  streets  of  the  Cselian,  the  Via  Annia,  has  been  named 
from  it.  The  house  is  distinctly  mentioned  by  the  biographer  of 
M.  Aurelius,  chapter  i. :  "  Marcus  was  born  on  the  Cselian  hill,  in 
the  family  villa  (Jiurti)  in  the  year  (a.  d.  121)  in  which  his  grand- 
father Annius  Verus  was  consul  with  Augur.  .  .  .  He  was  educated 
in  the  villa  in  which  he  was  born,  as  well  as  in  the  palace  of  his 
grandfather,  near  that  of  the  Laterans."  The  palace  of  Annius 
Verus  was  discovered  for  the  last  time  in  1885-87,  on  the  site  of 
the  present  military  hospital  (Villa  Casali). 

LiTEUATURE.  — 5m?Z.  arch.  com.,  1885,  pp.  95,  104,  166,  175,  176-;  1866,  pp. 
50,  93,  109,  278,  342,  369,  405  ;  1887,  pp.  27,  bl.—Notizie  derjli  Scavi,  1885-89, 
passim.     See  index.  Villa  Casali. 

C.  Domus  Tetricorum.  —  C.  Pesuvius  Tetricus,  one  of  the 
"  thirty  tyrants,"  and  the  last  secessionist  ruler  of  Gaul  (a.  d. 
267-274),  was  defeated  by  Aurelian  at  the  battle  of  Chalons,  and 
obliged  to  grace  the  triumph  of  the  conqueror  with  his  presence. 

THE   PALACE    OF    THE    VALERU  345 

After  the  tiiuiuph  he  was  treated  with  kindness  and  distinction 
by  Aurelian.  The  biographer  who  wrote  the  "  Tyranni  Triginta  " 
in  the  first  decade  of  the  fourth  century  says,  "  The  palace  of  the 
Tetrici,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  city,  is  still  to  be  seen  on 
the  Cailian,  in  the  street  called  '  inter  duos  lucos,'  oi^posite  the 
Temple  of  Isis  Metellina."  The  site  was  indicated  in  the  Middle 
Ages  by  a  church  of  8.  Maria  inter  duo  or  inter  duas,  which  stood 
in  the  valley  between  the  Ctelian  and  the  Esquiline  (cf.  Armellini, 
Chiese,  p.  1-10). 

1).  DoMiT.s  Valekiorum.  —  There  was  on  the  Cselian,  between 
IS.  .Stefano  Kotondo  and  the  Lateran,  a  palace  belonging  to  the 
descendants  of  the  Valerii  Poplicohv,  namely,  to  Valerius  Severus, 
prefect  of  Konie  in  a.  d.  ;58(J,  and  to  his  son  Pinianus,  husband  of 
Melania  the  younger.  The  palace  was  so  beautiful,  and  contained 
so  much  wealth,  that  when  Pinianus  and  Melania,  grieved  by  the 
loss  of  all  their  children,  put  it  up  for  sale  in  404,  they  found  none 
willing  to  X3urchase  it :  "  ad  tarn  magnum  et  mirabile  opus  acce- 
dere  nemo  ausus  fecit."  Seven  or  eight  years  after  the  capture  of 
Rome  by  Alaric,  August,  410,  the  same  palace  was  given  away  for 
little  or  nothing,  "  domus  pro  nihilo  venumdata  est,"  having  been 
"  dissipata  et  quasi  incensa  "  by  the  barbarians.  There  must  be 
some  inaccuracy  in  this  account,  which  Commendatore  de  Rossi 
has  found  in  a  MS.  of  the  library  of  Chartres.  In  the  first  place, 
a  considerable  part  of  the  j^i'operty  was  transformed  into  a  hos- 
pice and  a  hospital  under  the  title  of  "  Xenodochium  Valeriorum  " 
or  "  a  Valeriis,"  which  flourished  until  the  ninth  century,  and  the 
transformation  must  have  been  the  work  of  Pinianus  himself  and 
not  of  an  outsider.  In  the  second  place,  the  house  w^as  discovered 
in  1554,  1561,  and  1711  in  such  a  wonderful  state  of  preservation 
that  we  must  exculpate  the  Goths  from  the  charge  of  having  pil- 
laged and  gutted  it  in  410.  The  account  of  the  find  sounds  like  a 
fairy  tale.  When  the  workmen  entered  the  atrium  of  the  palace 
in  the  first  excavations  of  1554  and  1561,  the  deeds  and  records  of 
the  family,  engraved  on  bronze  tablets,  still  hung  to  the  columns 
of  the  peristyle.  The  tablets  contained  mostly  decrees  in  honor  of 
the  Valerii,  or  treaties  of  friendship  witli  their  house  passed  by  the 
corporations  of  Zama,  Hadrumetum,  Thenae,  and  other  cities  of 
Africa.  Four  pedestals  of  statues  dedicated  to  Valerius  Aradius 
by  the  corporations  of  the  grocers,  bakers,  etc.,  were  discovered 
under  the  portico.  The  excavations  were  stopped  perhaps  for 
fear  of  undermining  the  church  and  the  monastery  of  S.  Erasmus, 
or  whatever  was  left  standing  of  this  celebrated  abbey,  the  medi- 


reval  representative  of  the  old  Xenodochium  a  Valeriis.  Under 
the  pontificate  of  Innocent  X.  (1644-55),  when  no  traces  were  left 
of  S.  Erasmo,  the  atrium  of  the  jaalace  was  entered  again,  and 
seven  "  bellissime  statue  "  were  brought  to  light,  among  them  two 
fauns  dancing  to  the  sound  of  the  Kp6Ta\a ;  they  were  purchased 
by  Monsignor  Mazarino.  The  experiment  was  tried  again  under 
Clement  X.  (1670-76)  with  equal  success.  Bartoli  mentions 
statues  and  busts,  among  them  two  of  Lucius  Verus  bought  by 
Cardinal  de  Bouillon ;  the  group  of  Cvipid  and  Psyche,  now  in  the 
Galleria  degli  Uffizi ;  the  finest  specimens  of  fresco  paintings  ever 
seen  in  Rome;  columns  of  rare  breccias;  and  the  bronze  lamp 
representing  a  ship  with  the  figure  of  our  Lord  at  the  helm,  also 
in  the  L^ffizi  at  Florence. 

Literature. —  Corpus  Jnscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1684-94.  —  Pietro  Sante  Bartoli, 
Mem.  53,  54  (in  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.  p.  ccxxx.).  —  Pietro  Bellori,  Lucerne 
antiche,  p.  11.  —  Gio.  Batt.  de  Rossi,  II  monastero  di  S.  Erasmo  e  la  casa  dei 
Valerii  sul  Celio  (in  Studi  e  docum.  di  Storia  e  Diritto.  vol.  vii.  1886;  and 
Bull,  com.,  1890,  p.  288).  —  Giacomo  Lumbroso,  Notizie  di  Cassiano  dal  Pozzo. 
Torino,  1875,  p.  50. 

E.  DoMus  Philippi,  probably  of  the  Emperor  M.  Julius  Phi- 
lippus  (a.  d.  244-249),  which  he  must  have  acquired  while  prefect 
of  the  Prsetorium.  The  only  clue  in  regard  to  its  position  is 
given  by  an  altar  (Corpus  Inscr.,  vi.  150)  dedicated  by  a  "  servus 
Philipporum  "  to  a  local  spring,  which  was  found  in  the  slope  of 
the  Villa  Mattel,  towards  the  Marrana.  Near  the  same  place  a 
statue  was  discovered  in  1747  representing  a  hunter  with  a  hare 
in  the  right  hand,  which  Ennio  Quirino  Visconti  attributes  to  the 
age  of  the  Philippi.  The  statue,  signed  by  the  artist  (Polytimvs 
lib),  is  now  exhibited  in  the  Capitoline  Museum. 

Literature. — Fieoroni,  Mem.  91  (in  Fea's  Miscellanea,  vol.  i.  p.  clxiii.). 
—  E.  Quirino  Visconti,  Catnlogo  del  museo  Jenlcins,  p.  22.  —  Pierre  Aube,  Le 
Christianisme  de  I'emp.  Philippe  (in  Revue  arch.,  vol.  ix.  1880,  p.  140).  — 
Wolfgang  Helbig,  Guide  to  the  Collections  (^Antiquities,  vol.  i.  p.  370,  n.  506 

F.  DoMus  L  •  Marii  •  Maximi,  discovered  in  February,  1708, 
in  the  Villa  Fonseca.  It  contained  the  pedestals  of  statues  (Cor- 
pus Inscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1450,  1451)  dedicated  to  him,  the  first  by 
an  officer  of  the  third  legion,  Cyrenaica ;  the  second  by  a  friend, 
Pompeius  Alexander.  Other  pedestals  from  the  same  noble  man- 
sion are  described  by  the  "  Corpus,"  n.  1452,  145.3. 

G.  DoMus  OF  THE  Symmachi,  discovered  in  1617  in  the  gar- 
den of  Sartorio  Teofili,  afterwards  included  in  the  Villa  Casali. 


L.  Aiirelius  Avianius  Symmachus,  the  great  scholar,  statesman, 
and  orator  of  the  latter  half  of  the  fourth  century,  proconsul  of 
Africa  in  373,  prefect  of  the  city  in  381-386,  consul  in  391,  speaks 
of  this  paternal  house  on  the  Cselian  in  Ejiist.  18  of  Book  vii. : 
"  de  Formiano  regressus  in  Larem  C«lium."  Compare  Epist.  iii. 
12,  88.  Although  constantly  exposed  to  danger  and  disgrace,  as 
leader  of  the  pagan  side  of  the  Senate,  he  never  diverged  from 
his  path.  Having  been  delegated  by  the  House  in  382  to  remon- 
strate with  the  Emperor  Gratian  on  the  removal  of  the  altar  of 
Victory  from  their  council  hall,  and  on  the  curtailment  of  the 
sums  annually  allowed  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Vestal  Virgins, 
he  was  ordered  by  the  indignant  Emperor  to  withdraw  from  his 
presence  and  to  i-etire  to  his  villa  at  Formije ;  and  yet,  two  years 
later,  we  find  him  prefect  of  Rome,  and  engaged  in  rebuilding 
with  unusual  magnificence  the  bridge  now  called  Ponte  Sisto  (see 
p.  24).  Among  the  objects  discovered  in  the  excavations  of  1617 
we  find  the  pedestal  of  a  statue  dedicated  to  him  by  his  own  son, 
and  a  second  set  up  in  honor  of  his  father-in-law  Virius  Nico- 
machus  Flavianus,  another  great  leader  of  the  pagan  faction.  The 
ruins  were  searched  again  in  1885-87. 

I  do  not  remember  having  ever  seen  such  a  scene  of  devastation 
as  that  presented  by  the  remains  of  this  palace  of  the  Symmachi 
and  of  the  Nicomachi.  Columns,  pedestals,  statues  seem  to  have 
been  purposely  hammered  and  ground  into  atoms.  The  headless 
female  statue  of  gray  basalt,  now  in  Hall  V  of  the  Museo  ]\Iunici- 
pale  al  Celio,  was  put  together  by  us  in  1896  out  of  seventy-four 
pieces.  If  we  remember  that  basalt  was  a  worthless  material  to 
the  destroyers  of  ancient  Rome,  unfit  for  the  lime-kiln  and  too 
hard  to  be  worked  anew,  we  must  find  another  reason  for  their 
treating  that  noble  figure  so  wantonly.  The  explanation  is  given, 
if  I  am  not  mistaken,  by  the  discovery  of  another  statue  broken 
into  one  hundred  and  fifty-one  pieces,  which  represented  the  Vic- 
tory. When  the  pagan  faction  was  put  down  forever  at  the  battle 
of  September  6,  394,  in  which  the  usurper  Eugenius  and  Nico- 
machus  Flavianus  lost  their  lives,  the  recollection  of  the  duel 
fought  before  Valentinian  II.  and  Theodosius,  between  S.  Ambrose 
on  the  Christian  and  Symmachus  on  the  pagan  side,  on  account 
of  the  statue  of  Victory,  was  still  fresh  in  the  minds  of  the  people. 
No  wonder  that,  on  hearing  the  news  of  the  battle,  and  of  the 
decisive  collapse  of  the  party  led  by  the  Symmachi  and  by  the 
Nicomachi,  the  populace  should  have  pillaged  their  palace  on 
the  Cfelian  and  satisfied  their  desire  for  vengeance. 



From  this  point  of  view  the  statue,  which  we  have  recalled  to 
life  out  of  one  hundred  and  fifty-one  fragments,  and  exhibited  in 
the  Hall  II  of  the  above-named  museum,  is  one  of  the  great  his- 
torical monuments  of  the  fourth  century. 

Literature. —  Corpus  Jnscr.,  vol.  vi.  n.  1699,  1782.  —  Angelo  Mai,  Script, 
vett.  nova  collectio,  vol.  i.  append,  pp.  xviii.-xxiv.  —  Morel,  in  Revue  archeoL, 
June,  1868.  —  Rodolfo  Lanciani,  Ancient  Rome,  pp.  162-173. 

H.  The  House  of  SS.  John  axd  Paul.  —  This  house  and 
the  church  (Titulus  Byzantis,  Titulus  Pammachii)  built  upon  it 
at  a  later  period  are  given  a  place  of  honor  in  early  itineraries  of 
pilgrims  because  they  contained  the  only  martyr's  tomb  within  the 
walls  of  the  city.  The  account  of  the  lives  of  the  two  brothers 
John  and  Paul,  and  of  their  execution  under  Julian  the  apostate, 
is  apocryphal ;  but  no  one  who  visits  the  remains  of  this  house 
and  the  records  it  contains  will  deny  the  fact  that  some  one  was 

Fig.  131.  — Plan  of  the  House  of  SS.  .Tolin  and  Paul,  and  of  the  Cliurcli  built  above  it. 

murdered  or  executed  for  his  faith  here,  and  that  over  the  apart- 
ment in  which  the  event  took  place  a  church  was  built  at  a  later 
age.  On  this  occasion  the  Roman  house  was  left  intact  with  its 
spacious  halls  and  classical  decorations  to  be  used  as  a  crypt, 
while  the  basilica  was  raised  above  the  level  of  the  ceilings.  The 
murder  of  the  saints  seems  to  have  taken  place  in  a  narrow  pas- 
sage (fauces')  near  the  tablinum  or  reception-room.     Here  we  see 

THE   HOUSE    OF    GREGORY    THE    GREAT  349 

the  "  fenestella  coufessionis "  by  means  of  whicli  pilgrims  were 
allowed  to  behold  and  touch  the  venerable  graves.  Two  things 
strike  the  visitor :  firstly,  the  variety  of  the  fresco  decorations  of 
the  house,  which  begin  with  pagan  Genii  holding  festoons,  and 
end  with  stiff,  uncanny  representations  of  the  Passion,  of  the 
ninth  and  tenth  century ;  secondly,  the  fact  that  such  an  impor- 
tant monument  should  have  been  buried  and  forgotten  ^  until 
Padre  Germano  of  the  Passionists  rediscovered  it  ten  or  twelve 
years  ago.  Padre  Germano  has  given  us  a  delightful  account  of 
his  work  in  a  volume  entitled  "  La  casa  celimontana  dei  SS.  JNIai'tiri 
Giovanni  e  Paolo  scoperta  ed  illustrata."     Rome,  Cuggiani,  1894. 

This  house  and  another  one  annexed  to  the  nymphseum  of  the 
gardens  of  Sallust  are  the  only  ones  in  Rome  which  show  the 
third  floor  in  one  case,  the  fourth  in  the  other.  The  student 
walking  up  the  Clivus  Scauri,  between  the  house  of  John  and 
Paul  on  the  left,  and  the  house  and  library  of  Agapetus  on  the 
right,  may  fancy  himself  transported  into  the  midst  of  a  street 
scene  of  "  declining  "  Rome  towards  the  end  of  the  sixth  century. 

I.  The  House  of  Gregory  the  Great.  —  The  "  Liber  pon- 
tificalis  "  (vol.  i.  p.  313,  edit.  Duchense)  leaves  no  doubt  that  the 
present  church  and  nujnastery  of  S.  Gregorio  are  built  on  the  site 
of  the  paternal  house  of  the  great  pontiff,  son  of  Gordianus  and 
Sylvia,  of  the  Petronian  branch  of  the  Anicii.  The  transforma- 
tion of  the  palace  into  a  coenobium,  where  Gregory  and  his  asso- 
ciates lived  under  the  rule  of  S.  Benedict,  seems  to  have  taken 
place  in  575.  John  the  Deacon  describes  it  as  placed  "  within  the 
walls  of  the  city,  on  the  Clivus  Scauri,  close  to  the  church  of  SS. 
John  and  Paul,"  and  as  containing  an  atrium  with  a  fountain  of 
elaborate  design  in  the  middle  (nymphwum).  The  spring,  called 
"mirabilis  immo  saluberrimus,"  was  probably  the  same  known 
in  classic  times  by  the  name  of  Fons  jNlercurii.  The  site  of  the 
piscina  can  still  be  traced  on  the  east  side  of  the  present  chui'ch. 
There  was  an  inner  court  within  the  clausnra,  around  which 
opened  the  cells  of  the  monks.  The  establishment  was  also  fur- 
nished with  a  hostelry  for  pilgrims  and  visitors,  with  stables  and 
granaries,  and  with  a  grand  triclinium,  in  which  the  monks  took 
their  siesta  during  the  hot  hours  of  the  day. 

The  name  of  S.  Gregorio  given  to  the  abbey  is  comparatively 
recent,  the  old  establishment  being  placed  under  the  patronage  of 
S.  Andrew.  His  chapel  was  splendidly  decorated  with  paintings 
and  mosaics.     There  were  also  other  chapels  or  oratories  under 

1  Parian  and  ChriMian  Rome,  p.  159. 


the  invocations  of  the  Virgin  Mary  (the  S.  Andrea  of  the  present 
day)  and  of  S.  Barbara  (the  present  triclinium).  Save  a  few  bits 
of  antique  walls,  which  appear  here  and  there  under  the  modern 
plastering,  nothing  is  left  visible  of  the  home  of  S.  Gregory  and 
of  the  monastery  "  SS.  Andrese  et  Gregorii  ad  clivum  Scauri,"  one 
of  the  most  powerful  in  central  Italy,  and  the  owner  of  the  Cii'cus 
jMaximus,  of  the  Septizonium,  and  of  the  palace  of  the  Caesars. 
The  first  blow  to  the  institution  was  struck  in  1573,  when  the 
Camaldolese  monks  took  the  place  of  the  Benedictines.  Cardinal 
Scipione  Borghese  and  his  architect,  Giovanni  Soria,  destroyed 
the  old  vestibule  and  the  atrium  in  1638 ;  all  the  rest  was  modern- 
ized in  1725.  I  have  discovered  in  the  Kupferstich  Kabinet  at 
Stuttgart  a  sketch  by  a  contemporary  of  Martin  Heemskerk,  I'ep- 
resenting  the  Monasterium  ad  Clivum  Scauri  before  the  modern 
profanation.     I  give  here  a  facsimile  of  this  rare  design. 


Fig.  132.  —  A  View  of  the  Church  and  Monastery  of  S.  Gregorio  in  the  First  Half  of  tlie 
Sixteenth  Century. 

The  two  leading  edifices  of  the  Ctelian  hill  which  remain  to 
be  described  are  the  Temple  of  Claudius  and  the  Rotunda  of 
S.  Stefano. 

VIII.  Claudium  (Temple  of  Claudius),  begun  by  Agrippina 
the  younger,  niece  and  fourth  wife  of  that  Emperor.     After  the 


murder  of  Agrippina,  which  took  place  in  a.  d.  59,  Xero  her  sou 
took  possession  of  the  unfinished  temple  and  turned  it  into  a 
nymphseum  and  reservoir  for  the  Aqua  Claudia,  joining  it  to  the 
main  aqueduct  "  ad  Spem  veterem "  (Porta  Maggiore)  by  means 
of  the  Areas  Cx'elimontani  or  Arcus  Neroniani,  which  still  forms  so 
conspicuous  a  featm-e  of  the  Ctelian  hill.  After  the  suicide  of 
Xero,  A.  D.  68,  the  place  was  restored  to  its  original  use  by  Ves- 
pasian under  the  name  of  "  Templum  divi  Claudii,"  which  the 
people  shortened  into  tliat  of  Claudium.  A  bull  of  Ilonorius  III., 
dated  February  2,  1217,  shows  that  the  classic  term  was  still  in 
use  in  the  thirteenth  century  (Clodeum).  The  causes  and  tlie 
date  of  its  final  collapse  are  not  known ;  but  the  fact  that  one  of 
the  travertine  capitals  from  the  substructure  was  made  use  of  in 
the  reconstruction  of  the  house  of  SS.  John  and  Paul  (first  door 
on  the  left  on  the  Clivus  Scauri)  proves  that  men  had  already 
laid  hands  on  the  noble  building  in  the  time  of  Julian  the  Apos- 
tate (360-363),  or  else  of  Pammachius,  the  builder  of  the  churcli 
(t  410).  Flaminio  Vacca  relates  the  following  discoveries  made 
at  the  time  of  Pius  IV. :  "  In  a  vineyard  between  the  Coliseum 
and  SS.  Giovanni  e  Paolo  the  foundations  of  a  building  were  dis- 
covered, made  of  'grossissimi  quadri  di  travertino,'  and  also  two 
marble  Corintliian  capitals,  one  of  which  was  removed  by  Pins 
IV.  to  the  church  of  S.  ^laria  degli  Angeli,  and  placed  on  one  of 
the  columns  of  the  nave.  I  remember  also  the  discovery  of  a 
marble  ship  8.92  metres  long,  and  of  a  fountain  sjilendidly  deco- 
rated witli  marbles,  which,  however,  appeared  nuicli  damaged  by 
fire."  Etienne  du  Perac  mentions  the  finding  of  some  fragments 
of  statues  of  heroic  size,  and  calls  the  platform  of  the  temple 
facing  the  Coliseum  the  "  cemetery  of  the  church  of  S.  Gregorio." 
Xo  words  can  convey  the  idea  of  the  beauty  and  peacefulness  of 
the  garden  of  the  Passionist  fathers  which  now  occupies  the  plat- 
form of  the  temple,  and  of  its  secluded  paths,  shaded  by  ilexes  on 
the  west  side,  and  by  cypresses  on  the  side  of  the  Coliseum.  The 
garden,  unfortunately,  is  under  the  monastic  clausura,  and  ladies 
are  refused  admittance.  The  only  parts  of  the  building  visible 
to  all  without  hindrance  are  the  substructures  of  the  platform. ^ 
which,  strange  to  say,  differ  in  design  and  style  of  masomy  for 
each  side  of  the  rectangle.  The  substructures  on  the  west  side, 
upon  which  stands  the  beautiful  campanile  of  SS.  Giovanni  e 
Paolo,  are  comjiosed  of  a  double  row  of  arches  in  the  so-called 
rustic  style  so  much  in  favor  at  the  time  of  Claudius  (Fig.  133) ; 
1  Ai^ply  to  tlie  sacristan  of  the  iliiircli. 



those  facing  the  Coliseum  appear  divided  into  receptacles  for  the 
storage  of  water  required  for  some  of  the  veuationes  of  the  amphi- 
theatre ;  those  on  the